Impairments and Disability: Points for Discussion
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Impairments and Disability: Points for Discussion

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Discussion points for social work students highlighting difference between impairments and disability. Also touches on use of the full person with disability rather than the abbreviated PWD. Talks ...

Discussion points for social work students highlighting difference between impairments and disability. Also touches on use of the full person with disability rather than the abbreviated PWD. Talks briefly about differences, exclusion, intolerance and quick fix. Points out key challenges for social workers in working with marginalized persons with disabilities, families, and communities. Presented to 2nd year social work students of the Philippine Christian University on March 17, 2012 in a forum entitled NapapanahongUsapin ng Lipunan…Alamin, Siyasatin at Sagutin.

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  • HR Violation: Discriminated against na 13,500,000 persons with disabilities.Ka ApolinarioMabini
  • May sense ba ito? Na-gets niyo ba ang ibig sabihin? (get 1 or 2 feedback from participants)
  • Madalas nating makita o marinig o gamitin ang salitang PWD. Sabi ni Jay Monterola, ang aming DPO Mentor, nagka-polio siya noong bata pa siya, kaya naging mahina ang kanyang mga paa. Ngayo’y gumagamit siya ng wheelchair. Minsang naguusap sila sa kanilang samahan, napunta ang usap nila sa “PWD”. Ano ba ang ibig sabihin nito? Ang isang lumitaw na pakahulugan ay “Pilay na Walang Dangal!” Kung gayon, bakit di natin tawagin ang mga Kababaihan ng “K” na lang. O di kaya ang mga magsasaka ng “M” o mga Laborers na “L”? Malamang sasabihin ng iba, e, ang haba kasi kaya abbreviation na lang. Isa pang kwento. Ng mag-aral si Elena, isang batang may cerebral palsy, tinanong siya ng guro: “Ano ang gusto mong itawag namin sa’yo, disabled person, person with disability, differently abled person?” Sagot ni Elena, “Tawagin niyo na lang po ako sa pangalan ko, Elena.” Ok lang mag-abbreviate, pero tao itong pinaguusapan natin. Trivia lang: ang dalawang sektor na pinakamarginalize sa Pilipinas ay ang Indigenous Peoples at Persons with Disabilities—pero ang dalawang sektor din ito na hanggang sa pangalan ay namamarginalize—IPs at PWDs.
  • Bakit nga ba? Alam nating tayo’y magkakaiba pero pinipilit nating maging pare-pareho. O di kaya’y pinipilit nating i-hulma ang mga tao sa mga pamantayang tinatawag nating “normal”. Sabi natin, dare to be different. Pero yung pagiging “different” ay mayroon pa ring boundary. Kunyari, ang mga mag-aaral iba’t iba ang pangangailangan para matuto. E paano kapag si Aileen ay deaf? O si Rico ay bulag? O si Sarah ay may cerebral palsy? O si Jay ay gumagamit ng wheelchair? Kung hindi pasok sa “boundaries” natin ang resulta ay “exclusion”. Siya, siya. Dahil ngayong mga panahon ay usung-uso ang rights-based e dapat magkaroon ng mga pagbabago. Ngayon, para sumakto sa mga hulmahan natin o pumaloob sa mga boundaries natin e gawa na lang tayo ng konting retoke. Maglagay ng access ramp para makapasok ang wheelchair. Turuan ang mga teachers ng sign language. Ok ang mga ito. Maganda ang mga hakbang at kapuri-puri! Pero sana ito’y di lang dahil kailangan ito para sa building permit o para sa accreditation sa CHED o DSWD.
  • Kaya maski may mga pagreretoke na nakikita, di pa rin talaga ganap ang pakikilahok ng mga taong may kapansanan sa pagpapaunlad ng pamayanan dahil di pa rin nagkakaroon ng malalim na transpormasyon ang pagtingin natin sa kanila. Kaya makikita natin, may mga federation of persons with disabilities sa mga lungsod o munisipyo pero di naman sila ang nagtatakda ng kanilang mga gagawin. Ang mga tumutulong sa kanila ang siya pa ring mapagpasiya.
  • Sa yugtong ito, nais kong linawin natin ang ilang mga mahahalagang konsepto. Halaw ito mula sa United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD).
  • Mental Illness is a disorder that affects feelings and behaviour. Few mental illnesses can be prevented; nearly all can be successfully managed and treated. 25% of all people develop mental or behavioural disorders at some stage in life. The causes of mental illness are complex and influenced by a person’s heredity (genes), stressful life experiences, difficult family background, physical illnesses, etc. People with mental health problems often have difficulties in coping with the pressures of daily life and can loose their jobs, their benefits, their parental rights, and their basic human rights.The most common mental illnesses are the following:• Depression – characterized by sadness, decreased energy, loss of interests, sleep and appetite disturbance, feelings of guilt and hopelessness.Suicide remains one of the common outcomes of depression.• Schizophrenia is a disorder that is characterized by profound disruptions in thinking, affecting language, perception, including psychotic experiences.It can cause hallucinations, fear and bewilderment.• Anxiety disorders – include phobic, panic and general anxiety (such as worry, tension, over-breathing) which can cause significant distress and disability.Intellectual disability is a condition where people have significant difficulties in learning and understanding due to an incomplete development of intelligence. Their skills in areas such as cognition, language, motor and social abilities can be permanently impaired. Between 1% and 3% of the population have an intellectual disability. The causes may be genetic, but also environmental factors during pregnancy.Most needs of people with intellectual disability are very equal to other people: social contact, security, adequate housing, education, work, etc. People with mild intellectual disability might need some additional education, but can live independently with some support. People with more severe disability often need life-long educational and social support. Any services for people with intellectual disability must be oriented to increase their abilities and their inclusion into normal life of society.
  • Sa ating bansa, ang matinding kahirapan pa rin na nakikita sa kawalan ng sapat na pagkain, kawalan ng maayos at ligtas na tirahan, kawalan ng access sa mga batayang serbisyo gaya ng tubig o mga serbisyong pangkalusugan ang pangunahing sanhi ng mga impairments.
  • Mga iba’t ibang karamdaman gaya ng iodine deficiency, o maling pagkamit ng cotton buds (oo, di dapat gumagamit ng cotton buds sa panlinis sa tenga; ang impacted earwax ang isa sa pinakamadalas na dahilan ng loss of hearing). Ang diabetes, kung saan pwedeng ma-amputate ang mga paa, o cardio-vascular diseases na mauuwi sa stroke at magreresulta ng paralysis pati na rin speech problems. Siyempre, nandyan rin ang mga kalamidad gaya ng lindol at pagbaha at siyempre ang digmaan lalo na sa kanayunan. Marami, maraming dahilan ang pagkakaroon ng impairments. Maaaring ipanganak kang merong impairments o di kaya’y magkakaroon ka habang ika’y lumalaki o tumatanda.
  • Kung yun ang impairment, ano naman ang DISABILITY? Kung bumabangga ang isang taong may impairment sa mga iba’t ibang societal at environmental barriers at dahil dito’y di sila nakakalahok ng ganap sa buhay ng pamayanan—yan ang disability. Kunyari, si Jay na gumagamit ng wheelchair bilang assistive device. Nasagot na yung kanyang impairment. Pero di siya makakapasok sa PCU o dito sa auditorium dahil walang access ramp. Isang halimbawa yan ng environmental barrier. Kunyari may ramp naman, nakapasok siya, pero di siya pinapasali sa mga school activities kasi “mahihirapan” siya o “di niya kaya”. Yan ang attitudinal barrier.
  • Persons with disability suffer from prejudices, negative attitudes, degrading treatment, abuse and discrimination in society. They are often discriminated against by employers, social and health services, or housing societies and in the access to goods or to financial services. They experience painful emotions, being out of control, or loosing all they have.
  • Equal Opportunity. Pero bago dumating sa “equal opportunity” dapat tugunan muna ang “equity”. Ano ang ibig sabihin nito. Makikita niyo kunyari sa mga job advertisement ang katagang “equal opportunity employer”—ibig sabihin tumatanggap sila ng mga taong may kapansanan provided na kwalipikado. Yun ang isyu. Gaano karami ang taong may kapansanan ang kwalipikado batay sa kanilang requirements? Gaano karami ang mga taong maykapansanan ang nasa paaralan? Kaya maski may “equal opportunity” kung di naman sila makakapag-compete e useless. Pa-cute lang ito. Para lang maging politically correct. O sabi nga natin kanina, “quick fix” lang o “short cut”.
  • Ilang sulyap sa ating mga statistics—bagamat ang mga ito’y conservative statistics.
  • Sa 2011 World Report on Disability ng WHO, tinataya nilang 15% na ng bawat populasyon ang mga taong may kapansanan! Kwentahin natin, kung ang Pilipinas ay may 90M na populasyon, ilan ang taong may kapansanan? Sagot: 13,500,000! HR Violation: Discriminated against na 13,500,000.
  • Itong National Household Targeting System ay tinatarget ang mga pinakamahirap na mga pamilya. Sa population growth rate na 1.9% annual (196,878) at ibabase sa 2000 census, ang population ng persons with disabilities ay 1,138,878 na. At 302,241 sa kanila ay kabilang sa mga pinakamahirap na pamilya. Kulang-kulang 30%!
  • Di sila nakakapasok sa maraming dahilan. Mula sa simpleng walang access ramp o di kaya’y ayaw tanggapin sa school. At yan pa lang yung mga may kakayanang pampinansya na makapag-aral. E yung wala talagang financial capability yung family, wala talaga. Tatandaan natin ha, mas marami sa mga taong may kapansanan ang mahihirap.
  • Yes, people with disabilities may need additional treatment or rehab, pero lahat ng ito ay geared sa kanilang full inclusion sa buhay ng pamayanan.
  • Mapapansin natin na lahat naman ng mga nakalista dito ay may kaakibat na na programa ang pamahalaan, ng private sector, o pati na ang mga civil society organizations at mga faith-based organizations. Kaya kapag sinusuri natin, ang tanong natin ay: kasama ba ang mga taong may kapansanan sa mga nakaka-access niyan? Lahat ba ng mga may-kapansanan ay nakaksali diyan?
  • “Empowerment” is viewed NOT from the perspective that the poor, marginalized (e.g., landless peasants, persons with disabilities) do not have power. They do! However, it is seen from the perspective that society, in general, has decided that certain people or groups of people have more power and that others (most!) have lesser power by virtue of their economic status, formal educational attainment, impairments, and abilities.“Empowerment” in this context then means (1) challenging the status quo (as described above) and transforming it to be INCLUSIVE—that is, the society recognizing and respecting (by actually doing so!) that rights are fundamental and equal amongst all of us. Also, when we say we “help/assist in the process of empowerment” of say for example landless peasants or persons with disabilities, we refer to the things that we do (and not do!) that challenges them to recognize their innate power, tap into this, and use this to transform the world/society to be inclusive.
  • Dumarami ang mga taong may kapansanan. Dito na lang sa bulwagang ito, sa mga susunod na taon may lalabo ang paningin, ang pandinig. Baka may ma-stroke at magkaroon ng aphasia o speech difficulties, or paralysis sa kamay o paa. Kung hindi magkakaroon ng malalimang pagbabago sa usapin ng “disability” e magpapatuloy pa rin ang diskriminasyon at exclusion.
  • Ang mga samahan ng mga taong may kapansanan at ng kanilang mga magulang ang pangunahing pwersa sa CBR.
  • Kaya ang hamon ay patuloy silang tulungan, sa isang mapagpapalaya at mapagkalingang paraan, para mabuo nila’t mapalakas ang kanilang mga samahan batay sa kanilang karanasan, buhay, at mga pangarap.
  • Current state of the art in organizing federations of persons with disabilities. In Nueva Ecija. In other areas.Mag-umpisa kung nasaan at kung ano mayroon sila; tulungan sila sa kanilang tuluy-tuloy na paglakas ng kapasidad at pagsandig sa sariling kakayanan.

Impairments and Disability: Points for Discussion Impairments and Disability: Points for Discussion Presentation Transcript

  • Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points Paul Edward Muego Philippine Coordinating Center for Inclusive Development, Inc. Presented to the 2nd year class of social work students at the Philippine Christian University last March 17, 2012 Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 1
  • better communities for everyone • Our office started in 2004 as the cbm Community-Based Rehabilitation Coordination Office with the aim “to promote CBR as the main strategy for the delivery of educational, rehabilitation and medical services, together with work aimed at promoting greater inclusion and participation.” • July 30, 2013, eighteen people from diverse fields and backgrounds were invited to be the founding incorporators of a “new” organization to take the place of the cbm CBR CO. • The Philippine Securities and Exchange Commission formally recognized the new organization in November 22, 2013: the Philippine Coordinating Center for Inclusive Development, Inc. Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 2
  • - Helen Keller “The few own the many because they possess the means of livelihood of all ... The country is governed for the richest, for the corporations, the bankers, the land speculators, and for the exploiters of labor. The majority of mankind are working people. So long as their fair demands - the ownership and control of their livelihoods - are set at naught, we can have neither men's rights nor women's rights. The majority of mankind is ground down by industrial oppression in order that the small remnant may live in ease.” Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 3
  • Who? Where? What?!#% • “In Brgy. 462, a group of W, M, C, Y, UP, FFs, OPs, Ls and PWDs were having a meeting.” • Does this make sense? Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 4
  • PWD? Pilay na Walang Dangal?! • “PWD” can mean a variety of things! • Use person with disability not PWD • Language reflects and shapes the way we view the world. • Words we use influence community attitudes, both positively and negatively, and impact on the lives of others. Source: http://www.pwd.org.au/students/terminology.html Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 5
  • Why do we behave like this? • Culture of:  “intolerance to differences”  “exclusion”  “quick fix”  “shortcuts” Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 6
  • As such… • Other people decide things for persons with disabilities without their participation Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 7
  • Exploring the UNCRPD & Philippine CBR Manual: An Inclusive Development Strategy KEY CONCEPTS Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 8
  • Key Concepts: Impairments • Impairments— of functions of:  Physical  Mental  Intellectual  Sensory Long term Source: UN CRPD, 2006 Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 9
  • Some Causes of Impairments • Extreme poverty as manifested in situations like:  Malnutrition  Overcrowding  Lack of access to information, safe water, health and social services Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 10
  • Some Causes of Impairments • Goitre, ear infection, cataract • Diabetes & cardio vascular diseases • Unsafe environments • Natural disasters • Armed conflict Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 11
  • Key Concepts: Disability • Disability—  Result of interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal/ environmental barriers  Hinders full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. Source: UN CRPD, 2006 Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 12
  • Thus… • Disability is not due to functional impairments, but rather due to societal factors— attitudinal, institutional, and environmental barriers Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 13
  • Key Concepts: CBR Principles (UNCRPD General Principles) • • • • • • Inclusion Participation Self-Advocacy Sustainability Equal Opportunity Accessibility Source: Philippine CBR Manual, 2009 Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 14
  • Quick Glance at Statistics DEMOGRAPHIC DATA Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 15
  • Global Population Estimate • WHO: persons with disabilities make up an estimated 10% of the world’s population, 80% of which reside in developing countries. Source: http://www.e-include.eu/ Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 16
  • Local population of persons with disability • 2000 National Population Census:  942,000  1.23% of total population • 2011 National Household Targeting System:  302,421 Source: www.ncda.gov.ph Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 17
  • Geographic information • 70% of people with disability live in rural areas (& poor communities) • 4.5 million Filipinos with disability are not receiving the essential services they need Source: Asian Development Bank, 2005/NCDA, 2005 Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 18
  • Related statistics • 2008:Out of 2.7 million Filipino children with disability of school age, only 78,144 are allowed to attend school. Source: Department of Education Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 19
  • Related statistics • 2005: Of the total population of persons with disabilities, 57.12% are employed; 62.95% were males & 37.05% were females. Source: NSO 2005 Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 20
  • Those who have less… have laws, (only)?! LEGISLATIONS, ISSUANCES Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 21
  • International Commitments • United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities  Signed: 9-25-2007  Ratified: 4-15-2008 • UDHR, UN CRC, MDGs, etc. Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 22
  • Local Laws, Issuances • RA No. 7277 (Magna Carta for Disabled Persons) • RA No. 9442 • BP Blg. 344 • Joint Circular No. 2003-01 (DBM, DSWD) • EO 437 (CBR) Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 23
  • Laws & community realities • The gap between what the laws say and what reality actually is… well, that is another thing... Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 24
  • Using the CBR Matrix to examine EXISTING PROGRAMS & SERVICES Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 25
  • Like everybody else… • People with disabilities have different needs and different situations • They too need access to food, healthcare, education, livelihood, and even marriage & relationships… like everybody else Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 26
  • The CBR Matrix GOAL: HUMAN RIGHTS—INCLUSIVE SOCIETY PROMOTION EARLY CHILDHOOD SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PRIMARY SELF EMPLOYMENT PREVENTION MEDICAL CARE REHABILITATION ASSISTIVE DEVICES SECONDARY & HIGHER FINANCIAL SERVICES RELATIONSHIIP, MARRIAGE, & FAMILY PERSONAL ASSISTANCE COMMUNIICATION SOCIAL MOBILIZATION CULTURE/ARTS POLITICAL PARTICIPATION LEISURE/ SPORTS SELF HELP GROUP JUSTICE DPOs NON-FORMAL EMPLOYMENT LIFELONG LEARNING HEALTH EDUCATION SOCIAL PROTECTION LIVELIHOOD SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT GUIDING PRINCIPLES: PARTICIPATION, INCLUSION, SUSTAINABILITY, EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES, ACCESSIBILITY, SELF ADVOCACY Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 27
  • CBR Components EDUCATION SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT LIVELIHOOD HEALTH Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 28
  • TIDES OF TRANSFORMATION IMPLICATIONS OF CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 29
  • Challenges • Poverty in rural and urban areas • Corruption, misuse of government funds • Environmental-related disasters, and • Armed conflict, among others  are expected to increase the number of persons with impairments Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 30
  • Facing the challenges • Based on the principles of SELF ADVOCACY and PARTICIPATION persons with disabilities, through their Disabled Peoples’ Organizations, are at the heart of CBR. Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 31
  • Organizing & Strengthening DPOs • DPOs, organized based on their collective goal to live life to the full, are:  Working with local government, support institutions, and other organizations  Ensuring that their needs and rights, and that of the whole community, are met, ensured and protected. Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points March 17, 2012 32
  • Challenge for social workers • Be true to facilitative role • Helping persons with disabilities must be done in the community development way: Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points • Defining development together with the people, most especially the excluded; • Starting from where they are and building on what they have; and • Helping them in their continuing capability building, empowerment and self reliance. March 17, 2012 33
  • Some Reference Materials: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities WHO CBR Guidelines Philippine CBR Manual WHO 2011 Report on Disability Universal Declaration of Human Rights RA No. 7277 (Magna Carta for Disabled Persons) and RA No. 9442 (ammendment) BP Blg. 344 (Accessibility Law) EO 437 (Encouraging LGUs to use CBR) Impairments and Disability: Discussion Points • Contact us: Philippine Coordinating Center for Inclusive Development, Inc. Unit 101 Erisha Condominium No. 1142 P. Ocampo Street corner Dian Street 1004 Malate, Manila Tel. No. (02) 522 4429 cbmcbrph@pldtdsl.net pccidinc@gmail.com www.pccid.org March 17, 2012 34