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Public sector Executive May/June 2009 Magazine article on Change Management

Public sector Executive May/June 2009 Magazine article on Change Management

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    Pse May June 2009 Extract Pse May June 2009 Extract Document Transcript

    • pse May/Jun 09 FIVE MINUTE INTERVIEW Rhodri Morgan AM May/Jun 09 vol 8 no.3 THE EQUALITY BILL How will the public sector be affected? PROJECT AND PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT The cost of failure Lean and Six Sigma Can they really be applied to the public sector? t h e e s s e n t i a l g u i d e t o p u b l i c s e c t o r m a n a g e m e n t
    • public sector executive contents IN THIS ISSUE 08 THE EQUALITY BILL AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR Although it will not come into force for over a year, the Equality Bill will have a significant impact on the public sector. Now is the time to get to grips with the proposed legislation and understand the extent to which the public sector will be affected, says Richard Kenyon 10 PUBLIC SERVICES VULNERABILITIES AND THE CREDIT CRUNCH The tumultuous events which have taken place in the international finance system are damaging important areas of the public infrastructure of which local government and the NHS are prime examples, says Dr Beth Kewell 12 FIVE MINUTE INTERVIEW - RHODRI MORGAN Despite the current recession, the Welsh Assembly Government is proving to be a strong force in steering Wales out of choppy economic waters 48 THE COST OF FAILURE IN PROJECTS AND PROGRAMMES Public services vulnerabilities and the credit crunch 10 IS SIMPLY TOO HIGH Project and programme management has come a long way in the public sector. Many public sector projects and programmes achieve great results but some achieve the kind of adverse publicity which is damaging to the profession and to confidence in senior managers’ stewardship of the public purse, says Kevin Parry 54 TAKING EDUCATION OUT OF THE CLASSROOM From primary schools to colleges, virtual learning tools are arguably more effective than paper-based teaching Five minute interview - Rhodri Morgan 12 Making change work 44 methods as they engage children through the mediums that they use on a daily basis, says Carla Baker REGULARS COVER STORY 72 pse FIVE MINUTE INTERVIEW EIAs - ADDING VALUE OR May/Jun 09 Rhodri Morgan May/Jun 09 vol 8 no.3 03 Editor’s Comment THE EQUALITY BILL How will the public sector be affected PROJECT AND PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT The cost of failure POLITICAL CORRECTNESS GONE 04 News Lean and Six Sigma MAD? 08 Comment Can they really be applied to 65 Buyers Guide Equality impact assessments have the public sector? 70 Events the potential to be a mechanism for 71 Subscription demonstrating accountability and 72 The Last Word driving positive social change but Lean and there is a real sense of indifference Six Sigma amongst the very people responsible for carrying them out, says Professor 14 Can they really be applied to the public sector? t h e e s s e n t i a l g u i d e t o p u b l i c s e c t o r m a n a g e m e n t Peter Latchford May/Jun 09 pse 
    • CONTRIBUTORS EDITOR’S COMMENT public sector executive Editorial Editor Stephen Lewis Commercial Business Development Manager Roy C. Rowlands When honesty is not editorial@publicsectorexecutive.com Assistant Editor Richard Mackillican royc@cognitivepublishing.com Circulation Manager Leanne Bennett the best policy richardm@cognitivepublishing.com Accounts/Finance Editorial Assistant Heidi Rowlands S Sacha Rowlands heidir@cognitivepublishing.com sachar@cognitivepublishing.com Administration Manager o Cheltenham Borough – because they believe that Danny Leatham Council lost its case to they stand no chance of being daniell@cognitivepublishing.com sue former ‘managing considered for a position if they Production Publisher Art Director director’ Christine disclose this information. Roy V. Rowlands Chris Greenhalgh royv@cognitivepublishing.com Laird for £1million chrisg@cognitivepublishing.com for not disclosing her past The Department of Health Want to work for pse? visit: experience of depression. suggests that 40 per cent of Advertising www.cognitivepublishing.com/careers people who claim incapacity Advertising Sales Executive John Headley The council pursued legal action benefit have a mental health johnh@cognitivepublishing.com for fraud and negligence against problem. They also suggest that her at the high court on the most of them want to work. grounds that she deceived them We reserve the right to edit submissions. If the return of material is required please enclose an S.A.E. about her medical history and One survey shows that only © Copyright 2008 Cognitive Publishing Ltd. suitability to take on the post. around 37 per cent of employers ISSN 1477-9331 are willing to take on someone All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval systems They went to court with the view with a mental health problem or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, without prior written permission from the publishers. that Mrs Laird claimed she was compared to more than 60 per The opinions and views expressed in the magazine are not necessarily those of the management fit to take on the most senior cent who would be willing to or the publishers. management role when in fact take on someone with a physical All prices and data contained in advertisements are accepted by us in good faith as being correct at the time of going to press. However, neither the advertisers nor we as publishers can be held she was suffering from mental disability. responsible for any variations affecting prices or availability which may occur after the publication has been closed for press. health problems. All adverts are subject to our Terms of Acceptance. The Social Exclusion Unit also To view these and our full terms and conditions go to www.cognitivepublishing.com The council’s claim was for found that 55 per cent of people All effort has been made to verify and recognize copyright by Cognitive Publishing Ltd. All advertisement and editorial copy, including all images and text, are accepted in good faith by £982,673.19 against Mrs Laird with a mental health problem the publisher. for sustained loss and damages, found that stigma was a barrier The party submitting copy acknowledges full responsibility for copyright clearance and accepts complete legal liability for all materials supplied. Cognitive Publishing Ltd reserves the right to plus costs, a figure which was to employment. reproduce all submitted editorial and images in any of its publications (including websites). All supported in court by witnesses, copyright resigns with original author. invoices and other financial The choice seems to be clear: documents. disclose and face discrimination Cognitive Publishing Ltd, or don’t disclose and run the risk Suite 102, International House, 82-86 Deansgate, Manchester M3 2ER They believed the case to of being ‘found out’ later and Tel: +44 (0)161 833 6320 be effectively a simple one; potentially sacked. Fax: +44 (0)161 832 0571 Email: info@publicsectorexecutive.com whether or not its former Web: www.publicsectorexecutive.com managing director fraudulently I’m no lawyer, but by suggesting and negligently withheld that had they known that vital health information on Christine Laird had a history the pre-employment medical of depression they would have Average circulation for the period questionnaire. decided she was unfit for the 1/8/08 – 31/10/08 is 7001 job, wouldn’t the council have After the ruling, the current left itself open to a disability Cheltenham Borough Council discrimination claim? chief executive Andrew North said: ‘’Had the council known It might not be unreasonable Mrs Laird’s medical history it for an employer to consider a Environmental Policy would most probably not have job applicant with no history As a business the environment is very important to us. employed her and incurred the of mental health problems to As such our magazines are printed using paper from a costs it has.” be more suitable for a stressful well-managed source. All inks used are vegetable based (soya or rape seed). Our printers are currently certified senior management position to ISO 14001 Environmental Management. Isn’t this exactly why so than one with a history of TT-COC-002610 many people who suffer from depression, but it would depression and other mental probably be illegal. health problems feel obliged to lie about their medical Decisions for tomorrow made today history when applying for jobs May/Jun 09 pse 
    • CHANGE MANAGEMENT
    • CHANGE MANAGEMENT Managing change, improving performance & understanding the cultural barriers to change With 50% of change programmes failing, Paul Foord discusses the various elements of a successful change programme and introduces an inclusive approach to large scale organisational transformations T he change imperative will affect my power base”) or based approaches – education, Paul Foord emotional (“I’m anxious about participation & facilitation - to The need to change coping with the change”). the political based approaches the way in which – negotiation, manipulation an organisation performs, Typical reasons include & coercion. A well managed whether it be public or private uncertainty; anxiety; viewed as change programme will include sector based, is driven by one a criticism; reluctance to write the rational/ethical based of the following dynamics:- off the investment in existing strategies before engaging in competition, cost, service, arrangements; reluctance to political based approaches. environment & technology. give up current status/benefits; belief in the un-workability of Organisational Culture The degree to which an the changes. organisation must change How people work together can organisations are comprised of and the time available will Understanding the nature of the have a significant impact on individuals, each of whom will dictate the approach adopted resistance to change facilitates organisational effectiveness have an agenda and reasons the development of the strategies and the ability to deliver the change strategy. As often quoted Fig 1. “the way we do things around here” can mean the difference between a change strategy well executed and a dysfunctional organisation. The cultural web (Johnson to either embrace the change i.e. project based, programme for overcoming that resistance. & Scholes) is a very useful agenda or oppose it. of interconnecting projects Strategies for change analytical tool for understanding or a complete organisational the elements of culture. Lewin describes this in terms of transformation. Strategies for change range a ‘force field’ of energy (fig 1.) from the rational or ethical The interaction between These approaches are not The rate and direction of change mutually exclusive but rather Fig 2. is a result of the interaction a continuum of purpose, of the forces for change and approach, style, consultation, those against which suggests inclusion and communication. combining strategies of However, matching the increasing pressures for change approach to the need is the first whilst reducing resistance to step in ensuring a successful change. outcome. In order to overcome the Force for change opponents to change it is necessary to understand the The force for change in an reasons for resistance and devise organisation will inevitably strategies to address these. meet with differing levels of acceptance and resistance. It Reasons for resistance are is an obvious assertion but either rational in nature (“I’m none the less vitally important uncertain about the change”), to understand, namely that Cont. overleaf politically motivated (“this May/Jun 09 pse 41
    • CHANGE MANAGEMENT Fig 3. · Plan. The process includes the · Ensure the changes are establishment of a change introduced gradually. programme which is managed · Integrate different levels of by the board with individual change at the individual, team directors championing the and department level. delivery of key objectives via a · Communication of the change delivery team. changes and benefits. · Assurances of security Each team will be comprised of for those who might be the senior ‘movers & shakers’ threatened by the changes. in the business i.e. tomorrow’s · Cultural acceptance of change leaders. via HRM policies. organisational structure, control surrounding the need to change, · Leadership. They will analyse the ‘as is’ systems, power structures, as discussed above. However, · Persistence. critique their findings with the routines, rituals/myths and the change journey, if it is to · Continual monitoring. key stakeholders, design the ‘to organisational symbols creates be effective, will include the be’ plan the implementation of a unique recipe of how people following activities ( “4r” model A change model – large scale the changes and implement the work together (fig 2.) by Gouillart & Kelly) (fig 3) business transformation plan. Analysing the cultural impact The process starts with A large scale business The whole process is supported on the organisation yields “reframing” and is iterative and transformation which enjoys by excellent communications important information in not linear. Indeed, companies popular support within the across the organisation and terms of which elements of the who have adopted a continuous organisation would typically the involvement of everyone culture either support or hinder change agenda will revisit each include the following change concerned. Typically this might the deliverance of the change segment in a circular fashion. model. look like this (fig 4.) strategy. Implementation – the The whole organisation would In summary The change agenda principles of successful be involved in the process change involving a team based Before embarking upon a change The change agenda is unique journey of discovery, learning, programme it is important to to each organisation and will The following principles are analysis, critique, redesign and consider the above issues and depend on the level of change found in every successful change implementation. prepare a planned response. required and the circumstances programme:- Fig 4. FOR MORE INFORMATION Paul Foord T 020 8348 5404 E p.foord@jamesford.co.uk W www.jamesford.co.uk 42 pse May/Jun 09
    • CHANGE MANAGEMENT Making change work The Change Management Consortium Research Project examined change management activities across both the public and private sector over a four year period. Having analysed over 200 interviews and 5,000 survey responses from around 12,000 employees, we can identify key differences between the public sector and the private sector change agendas. It is these differences we consider in this article and also draw down some general lessons about how to manage change within the public sector in an efficient and effective manner, say Julia Balogun and Veronica Hope Hailey is because frequently both local offices and local managers PROFESSOR JULIA BALOGUN politicians and senior managers – they were seen as powerful is The Professor Sir Roland Smith Chair in fail to adequately assess the figures in the geographically Strategic Management and Director of the Lancaster Centre for Strategic Management scope of the change, particularly distributed office locations. in terms of the depth of However, the same level of transformation required. Whilst staff recorded very low levels of reorganising or restructuring trust in senior managers at the can be achieved on paper in centres of these organisations. PROFESSOR VERONICA HOPE HAILEY is Professor of Strategic Human Resource a short period of time, the Management at the Cass Business School, City cultural transformation of staff Despite these differences in University behaviours and attitudes can levels of trust, the programmes take years and years. we researched failed to engage local managers in the practical O ne of our key Added to this are problems design of change concentrating learnings about in terms of capacity: public instead on centralised directives: change in any sector sector organisations are given “that’s the big problem as I see is that it needs to few resources (either money it with –the department, they be designed and rolled out in or people) to invest in change – they’ve sorted the top out first a manner that is sensitive to implementation as they find it and what they should have been the needs of the organisational difficult to justify the diversion sorting out is the bottom where context. Why is that important? of resources from the delivery of the work is actually done.” Well, change needs to be front line services. “context sensitive” in order not Feeling ignored by the senior to waste resources on change This hampers their ability to teams at the centre, local programmes that have no deliver change efficiently. As one managers often declined to meaning or relevance for lower middle manager expressed it: “in communicate the reason for the levels of staff. The failure to see my mind I’m running but I’ve imposition of change initiatives relevance in change results in got lead boots on in trying to get instead blaming the strategic these staff disengaging from the there.” Couple this with minimal centre for their invention. This change process and overall the experience of implementing lessened the levels of awareness desired change is not delivered. transformational change at and commitment for change at middle and lower levels and one lower levels and overall reduced Eight key contextual features can also see that capability acts the organisation’s readiness for need to be assessed before as a constraint as well. change. going on to take decisions about change design. We found that, despite internal Nevertheless this lack of merger activity within our public awareness of the need for change “ Considering these eight features sector cases, the original local is counterbalanced by our survey in turn, we can assert that public sub cultures were ‘alive and well’ finding that a high proportion my experience of sector organisations are often long after the formal merging of of people are “prepared to put staff is that they don’t structures. in extra effort to help their particularly want airy, fairy concepts “ expected by politicians to deliver significant transformational change within a short time frame. The reason that these The impact of this local diversity was that staff still felt huge organisation be successful”. In addition, compared with the private sector, we found equally unrealistic deadlines are set loyalty and identity with their high perceptions of justice and 44 pse May/Jun 09
    • CHANGE MANAGEMENT “ fairness of management practices encourage local managers to at a local level. This two positive voice their views and opinions Whatever the decision, the aspects of organisational climates about roll out. appropriate level of investment the start point need to be preserved. needs to be made in change for real cultural So, given these kinds of organisational contexts, how should change be designed The role of local leaders is critical in translating centrally derived directives into locally relevant and appealing initiatives. When levers and change activities. For instance, if values change is the desired outcome, then substantial investment will have transformation must be decentralised to local offices “ so that it is both efficient and we interviewed lower levels of to be made in a whole raft of effective? staff they said they wanted the training, communication.and change process described in symbolic changes. First, senior managers should practical terms in language they break these huge change could understand and with clear Lastly, senior managers need to agendas into bite sized milestones in place to measure ensure that the initiatives coming pieces, concentrating first progress. out of different functional areas on performance uplifts and all communicate the same core restructurings before going on to As a local manager explained to message about change – they effect cultural transformations us: “I don’t think there’s enough must seem joined up in the eyes through changing attitudes and come out to actually, to actually of the recipents! behaviours. explain. And I mean people want explanations, they want Delivering effective change in the This phased change path should somebody to actually say what UK’s public sector matters to all be explained to all levels of this means. of us. We found well intentioned staff so that there expectations civil servants at all levels of the about delivery times can be You know my experience of staff organisations we researched but managed. Whilst the general is that they don’t particularly many felt frustrated and worn strategic direction can be set want airy, fairy concepts. They out by engaging in a great deal centrally, the start point for real want to know how that’s going to of change activity much of which cultural transformation must be affect them in terms of what they failed to deliver all that had been decentralised to local offices. are doing.” promised at the outset. Local managers must be allowed At the same time managers need We hope our research will to participate in the formulation to be clear about what the end highlight some lessons that of communication and change target is: are they asking people politicians and civil servants alike programmes. Rather than using a to change their performance can learn from so that change can directive style of communication, targets or their behaviours or, be achieved in a more efficient senior managers need to perhaps, their values. manner. May/Jun 09 pse 45