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Emotional Profiles Of Samsung And Sony Presentation

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Research study that show how a certain group of people feels about Samsung and Sony across 10 discrete emotions. Reveals feelings that they are aware of (conscious/explicit), but also feelings that ...

Research study that show how a certain group of people feels about Samsung and Sony across 10 discrete emotions. Reveals feelings that they are aware of (conscious/explicit), but also feelings that they are not aware of (unconscious/implicit). Quantitative profiles given as well as analyses that show which emotions most drive brand preference.

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    Emotional Profiles Of Samsung And Sony   Presentation Emotional Profiles Of Samsung And Sony Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Emotional Profiles of Samsung and Sony: Discovering Evident and Hidden Feelings for Improved Emotional Marketing July 2009 1
    • PREFACE Recent research in neuroscience and psychology confirms that emotions strongly, if not exclusively, drive people’s behavior1, including their behavior as consumers. Also, studies convincingly show that people being researched via traditional market research techniques often can’t or won’t convey their emotions2, including how their emotions affect their behavior. Evident emotions are those that people can and will disclose. They are also called “explicit.” Hidden emotions are those that people can’t or won’t disclose. They are also called “implicit.” Recognizing the importance of emotions, as well as the need to assess both explicit and implicit emotions, this study used a technique that effectively revealed how certain college students explicitly and implicitly felt about two prominent brands of consumer electronics — Samsung and Sony. Furthermore, the study showed how the respondents’ explicit and implicit emotions related to (i.e., “drove”) preference for the two brands. This information can be used by Samsung and Sony to develop strategies and executions that will trigger specific emotions needed to improve consideration and purchase of their branded products. 2
    • CONTENTS ABOUT experiEmotive® analytics ………. 4 APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION OBJECTIVES ………. 6 METHODS ………. 7 SAMSUNG RESULTS ………. 10 Samsung Preferences and Ownership (11) Samsung’s Emotional Profiles (Total & Higher Minus Lower Preference) (12-13) Samsung’s Impactful Emotions (14) Samsung Summary (15) SONY RESULTS ………. 16 Sony’s Preferences and Ownership (17) Sony’s Emotional Profiles (Total & Higher Minus Lower Preference) (18-19) Sony’s Impactful Emotions (20) Sony Summary (21) COMPARING SAMSUNG AND SONY ………. 22 COMPETITIVE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SAMSUNG AND SONY ………. 23 HOW TO CONDUCT AN EMOTIONAL PROFILING STUDY ………. 24 NOTES AND REFERENCES ………. 25 3
    • ABOUT experiEmotive® analytics experiEmotive® analytics (EMA) is a consumer research company that conducts emotional research to discover the “experience-to-emotional motive chains” that drive consumer behavior. EMA’s work is fundamentally based on the experiEmotive® model, diagrammed at right. The experiEmotive® model says that experiences initiate largely unconscious cognitive, emotional, and physiological processing that drives behavior; and emotions are the fuel that does the serious driving. EMA uses a variety of techniques, all designed to effectively assess emotional dynamics. Because emotions are largely “implicit” (i.e., either unconsciously operating or consciously guarded), special techniques are needed. All of EMA’s work intends to support more effective emotional marketing, particularly more emotionally engaging product designs, brand identities & positionings, advertising, and customer service experiences, if not more. 4
    • In essence, experiEmotive® analytics works to… Find the emotions that move (stimulate, compel, entice, inspire, stir, arouse, provoke, incite, etc.) people to buy your products and services. 5
    • APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION OBJECTIVES Help Samsung and Sony brand/marketing executives… • Get new ideas for what emotions to trigger to optimize their brand’s preference and/or ownership among college students... By answering the following questions: 1. “Net-net,” do college students feel more positive or more negative about my brand? 2. What specific feelings do college students have about my brand and how strong are those feelings? 3. Are there important feelings that college students have that are operating unconsciously or are deliberately being hidden for some reason? If so, what are they? 4. Which of these feelings is most impacting preference for or ownership of my brand among college students? 6
    • METHODS • Recruited college students at the University of Texas Arlington for a study about “Feelings Under Different Levels of Distraction” • Randomly assigned them to a Samsung or Sony condition – Ultimately, 39 were analyzed for Samsung, 29 for Sony • Asked them a series of questions and had them complete “feelings” tasks – Order of questions/tasks: Demographics, implicit feelings task, explicit feelings task, brand ownership, brand preference • Converted implicit and explicit feelings task responses to standardized scores • Performed (regression-based) driver analyses to identify emotions most impacting brand preference and ownership • More about the implicit and explicit feelings tasks on the next two pages. 7
    • IMPLICIT FEELINGS TASK • Based on well-founded “implicit assessment” techniques in social/cognitive psychology3 • Present a “prime” (brand representation) • Misdirect respondent to symbol/emotion word task Does this symbol mean this word? • Emotions (implicitly) associated with prime disproportionately “leak” onto symbol task 8
    • EXPLICIT FEELINGS TASK • More straightforward • Present a brand representation • Ask respondent to rate how much he/she feels a certain feeling as he/she reflects upon As you reflect upon …, the brand how … do you feel? • Baseline control images worked  A Lot  A Little  Not At All in with brand representation images 9
    • RESULTS 10
    • SAMSUNG PREFERENCES AND OWNERSHIP Average Samsung Preference Ranks • Generally moderate and Ownership Percentage preference rankings, except General Preference 2.54 relatively high for cell phone. Recommend Preference 2.54 Television Preference 2.92 • Except for cell phone, slightly Laptop Preference 2.85 Cell Phone Preference 1.72 higher non-product (i.e., Average Overall Preference 2.51 image) preference. Average Non-Product Preference 2.54 Average Product Preference 2.50 • Almost three-quarters claimed Ownership 74.4% to own a Samsung product. Preferences: 1 = Most preferred; 2 = 2nd most preferred; 3 = 3rd most preferred; 4 = 4th most preferred; 5 = 5th most preferred in general, when recommending to others, when purchasing television, laptop, and cell phone. Average Overall = across all five rankings; Average Non-Product = across general and recommend; Average Product = across television, laptop, and cell phone. Note: Numerically lower preference ranks mean stronger preference. Ownership: Percentage claiming to currently own a Samsung product. 11
    • SAMSUNG EMOTIONAL PROFILE (Total Sample) Red bars and 150 numbers within 119 Overall Emotionality represent Standardized Emotion Effect Score 108 standardized degrees 100 82 Total +595 (+201); Explicit +443 of explicit emotion 68 (i.e., conscious and 86 54 72 (+140); Implicit +152 (+61) willing), blue bars 50 24 42 67 and numbers within 41 1 the same for implicit 36 16 26 33 emotions (i.e., 0 8 15 13 13 -6 -11 -23 -12 unconscious or -25 -30 -37 unwilling). Numbers -56 -50 -56 -30 above or below bars -68 -48 indicate the total Explicit -62 -60 degree of emotion -100 Implicit -79 (the addition of -93 explicit and implicit). Positive scores for -150 Excited positive emotions are Bored Impressed Worried Cared For Disgusted Playful Annoyed POOLED POS EMOS Confident Betrayed POOLED NEG EMOS desired, as are negative scores for negative emotions. Vice versa are not desired. Pooled positive and negative emotion scores are derived from grouping the five emotions in each category. Overall Emotionality scores outside parentheses Among all respondents, Samsung showed high positive emotionality (+595), and are additions of individual emotion higher than Sony. Respondents felt most positively excited & impressed (consistently scores (10). Overall Emotionality scores explicit & implicit). In fact, all positive emotions showed desired (positive) scores, inside parentheses consistently explicit & implicit (but stronger explicit). Almost all negative emotions are additions of pooled emotion were explicitly & implicitly in the desired direction (negative scores), especially not scores (2). bored about Samsung. An undesired result was slight implicit disgust. 12
    • SAMSUNG EMOTIONAL PROFILE (Higher Minus Lower Preference) In this chart, we show 200 176 the “emotional Overall Emotionality profile” differences Standardized Emotion Effect Score 140 130 between those who 150 Total +504 (+156); Explicit +458 (+146); expressed higher (N- 96 109 18) vs. lower (n=21) 100 78 41 Implicit +45 (+11) averaged brand 90 72 20 17 53 preference for 88 44 Samsung. (To assign 50 81 53 89 4 70 respondents we 50 34 43 32 33 49 divided the sample as 0 21 19 11 -15 evenly as possible -26 -47 -50 -58 into the higher “half” -4 -50 vs. the lower “half” in Explicit -15 terms of their Implicit -25 preference for -100 Samsung averaged across all categories -150 Excited of preference.) All Bored Impressed Worried Cared For Disgusted Annoyed POOLED POS EMOS Confident Playful Betrayed POOLED NEG EMOS keys, colors, and emotion scores have the same meaning as in the previous chart. The emotion scores in this chart were calculated by subtracting the lower preference respondents’ emotion scores from the higher preference respondents’. Results When examining the differences between Samsung’s Higher Preference (HP) vs. Lower Preference indicate which (LP) respondents, we found that the strongest overall positive differentiating emotion was emotions confidence. However, it is worth noting that feeling explicitly cared for & implicitly playful also differentiated the two groups, signaling strongly differentiated HPs from LPs. On the negative side, it is quite interesting that HPs felt more emotions that need explicitly negative, too, especially betrayed. However, implicit negative feelings were generally in attention to optimize Samsung’s brand the desired (negative score) direction, except for strong implicit worry. In sum, although HPs felt preference. more positive, they also felt more explicitly negative too, signaling a delicate “emotional tightrope” among those who were more engaged with Samsung. 13
    • Outcome Variables Samsung Multiple Regression Results - Explicit Emotions Only R2 p Significant Betas SAMSUNG’S General Preference 0.334 0.002 xCARED FOR -.526; xBORED .390; xPLAYFUL .346 IMPACTFUL EMOTIONS Recommend Preference 0.152 0.014 xCARED FOR -.390 Television Preference Laptop Preference 0.171 0.009 xCONFIDENT -.413 No significant predictors • Explicitly, feeling cared for, not bored, and Cell Phone Preference No significant predictors (interestingly) not playful most positively Average Overall Preference 0.198 0.005 xCONFIDENT -.445 impacted non-product (i.e., image) brand Average Non-Product Preference 0.165 0.010 xCARED FOR -.407 Average Product Preference 0.163 0.011 xCONFIDENT -.403 preference, and feeling confident most Ownership No significant predictors positively impacted product brand preference. Samsung Multiple Regression Results - Implicit Emotions Only Outcome Variables R2 p Significant Betas • Implicitly, feeling playful most positively General Preference 0.165 0.010 iPLAYFUL -.406 impacted non-product and product brand Recommend Preference No significant predictors Television Preference 0.132 0.023 iIMPRESSED -.363 preference, and feeling impressed most Laptop Preference No significant predictors positively impacted preference for Samsung Cell Phone Preference No significant predictors televisions. Average Overall Preference 0.139 0.019 iPLAYFUL -.373 Average Non-Product Preference Average Product Preference 0.136 0.021 iPLAYFUL -.369 No significant predictors • When considered together, feeling Ownership No significant predictors implicitly playful and explicitly cared for most impacted non-product brand Samsung Multiple Regression Results - Explicit and Implicit Emotions preference, and feeling explicitly confident Outcome Variables R2 p Significant Betas General Preference 0.285 0.002 iPLAYFUL -.375; xCARED FOR -.348 and implicitly impressed most positively Recommend Preference 0.152 0.014 xCARED FOR -.390 impacted product brand preference. Television Preference 0.323 0.001 xCONFIDENT -.438; iIMPRESSED -.391 Laptop Preference No significant predictors • Because of high Samsung ownership Cell Phone Preference No significant predictors (74.4%), insufficient ownership variability Average Overall Preference 0.310 0.001 xCONFIDENT -.415; iPLAYFUL -.336 Average Non-Product Preference 0.277 0.003 xCARED FOR -.377; iPLAYFUL -.336 prevented significant results for the impact Average Product Preference 0.163 0.011 xCONFIDENT -.403 of specific emotions on Samsung Ownership No significant predictors ownership. The top table shows the impacts of explicit emotions only on various preferences and ownership. The middle table shows the impacts of implicit emotions only. The bottom table shows the impacts of implicit and explicit emotions together. R2 = the degree of variance in the outcome variables explained by the emotions. p = the significance of the model. “i” = implicit. “x” = explicit. Because higher preference = a lower number, negative betas indicate a positive relationship with preference and vice versa. For more detail regarding the contents of these tables, see Notes and References #4.14
    • SAMSUNG SUMMARY • Samsung’s brand preference was moderate, ownership relatively high among these respondents. • Overall, the respondents felt strongly positive toward Samsung (and stronger than for Sony), particularly excited, impressed, and not bored. Explicit feelings were stronger than implicit. • A noticeable undesired result was that respondents implicitly felt slightly disgusted toward Samsung. • Feeling explicitly cared for and confident, and implicitly playful most drove Samsung’s positive brand preference. We feel that the “surprise” was identifying implicit playfulness as strongly impactful. • Although overall respondents felt positive toward Samsung, respondents who showed higher brand preference also expressed some explicit negative feelings, particularly feeling annoyed, betrayed, and disgusted. This may relate to an overall strong interest in (i.e., engagement with) Samsung (as opposed to apathy), which carries greater emotional sensitivity across the board. 15
    • RESULTS 16
    • SONY PREFERENCES AND OWNERSHIP Average Sony Preference Ranks and Ownership Percentage • Generally high preference General Preference 1.55 rankings, except relatively low Recommend Preference 1.59 for cell phone. Television Preference 1.59 Laptop Preference 1.34 • Except cell phone, slightly Cell Phone Preference 2.00 higher non-product preference. Average Overall Preference 1.61 Average Non-Product Preference 1.57 • Almost 90% claimed to own a Average Product Preference 1.64 Ownership 89.7% Sony product. Preferences: 1 = Most preferred; 2 = 2nd most preferred; 3 = 3rd most preferred; 4 = 4th most preferred; 5 = 5th most preferred in general, when recommending to others, when purchasing television, laptop, and cell phone. Average Overall = across all five rankings; Average Non-Product = across general and recommend; Average Product = across television, laptop, and cell phone. Note: Numerically lower preference ranks mean stronger preference. Ownership: Percentage claiming to currently own a Sony product. 17
    • SONY EMOTIONAL PROFILE (Total Sample) Red bars and 150 numbers within Overall Emotionality represent Standardized Emotion Effect Score standardized degrees 71 60 100 58 Total +402 (+132); Explicit +250 of explicit emotion (i.e., conscious and 45 38 49 (+117); Implicit +152 (+15) willing), blue bars 50 87 90 and numbers within 32 56 67 51 the same for implicit 1 17 14 emotions (i.e., 0 -11 -9 -13 0 5 0 1 -16 -30 -31 -22 -21 unconscious or -42 -51 unwilling). Numbers -30 -8 -16 above or below bars -50 -42 indicate the total Explicit -61 -36 degree of emotion -100 Implicit -87 (the addition of explicit and implicit). Positive scores for -150 Excited positive emotions are Bored Impressed Worried Cared For Disgusted Annoyed POOLED POS EMOS Confident Playful Betrayed POOLED NEG EMOS desired, as are negative scores for negative emotions. Vice versa are not desired. Pooled positive and negative emotion scores are derived from grouping the five emotions in each category. Overall Emotionality scores outside parentheses are additions of Among all respondents, Sony showed moderately high positive emotionality (+402), individual emotion scores (10). Overall but not as high as Samsung. Respondents felt most positively impressed, but Emotionality scores explicitly, not implicitly. In fact, except for feeling cared for, implicit positive emotions inside parentheses are additions of all had undesired (negative) scores. Although respondents felt strongly and pooled emotion scores (2). consistently not bored with Sony, implicit annoyance and slight disgust emerged. 18
    • SONY EMOTIONAL PROFILE (Higher Minus Lower Preference) In this chart, we show 200 the “emotional Overall Emotionality profile” differences Standardized Emotion Effect Score Explicit between those who 150 Implicit Total +85 (+25); Explicit +107 (+8); expressed higher (N- 15) vs. lower (n=14) 100 81 45 55 Implicit -22 (+17) averaged brand 3 preference for Sony. 38 36 19 (To assign 50 89 7 22 5 78 respondents we 51 45 37 divided the sample as 0 16 4 14 14 20 23 -10 -9 -23 -18 -2 -16 evenly as possible -48 -30 -44 -33 -44 into the higher “half” -6 -50 -16 -35 vs. the lower “half” in -24 terms of their preference for Sony -100 averaged across all categories of -150 Excited preference.) All keys, Bored Impressed Worried Cared For Disgusted Annoyed POOLED POS EMOS Confident Playful Betrayed POOLED NEG EMOS colors, and emotion scores have the same meaning as in the previous chart. The emotion scores in this chart were calculated by subtracting the lower preference respondents’ emotion scores from the higher preference respondents’. Results indicate which When examining the differences between Sony’s Higher Preference (HP) vs. Lower emotions Preference (LP) respondents, we found consistent differences between explicit & implicit differentiated the two groups, signaling feelings. On the positive side, HPs felt explicitly (but not implicitly) more playful, explicitly emotions that need (but not implicitly) more cared for, and implicitly & explicitly more impressed. On the attention to optimize Sony’s brand negative side, HPs felt implicitly less disgusted, annoyed, betrayed, and worried; but they preference. felt explicitly more annoyed, betrayed, disgusted, and worried. In fact, mixed explicit & implicit feelings resulted for all emotions except impressed and (not) bored. 19
    • Sony Multiple Regression Results - Explicit Emotions Only SONY’S Outcome Variables R2 p Significant Betas General Preference 0.137 0.048 xPLAYFUL -.370 IMPACTFUL EMOTIONS Recommend Preference 0.138 0.047 xPLAYFUL -.371 Television Preference 0.159 0.032 xPLAYFUL -.399 • Explicitly, feeling playful most positively Laptop Preference No significant predictors Cell Phone Preference No significant predictors impacted non-product (i.e., image) and Average Overall Preference 0.172 0.025 xPLAYFUL -.415 product brand preference. Average Non-Product Preference 0.145 0.042 xPLAYFUL -.380 Average Product Preference No significant predictors • (Interestingly) Implicitly, feeling betrayed Ownership No significant predictors most positively impacted preference for Sony Multiple Regression Results - Implicit Emotions Only Sony televisions, but no other implicit Outcome Variables R2 p Significant Betas emotions significantly predicted preference. General Preference No significant predictors Recommend Preference No significant predictors • When considered together, feeling Television Preference 0.197 0.016 iBETRAYED -.444 explicitly playful most impacted non- Laptop Preference No significant predictors Cell Phone Preference No significant predictors product brand preference and (again, Average Overall Preference No significant predictors interestingly) feeling implicitly betrayed Average Non-Product Preference No significant predictors most positively impacted preference for Average Product Preference No significant predictors Ownership No significant predictors Sony televisions. Sony Multiple Regression Results - Explicit and Implicit Emotions • Because of high Sony ownership (89.7%), Outcome Variables R2 p Significant Betas insufficient ownership variability prevented General Preference 0.137 0.048 xPLAYFUL -.370 significant results for the impact of specific Recommend Preference 0.138 0.047 xPLAYFUL -.371 Television Preference 0.197 0.016 iBETRAYED -.444 emotions on Sony ownership. • Laptop Preference No significant predictors Cell Phone Preference No significant predictors The interesting positive impact of feeling Average Overall Preference 0.172 0.025 xPLAYFUL -.415 implicitly betrayed is thought to relate to an Average Non-Product Preference 0.145 0.042 xPLAYFUL -.380 underlying strong personal connection Average Product Preference No significant predictors Ownership No significant predictors necessary for betrayal to even exist. The top table shows the impacts of explicit emotions only on various preferences and ownership. The middle table shows the impacts of implicit emotions only. The bottom table shows the impacts of implicit and explicit emotions together. R2 = the degree of variance in the outcome variables explained by the emotions. p = the significance of the model. “i” = implicit. “x” = explicit. Because higher preference = a lower number, negative betas indicate a positive relationship with preference and vice versa. For more detail regarding the contents of these tables, see Notes and References #4. 20
    • SONY SUMMARY • Sony brand preference was high, ownership very high among these respondents. • Overall, the respondents felt positive toward Samsung (but not as strongly as for Samsung), particularly impressed and not bored. • Explicit feelings were stronger than implicit. In fact, implicit positive feelings consistently showed negative emotion scores. • A noticeable undesired result was that respondents implicitly felt slightly annoyed and disgusted toward Sony. Furthermore, those who preferred Sony more, felt more explicitly annoyed by them. • Feeling explicitly playful and (interestingly) implicitly betrayed most drove Sony’s positive brand preference. We feel that the implicit betrayal impact might be due to a strong personal relationship that must precede betrayal. • Mixed explicit vs. implicit emotions existed for Sony, particularly among those with stronger brand preference. In many instances, explicit and implicit emotions were in opposite directions. 21
    • COMPARING SAMSUNG AND SONY SAMSUNG SONY • Moderate brand preference (except • High brand preference. high for cell phone). • Strong overall positive emotions, but • Stronger overall positive emotions. mixed implicit and explicit. • Explicitly, more excited, but also more • Explicitly, more confident, impressed, disgusted. and cared for, but also more annoyed, • Implicitly, more impressed, excited, betrayed, bored, and worried. confident, and playful, but also more • Implicitly, more cared for, but also betrayed and bored. more worried and annoyed. • Non-product (image) brand preference • Non-product (image) brand preference driven by feeling implicitly playful and driven by feeling explicitly playful. explicitly cared for. • Product brand preference driven by • Product brand preference driven by feeling explicitly playful and implicitly feeling implicitly impressed and betrayed. implicitly confident. 22
    • COMPETITIVE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SAMSUNG AND SONY STRATEGY SAMSUNG SONY Explicitly confident, Explicitly Leverage... Explicitly excited impressed, and playful Implicitly playful and Implicitly Leverage… cared for Explicitly annoyed, Explicitly disgusted / betrayed, bored, worried Investigate/address… Implicitly betrayed and / Implicitly worried and bored annoyed Note: These recommendations are “competitive” in that they emphasize emotions that are stronger or weaker relative to the competing brand. Other absolute recommendations follow from each individual analysis, shown earlier. For instance, respondents felt strongly impressed by Samsung, too, so feeling impressed can (should) also be leveraged by Samsung. 23
    • HOW TO CONDUCT AN EMOTIONAL PROFILING STUDY 1. Determine your target market specifications. 2. Think about or decide what specific emotions you want to profile (up to 10). 3. Think about/decide how you want your brand to be represented (e.g., just words, logo, etc.). 4. Communicate this information to Paul Conner at experiEmotive® analytics (pconner@experiemotive.com or 314-752-0564). 5. Receive a detailed proposal from experiEmotive® analytics. 6. Agree on proposal and conduct the study. 24
    • NOTES AND REFERENCES 1. Support for the fact that emotions drive behavior comes from neuroscience and psychology, and is being widely accepted in marketing. The following quotes and references provide support: “The essential difference between emotion and reason is that emotion leads to action while reason leads to conclusions.” (Calne, D. (2000). Within Reason: Rationality and Human Behavior. Vintage Books.) “Although beliefs may guide our actions, they are not sufficient to initiate action. No matter how rational your thoughts about helping the needy may be, you need an emotional impulse before you actually volunteer to help. Emotions are prime candidates for turning a thinking being into an actor.” (Frijda, N.H., Manstead, S.R., & Bem, S. (2000). The Influence of Emotions on Beliefs. In N.H. Frijda, A.S.R Manstead, and S. Bem (Ed.), Emotions and Beliefs: How Feelings Influence Thoughts (pp. 1-9), Maisson des Sciences de l’Homme and Cambridge University Press.) “Customers are always emotional. That is, they always have feelings, sometimes intense, other times barely perceptible, when they make purchases or engage in commercial transactions. One thing is certain: no one is entirely neutral about consuming.” (Barlow, J. & Maul, D. (2000). Emotional Value: Creating Strong Bonds with Your Customers. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.) “Emotion is not an aberrant element when making buying decisions, but a necessary condition if decisions are not to be continually postponed.” (O’Shaughnessy, J. and O’Shaughnessy, N.J. (2003). The Marketing Power of Emotion. Oxford Press.) “We now accept that human beings are powered by emotion, not by reason. Emotion and reason are intertwined, but when they are in conflict, emotion wins every time. [Emotion] controls our rationality, our decision making.” (Roberts, K. (2002). Annual ESOMAR Conference, Barcelona.) 25
    • NOTES AND REFERENCES 2. That people often can’t or won’t convey their true emotions happens for two primary reasons, which we call “unconscious” and “unwilling”. People often can’t reveal their emotions because emotions operate in large part unconsciously — i.e., below one’s level of awareness. Also, people often won’t reveal their emotions (i.e., they are “unwilling”) because it is often socially or culturally unacceptable to do so. Collectively, these two emotional dynamics — unconscious and unwilling — are called “implicit”. Support for the “unconscious” problem is as follows: “We are not aware of most of our emotional reactions: we cannot ‘feel’ the emotion. Most of our emotional life takes place in the unconscious. Emotions under the consciousness threshold do have a large influence on what we perceive and how we react to it.” (Franzen, G. and Bouwman, M. (2001). The Mental World of Brands: Mind, Memory and Brand Success. WARC.) “The real causes of human action are unconscious, so it is not surprising that behavior could often arise — as in automaticity experiments — without the person’s having conscious insight into its causation.” (Wegner, D.M. (2002). The Illusion of Conscious Will. Bradford Books, The MIT Press.) “According to most estimates, about 95 percent of thought, emotion, and learning occurs in the unconscious mind — that is, without our awareness.” (Zaltman, G. (2003). How Customers Think: Essential Insights Into the Mind of the Market. Harvard Business School Press.) Support for the “unwilling” problem comes from Rapaille (Rapaille, C. (2006). Marketing to the Reptilian Brain. Forbes.): “It's not that people intentionally lie during surveys and focus groups; it's that they try too hard to please. When asked about their interests and preferences, they tend to give answers they believe the questioner wants to hear. This is because people respond with their cerebral cortexes, the part of the brain that controls intelligence, rather than emotion or instinct. Their answers are the product of deliberation. In most cases, however, they aren't saying what they feel.” 26
    • NOTES AND REFERENCES 3. The implicit assessment feature of our approach been adapted from implicit techniques widely used in cognitive and social psychology. These techniques involve activating implicit emotional associations with targeted objects (in this case brands) and then misdirecting respondents to an unrelated task. Implicit emotional associations surface as “leakages” onto responses to the unrelated task. Generally speaking, there are two types of implicit measurement approaches: 1) priming techniques, adapted largely from approaches credited to Fazio (Fazio, R.H. & Olson, M.A. (2003). Implicit Measures in Social Cognition Research: Their Meaning and Use. Annual Review of Psychology, 54: 297-327.); and 2) IAT (Implicit Association Test) techniques, adapted largely from approaches credited to Greenwald (Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480.). Both reveal “inner content” (e.g., attitudes, emotions, etc.) that are either unconscious (therefore, explicitly unavailable) or altered in explicit expression. We adapted a particular priming technique for this research. The technique is called the Affective Misattribution Procedure (AMP) developed by Keith Payne (Payne, B.K., Cheng, C.M., Govorun, O., & Stewart, B.D. (2005). An Inkblot for Attitudes: Affect Misattribution as Implicit Measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(3), 277-293.). It is beyond the scope of this report to comprehensively discuss the genesis and effectiveness of this technique. However, studies using the AMP have shown that implicit emotions can increase prediction of evaluations and behavior beyond their explicit expression (see Payne, B.K., Govorun, O., & Arbuckle, N. (2008). Automatic Attitudes and Alcohol: Does Implicit Liking Predict Drinking? Cognition and Emotion, 22 (2), 238-271.). A particular feature of our technique is increased robustness by assessing the effects of multiple discrete emotions as opposed to global positive or negative emotions (which has been the standard in most priming and IAT studies). In other words, we adapted the AMP to identify more specific emotions that impact behavior (e.g., excited vs. impressed vs. confident vs. secure), not just “feeling good” or “feeling bad” in general. We felt accomplishing this would provide brand managers more powerful direction for marketing their products. To support the possibility of effectively assessing discrete emotions, Arbuckle found the AMP to distinguish implicit feelings of fear, anger, and disgust and showed that those differences related to different stereotypical images of African Americans (see Arbuckle, N. (2006). Developing an Implicit Measure of Emotion. Unpublished Master’s Thesis.). 27
    • NOTES AND REFERENCES 4. Multiple regressions provide a well-founded statistical procedure for assessing the impact of our explicit and implicit emotions on brand preference and ownership. Multiple regressions work to examine the impact of individual predictor (independent) variables on an outcome (dependent) variable after accounting for the impact of all of the other predictor variables in the model. To examine the impact of the explicit and implicit emotions on various measures of brand preference and ownership, we conducted three multiple regressions using three sets of predictor variables for each of the outcome variables (the brand preference and ownership variables listed). The three sets of predictor variables were the 10 explicit emotions by themselves, the 10 implicit emotions by themselves, and the 20 explicit and implicit emotions together. The tables present the results of these multiple regressions. The following comments help to explain the information in these tables. • R2 is a measure of the variance of the outcome variables explained by the predictor variables in the model. • p indicates the significance level of the model. All models indicate statistically significant relationships between the predictor and outcome variables, assuming .05 is accepted as statistical significance. • Significant betas indicate the standardized impact of emotions that had significant impacts on the outcome variable after accounting for the impact of all of the other predictor variables in the model. Specifically, a standardized beta represents the number of standardized units of change in the outcome variable given one standardized unit of change in the predictor variable. Since preferences were ranked measures, negative betas indicate that as an emotion “got stronger” (i.e., moved to a higher emotion effect), preference increased (i.e., moved to a lower rank, closer to 1, which indicated stronger preference); positive betas indicate that as an emotion “got stronger”, preference decreased. 28