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California's Culture of Corrections

California's Culture of Corrections



California: in 1980, ~ 220 people incarcerated / 100,000. ...

California: in 1980, ~ 220 people incarcerated / 100,000.
In 2010, ~731 people incarcerated/100,000
U.S. has highest incarceration rate in the world:
- England and Wales: 154 inmates per 100,000
- Iraq and Iran: 133 inmates per 100,000
- Canada : 116 inmates per 100,000
- Japan: 63 inmates per 100,000




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  • *From: http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/atlarge/2012/01/30/120130crat_atlarge_gopnik#ixzz1kOr5MYOx
  • *From BJS http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/glance/incrt.cfm
  • *From BJS http://www.bjs.gov/content/glance/tables/viortrdtab.cfm
  • *2008 Pew report http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/report_detail.aspx?id=35904 **2009 Pew Center on the States http://www.nccd-crc.org/nccd/pubs/2006nov_factsheet_incarceration.pdf ***From: http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/atlarge/2012/01/30/120130crat_atlarge_gopnik#ixzz1kOr5MYOx ****From: http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/12/08/united-states-cause-hope-prison-growth-slows
  • Rates of incarceration in Iraq and Iran: 133 U.S. Rates of incarceration are highest in the world: http://www.nccd-crc.org/nccd/pubs/2006nov_factsheet_incarceration.pdf
  • *http://www.nccd-crc.org/nccd/pubs/2006nov_factsheet_incarceration.pdf
  • *From: http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/atlarge/2012/01/30/120130crat_atlarge_gopnik#ixzz1kOr5MYOx
  • *From 2005 Sentencing Project report Incarceration and Crime Rates, Complex “These inconsistent trends over time and among the states do not necessarily suggest that incarceration has no impact on crime, but they inform us that incarceration does not always have a uniformly positive impact on reducing crime and that, therefore, other factors significantly affect crime trends.” (pg5)
  • *From 2005 Sentencing Project report Incarceration and Crime Rates, Complex
  • Zimring’s Book “The City that Became Safe”
  • *from: http://www.thecrimereport.org/archive/2011-01-whats-ahead-for-californias-dysfunctional-prisons Found Lifer pop stats from July 2009 report by the Sentencing Project and written about in the NY Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/23/us/23sentence.html?pagewanted=all Found other lifer stats on this slide from a Chronicle article 1/27/12:http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2012/01/26/national/a210206S72.DTL&ao=2 Used Lifer Stats from the below cited Stanford report. Parole Grant rate & Recidivism rate data from: Stanford Criminal Justice Center, “Life in Limbo: An Examination of Parole Release for Prisoners Serving Life Sentences with the Possibility of Parole in California,” 2011.
  • http://ag.ca.gov/cjsc/keyfacts.php
  • http://ag.ca.gov/cjsc/keyfacts.php
  • *http://ag.ca.gov/cjsc/keyfacts.php
  • From http://motherjones.com/slideshows/2011/05/california-prison-overcrowding-photos/institution-for-men
  • *(Matthew Cate, Secretary of CDCR)from: http://www.thecrimereport.org/archive/2011-01-whats-ahead-for-californias-dysfunctional-prisons
  • The focus on procedure in the U.S. removes us from the personal impact *From: http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/atlarge/2012/01/30/120130crat_atlarge_gopnik#ixzz1kOr5MYOx
  • *From: http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Adult_Programs/index.html
  • *$280 Million needed to be cut total –so 89% came from Adult Programs *2007 reference from http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/news/docs/GovRehabilitationStrikeTeamRpt_012308.pdf

California's Culture of Corrections California's Culture of Corrections Presentation Transcript

  • January 27, 2012 Julie Lifshay, MPH PhD Centerforce CenterforceCenterforce Information, Education and Advocacy for individuals, families and communities impacted by incarceration
  • *Reference: New Yorker, Jan 30, 2012, "The Caging of America," Gopnik Incarceration in the U.S.  U.S. focuses on a “fair” process, not for a “just” outcome*  Impersonality  Revenge  Increase in violent crime rates in the 70’s and early ‘80s  U.S. decided to “get tough on crime”  Mandatory Minimum sentences  Enhancements  Longer terms
  • *Reference: Bureau of Justice and Statistics (http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/glance/inc United States*
  • *Reference: Bureau of Justice and Statistics (http://www.bjs.gov/content/glance/tables Results*?
  • *2008 Pew report http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/report_detail.aspx?id=35904 Results  More than 1 in 100 adults are in jail or prison*  1 in 31 adults behind bars , or on parole or probation**  in 1980, ~ 220 people incarcerated / 100,000***  In 2010, ~731 people incarcerated/100,000***  U.S. has highest incarceration rate in the world****:  England and Wales: 154 per 100,000  Iraq and Iran: 133 per 100,000  Canada : 116 per 100,000  Japan: 63 per 100,000
  • *Data from: http://www.nccd-crc.org/nccd/pubs/2006nov_factsheet_incarceration.pdf We are #1*
  • *Data from: http://www.nccd-crc.org/nccd/pubs/2006nov_factsheet_incarceration.pdf Results  The incarceration rate in the U.S. is 4X the world average  The US has less than 5% of the world’s population but 23% of the people incarcerated in the world  The US imprisons the most women in the world
  • *Reference: New Yorker, Jan 30, 2012, "The Caging of America," Gopnik Results*  $ states spend on prisons has grown at 6 X the rate of spending on higher education  More than 50% of AA men without HS diploma go to prison*  AA men incarcerated at a rate 6 ½ X that of white men  More black men in the grip of the criminal- justice system—in prison, on probation, or on parole—than were enslaved in 1850.
  • *From 2005 Sentencing Project report Incarceration and Crime Rates, Complex Reasons for drop in Crime Not (only) incarceration: no consistent relationship 1991-1998*:  Texas: 144% increase in incarceration  Decrease in crime 35%  California: 52% increase in incarceration  Decrease in crime: 36%  New York: 24% increase in incarceration  Decrease in crime: 43%
  • *From 2005 Sentencing Project report Incarceration and Crime Rates, Complex Changes in Incarceration and Crime Rates for states, 1991- 1998* Above Average Increase in Incarceration: 72% Decrease in Crime Rates: 13% Below Average Increase in Incarceration: 30% Decrease in Crime Rates: 17%
  • Zimring, The City That Became Safe, 2010 Reasons for drop in Crime Zimring*  “hot spot” policing  “stop and frisk” policies  A decrease in the prevalence in crime fuels a further decrease in the prevalence of crime.  it is situational   what matters is the “culture of crime”
  • Incarceration in CA  Tougher sentencing laws  3 Strikes Law 1994  Other “tough on crime” laws  Enhancements  Indeterminate sentences  Determinate sentences of exorbitant amounts of time  CA “Lifer” population  20% of CA prisoners are serving a “life” sentence  34,164 (2009) = 3X the number in 1992  Parole Grant Rates:  2000 to 2007 around 8%; 2010 about 18%  In 2010, 80% of those were rejected by the Governor  Recidivism rate of lifers is “miniscule”
  • *http://ag.ca.gov/cjsc/keyfacts.php California New Admission Rates*
  • *http://ag.ca.gov/cjsc/keyfacts.php CA Criminal Justice Expenditures*
  • *http://ag.ca.gov/cjsc/keyfacts.php Results*?
  • *http://motherjones.com/slideshows/2011/05/california-prison-overcrowding-photos/in Results*
  • *Matthew Cate, Secretary of CDCR, http://motherjones.com/slideshows/2011/05/califo Incarceration in CA* “If you ask any prosecutor in California, they’ll tell you that sentencing laws in California are a byzantine, complex, difficult-to-decipher, and not always consistent patchwork. They have to be [changed] so that people we should really be afraid of serve longer terms, and that people we’re just mad at do shorter terms.”
  • *From: http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/atlarge/2012/01/30/120130crat_atlarge_ Challenges Faced by People Inside  Disconnection from loved ones  In some cases, alienation from loved ones  Educational levels  Past Experiences of violence  Emotional growth  Drug Addiction  Prison culture  Loss of Hope  Loss of Motivation  Job skills and opportunities  Health issues and risks  “We lock up men and forget about their existence.”*
  • *From: http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Adult_Programs/index.html California Dept of Corrections and Rehabilitation “Adult Programs is at the heart of rehabilitation activity in the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR). Its goals are to (1) provide effective evidence based programming to adult offenders and (2) create strong partnerships with local government, community based providers, and the communities to which offenders return in order to provide services that are critical to offenders’ success on parole.”
  • *2007 reference from http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/news/docs/GovRehabilitationStrikeTeam Culture of Corrections in CA  Power of the CCPOA  Added the “R” back into CDC in 2005  Of $43,000 spent per prisoner/year, $2,000 (5%) spent on rehabilitation (2007)*  Funding environment & impact on programs  $250 Million was cut from a $600 Million Adult Program budget in January 2010.
  • Culture of Corrections in CA “Program”  Culture around punishment  Suspicion of outside groups  Power and control  Concern about “idle” time
  • Contact Information Julie Lifshay, MPH PhD jlifshay@centerforce.org www.centerforce.org