Motor development


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Motor development

  2. 2. * * Childs born with few motor skills * By the age of 1 year they start to walk. Till this time the develop other motor skills. * The acquisition of motor skill is really variable
  3. 3. * Differenciation: firstly motor skills are global reactions. With time and practice this skills become more specific.* Cephalocaudal: develop from head to tail.* Proximodistal: develop from the inside to outside.
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  5. 5. * * Bertenthal and Clifton (1998) note that control over one’s motor behaviour ranks among the infant’s greatest achievements. Psychologists who study the acquisition of motor skills find it useful to distinguish between gross motor development, that is, motor skills which help children to get around in their environment such as crawling and walking, and fine motor development, which refers to smaller movement sequences like reaching and grasping.
  6. 6. **The development of motor skil has implications beyond simply learning how to perform new actions: motor skills can have profound effects on development.
  7. 7. **For example; children who can move about the environment develop an understanding of locations such as ‘here’ and ‘there’.
  8. 8. ** Because infant memory is initially highly dependent on context – that is, similarity between the situation where information is encoded and where it is recalled – infants who have experience moving about the environment and who learn to spatially encode information become less dependent on context for successfull recall.
  9. 9. * *These examples show that motor development has implications beyond the immediately apparent benefits of crawling or walking
  10. 10. **Piaget (1952) argued that the development of reaching and grasping was a key aspect of cognitive development because it forms an important link between biological adaptation and intellectual adaptation.
  11. 11. ** Reaching and grasping are voluntary actions under the infant’s control, and as such, they open up exciting new possibilities in the infant’s ability to explore their environment. The infant who reaches for and grasps an object so as to explore it pushes his development forwards as he engages in processes such as adapting his grip to the size and shape of the object.
  12. 12. ** Piaget argued that these early processes of assimilation and accommodation to objects drive cognitive development in the sensory motor period.
  13. 13. ** The infants reaching does not depend simply on the guidance of the hand and arm by the visual system but is controlled by proprioception, the sensation of movement and location based on simulation arising from bodily sources such as muscle contractions.* By about 9 months of age, infants can adjust their reaching to take into account moving object.* The ulnar grasp is a primitive form of grasping in which the infant’s fingers close against their palm. The fingers seem to act as a whole, requiring the use of the palm in order to hold an object.
  14. 14. * When infants can sit upright on their own, infants acquire the ability transfer objects from hand to hand. By around the end of the first year, infants gave graduate to using the pincer grasp wherein they use their index finger and their thumb in a opposable manner, resulting in a more coordinated and finely tuned grip. For example to take a knob on a stereo system.
  15. 15. ** Gallahue suggests that, beyond infancy, three fundamental sets of motor skills emerge in the childs repertoire.* These are locomotor movements, which include walking, running, jumping, hopping, skipping and climbing; manipulative movements including throwing, catching and kicking; and stability movements including bending, stretching, rolling, balancing and walking on one’s hands.
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  17. 17. ** Gesell & Thompson (1929) and McGraw (1935)  believe that motor behaviours emerged according to a preprogrammed genetic timetable.* Gesell desmostrated it doing an experiment with twins, and the conclusion was that maturation and not experience is the prime factor in determining when children acquire skills.
  18. 18. ** J.B.Watson,Thelen (1995), Zelazo & Kolb (1972), and Hopkins & Westra (1988) think that transactions with the environment must play a crucial role in the timing of motor skill acquisition.* The acquisition of motor skills also varies across cultures.* For instance, Hopkins and Westra found that mothers in the West Indies have babies which walk considerably earlier than the average North American infant. This example shows, environments can have important effects on when skills are acquired. uITTFo
  19. 19. ** How many fundamental sets of motor skill are there? a) Two b) Three c) Four d) Five
  20. 20. * How Gesell demonstrated that maduration is the prime factor in determining when children acquire skills? a) Experimenting with pregnant women. b) Experimenting with babies. c) Experimenting with West Indian mothers. d) Experimenting with twins.
  21. 21. * What of this parts of the body developes before?a) The footb) The brainc) The armsd) The legs