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    Sports issues survey ii Sports issues survey ii Document Transcript

    • 1 Small states and sports: Adding perception on sports to the discourse Paul Andrew Bourne, Conroy Julian & Oniel Riley [4th September 2013] © Commissioned by AMP
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Small States and Sports: Adding perception on sports to the discourse Paul Andrew Bourne, Conroy Julian & Oniel Riley Association of Media Professionals 2
    • Bourne et al, 2013 © Association of Media Professionals First Published 2013 by Association of Media Professionals For the purpose of quoting or using this document, the user must reference the material as: Bourne, P.A., Julian, C., & Riley, O. (2013). Small States and Sports: Adding perception on sports to the discourse. Kingston: Association of Media Professionals. 3
    • Bourne et al, 2013 CONTENTS Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 Methodology……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10 Findings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………13 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….42 References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….43 Appendix………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….44 4
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Small States and Sports: Adding perception on sports to the discourse By Paul Andrew Bourne1 , Conroy Julian, & Oniel Riley Introduction a small power recognizes that it cannot obtain security (economical or physical) by the use of its own capabilities and that it must rely fundamentally on the aid of others (Rothstein 1968) a small power is a state whose leaders consider that it can never, acting alone or in a small group, make a significant impact on the international system(Keohane 1969) The ‘Small State Ideology’ had and continues to influence the international relations of countries who suffer from it. The extent and direction of the influence of the small state ideology depends on the individual country (Commonwealth Secretariat 1997). After perusing a number of publications, (Benn and Hall 2000, Wint 2003, Hey 2003 and others), it can be concluded that countries who suffer a handicapping effect of the ‘small state ideology’ tend to exhibit certain characteristics. They usually have a constant “standoffish” or defensive approach to international relations, heightened fear of vulnerability and tend to search for protectors or act as beneficiaries in their trade relations with the outside world. In their diplomatic policies, these countries tend to argue for the granting of special agreements or preferences treaties. There is a general agreement that these small states have a historical tendency to be allies with super powers, on many occasions. According to Vital (Hey 2003) small states seek out limited foreign policy objectives. In some cases, as with the Caribbean, they opt to withhold participation or alliance in any global feud, especially where there is a contributing super power. Being neutral or active plays into the ‘small state ideology’ as these states view their actions as having an impending outcome for their development. Though the ‘small state ideology’ exists elsewhere, for example on the African continent, the focal point of this paper is the Caribbean region. An important question to ask one’s self is: why does a ‘small state ideology’ exist in the Caribbean?” The ‘small state ideology’ in the Caribbean has its roots in a number of factors. Buddan maintains that one of the most important foundations on which Caribbean politics rests has and 1 Correspondence Contact information: Dr. Paul Andrew Bourne, Director, Socio-Medical Research Institute. Tel: (876) 566 3088. Email: paulbourne1@yahoo.com or paulbourne1@gmail.com. 5
    • Bourne et al, 2013 continues to be geography (territorial size). To support this point, Knight (Buddan 2001) maintains that geography has had one of the most dominant and inescapable influences on the pattern of life and society in the Caribbean region. The Commonwealth Secretariat asserts that while small states are different from each other, it is possible to identify certain features or characteristics that they hold in common. Buddan holds that the two broad categories in which these characteristics fit are economic and political viability and vulnerability. He states that an important question to ask is whether small states have the economic resources, political power, governmental capacity, and population skills to be viable as politically independent states. The reality is that Caribbean small states lack some of these features. Caribbean political governments, in the past and to some extent the present, depend heavily on international agencies (IO’s or large states) for research, funding and for personnel to support population, health, the environment, infrastructure and other programmes as well as sports development. Since their recognition and inception into the global world, Caribbean small states has used the argument of their size, poor economic conditions and known vulnerability to natural disasters to put forward the argument that they are a ‘special case’. According to Klak (1998) this special case argument had validity as Caribbean states were able to argue that no other countries lacked viability (created by their economic conditions) and faced the vulnerability that they do. The international community responded by making certain accommodations and providing lee ways for Caribbean nations. Girvan (Benn and Hall 2000-1) maintains that the majority of Caribbean countries are unique in the developing world; this is because they have enjoyed for example, one-way preferential arrangements with both the European Union under the Lome agreement and the US under the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI). This takes the discourse into the issue of impact and influence of globalization. According to Girvan, the onset of globalization causes a change in the physical appearance of the international system. This multi-dimensional process, asserts Bernal (Benn and Hall 2000- 2), results in the break down of national barriers to the international flow of goods, services, capital, money, and information. The process creates a sense of equality and causes the world to be seen as single entity. This resulted in the many nations calling for the end of preferential arrangements. Girvan (Benn and Hall 2000-1), continues that this system not only gave Caribbean nations an unfair advantage over other developing countries, but it was old and reactionary and must be changed to suit the emerging international environment. As such, preferential trade agreements had begun to experience slow but 6
    • Bourne et al, 2013 certain erosion from the early 1990’s. The first indication of this was the North American Trade Agreements (NAFTA) of 1994 that gave Mexican and Canadian producers duty-free access to the US market. This destroyed the preferential advantages enjoyed by CBI exporters from 1983 onwards. US policy now centers on the promotion of the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA). By virtue of being majority islands, Caribbean states and the lives of its citizens are conditioned by an awareness of insularity. This is often apparent in a sense of place with preference being given to individual identity over collective identity (Commonwealth Secretariat 1997). This problem of insularity has been noted in the Caribbean with the failure of the West Indies Federation in 1960’s for example, and the difficulties facing CARICOM and the associated Single Market and Economy (CSME) today. The Secretariat maintains that openness is associated with the external focus of a country’s economy in which international trade assumes great significance. This has always been a factor in Caribbean state history and had been initiated by the fact that Caribbean nations started out as enclave societies. Despite the earlier enslaved culture of Caribbean people, they have emerged from the wreckages of slavery with social turmoils, economic marginalization, social inequality and sporting prowess. While there are many negatives associated with Caribbean peoples including murders, viciousness, and ‘badness’, which have resulted in increased deportations to their shores, the sporting prowess of Caribbean States is equal to none. The peoples in the Caribbean region have challenged the established developed nations such as the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Sweden and Others in the area of sports, particularly track and field, like no other region in the world. Long before, the late 1990s and beyond, Caribbean athletes, especially Jamaicans, have stolen the spotlight in track and field from the developed nations. Among the greats in the Caribbean, particularly Jamaica, whom have stolen the glory from the developed nations in track and field are Herb McKenley; George Rhoden, Lennox Miller, Arthur Wint, and Leslie Laing. The names of Caribbean athletes are staple in track and field from as early as in the 1940s. The track and field stars in Caribbean during the early era of Olympics swept the glory of the 400, 200 and 100 metres away from the developed nations, superpowers like United States, England, Soviet Union, Germany and so on. Small States of the Caribbean continue to topple the glory in the Olympics away from the superpowers (or developed nations like United States, Germany, Britian). The feat of Jamaica in the 200, 100 and 400 metres has been past on to future generations. The generation that took the responsilibity of sidelining the superpower in sports, particularly track and filed, include people 7
    • Bourne et al, 2013 like Donald Quarrie, Bert Cameron, Raymond Stewart, Merlene Ottey, Grace Jackson, Juliet Cuthbert, Michelle Freeman, Wintrop Graham, and a long list of others. The sporting superpowers of track and field in the last two decades include many small states in the Caribbean region. Jamaica is not the only small state that has rivaled the those in the developed world in track and field. Obadelle Thompson of Barbados; Kirani James of Grenada; Ato Boldon of Trinidad and Tobago; Dayron Robles of Cuba. None of the other small states in the Caribbean have the legacy of Jamaica, and this track and field legacy rivals and equals that of the economic and neuclar superpowers. The Jamaicans that have stood at the apex on the world stage are Sherone Simpson; Kerron Stewart; Nesta Carter; Asafa Powell, Yohan Blake; Warren Weir; Veronica Campbell-Brown; Melane Walker; Bridgette Foster-Hylton; Deon Hemmings, Danny McFarlane, Gillian Russell, Aleen Bailey, Michael Frater, Jermaine Gonzales, and the list goes on. The names of Usain St. Leo Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce cannot be mentioned among the names of the previously stated Jamaicans as they are the King and Queen of track and field. Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce are now the superpowers of track and field and both of them has redefined greatness in the sporting arena. Bolt, moreso, than Fraser-Pryce has done what no other Jamaican historically has done to the area of track and field, particularly in the 100 and 200 metres. While Fraser-Pryce has won back to back gold medals in the 100 metres at the World Champsionships and gold at the Olympics in the same distance as well as gold the 4x100 metres relay, Bolts has won gold in 100, 200 and 4x100 metres relays at the World Championships and Olympics and in these events he also hold the world records. The reality is, small states, especially in the Caribbean, continue to influence the international area and world sports. Countries like Jamaica is synonymous with ‘badness’, criminality, murder, Shower Posse, Vivian Blake, Jim Brown, Christoper ‘Dudus’Coke, hurricanes, and sports. According to Girvan, the onset of globalization causes a change in the physical appearance of the international system. Girvan perspective is narrow as long before globalization, small states like Caribbean and Africa has changed the physiology of the world as well as it social consciousness. This dates back to eras in which special people of small states like Marcus Marvey and Nelson Mandella were global thinkers, change the psycho-social and physical landscape of many communities. The simplistic perspective of Girvan does not taken into consideration sports and athletes and how they have and continue to change the landscape of nations, which existed even before globalization. Changing the physical landscape of the international system are people like Asafa Powell, Merlene Ottey, Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce. Those individuals have not only 8
    • Bourne et al, 2013 transcended geographical borders by expand their reach, place their localities on an international front; but they have increased the pscho-social consciousness of their country men as well as others. The pychological greatness that Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce has placed on small states in the Caribbean cannot be taken simply without reference to resilence of people in small states and how they overcome economic and social marginalization to change an international space. In any discussion on small states and sports, the contribution of the Africans cannot be erased or not included. Like the Jamaicans and other peoples in the Caribbean, the Africans’greatness in track and field, especially in distant events, is similar to that the Jamaicans with some modifications. Sports is multi- billon dollar industry and the economic rewards for people in small states are enormous and provide survivability for their families and by extension the country in which they reside. With sports being for all, while greatness and stardom may be reserved for a few, the perception of people on sporting matter provide yet another side to the sporting discourse. With the legacy of Jamaicans in track and field which dates back to the 1940s, it is fitting to evaluate contemporary Jamaicans’views on sports as this will unfold yet another chapter in the small states discourse. Rothstein’s perspective offers an insight into the rationale of peoples in small states utilizing their innate capabilities as a voice tha echoes in the international arena, making a loud roar on the stage to signal acceptance, talent, and the rise of the underclass from the ash of socio-economic and political marginalization, segragation and prejudices. We will repeat the views of Rothstein again as it aptly captures the reliance of peoples in small states and how sports is the new vehicles of socio-economic equality that levels the playingfield in international relationship. He opines that: “a small power recognizes that it cannot obtain security (economical or physical) by the use of its own capabilities and that it must rely fundamentally on the aid of others” (Rothstein 1968) Over recent years there have been very clear indicators of Jamaica’s emerging sports industry. This is distinct from the tradition and great passion for recreational sports practiced both at the elite and grass roots level. The sport industry envisaged is characterized by widespread activity that many people are involved in, especially those that become standardized and commercialized. In addition, there are clear and measurable performances on the field, to world class and world leading standards supported by the necessary structures, strictures and infrastructure. 9
    • Bourne et al, 2013 The main sports through which this sport industry is most advanced are the three top sports in Jamaica as revealed by two editions of Bourne & Julian’s Sport issues polls (Bourne & Julian, 2013). These are: Track And Field, Football and Cricket, with the first two exchanging place based on current performance. The key indicators of the emerging sports industry are in bullet points below. • G.C. foster Sports College • National Sports Policy • Legislation which established JADCO • Sport Development Foundation • Professional Athletics Clubs (Racer, MVP etc.) • Jamaica Tallawahs Cricket Franchise • Private Sector Sponsorship • Crowd Support for Boys/Girls Champs & other Meets • The National Premier League & Players Transfers Overseas • The high level of Participation in the Diamond League These Sport Issues Polls sought to cover all ten pillars of the national sports policy which was laid in Parliament as a white paper. Questions and findings are already done in relation to eight of these pillars. The full list includes: Sports for Healthy Lifestyles, Sports Economy and Cultural Enrichment, Sports Tourism, Governance and Management of Sports, Doping Control, Athletes Development and Welfare, Sports Public Facility and Infrastructure, Sports as a Tool for Conflict Management, Sports for Community and Youth Development and Finally Sports Research and Innovation. The Sport Issues Poll is all about Research and Innovation. In keeping with the aforementioned issues, this paper present a national probability survey’s findings on sports as taken from 1,300 Jamaicans. Method 10
    • Bourne et al, 2013 This is the second of the biannual ‘Sports Issues’ surveys. The results are summarized in this report. The survey was administered between July 10 – August 20, 2013. A multistage sampling approach, with face-to-face interviews, was used to collect the data. Jamaica was broken into 13 clusters, each parish representing a cluster with Kington and St. Andrew being one cluster. The number of people that were interviewed were computed based on the population for 2012 (see Table 1). A sample of 1,300 Jamaicans were interviewed based on the figures in Table 1, with a sampling error of ± 3% at a 95% confidence interval. The data were collected over a one month-period, during the months of July to August 2013. The response rate for this survey was 96.7% (n=1,257) and this indicates the general willingness of Jamaicans to participate in sporting issues survey. A detailed instrument (ie. questionnaire) was developed with 48 items probing doping, athletic, football, boxing, cricket, sports journalist, and introduction of sports in the CSEC. 11
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Table 1: Population of Jamaica (for 2012), population ratio and Sample Size of current study Parish Population Population ratio Sample size Kingston & St. Andrew 667,778 0.25 322 St. Thomas 94,471 0.04 46 Portland 82,442 0.03 40 St. Mary 114,591 0.04 55 St. Ann 173,830 0.06 84 Trelawny 75,799 0.03 37 St. James 184,854 0.07 89 Hanover 70,094 0.03 34 Westmoreland 145,335 0.05 70 St. Elizabeth 151,484 0.06 73 Manchester 191,378 0.07 92 Clarendon 247,109 0.09 119 St. Catherine 499,645 0.19 241 Total 2,698,810 1.00 1,300 12
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Results Issue I: Doping As it relates to the question of ‘Do you believe Jamaican athletes are using performancce enhancing drugs?’, 11.3% of the respondents indicated yes. When the aforementioned variable was disaggregated by gender, 3.2 times more females (20.2%) said yes compared to males (χ2 = 79.370, P < 0.0001; Figure 1). Figure 1: Perception that Jamaican athletes are using performance enhancing drugs 13
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Issue II: Matters relating specifically to Usain St. Leo Bolt 1. ‘Do you think William Knibb High School should be renamed, Usain Bolt High School?’, one in every 4 Jamaicans indicated yes. Approximately 11% more females indicated that the schools should be renamed compared to males (χ2 = 29.725, P < 0.0001; Figure 2). Figure 2: Perception of Jamaicans on the renaming of William Knibb Hight School, the Usain Bolt High School 2. ‘Should Usain Bolt be made a national hero?’ Eleven in every 20 Jamaica believed that Usain St. Leo Bolt should be made a national hero. Forty-eight per centage points of males indicated that Usain Bolt should be made a national hero compared to 36% of females, with there being a statistical difference between the views of males and females (χ2 = 24.256, P < 0.0001) Figure 2: Perception of Jamaicans that Usain Bolt should be name a national hero 14
    • Bourne et al, 2013 3. ‘Should the Trelawny Stadium be renamed the Usian Bolt Stadium?’ Thirty-three in every 100 Jamaicans indicated that the Trelawny Stadium should be renamed the Usain Bolt Stadium. Further examination of the aforementioned results revealed that 16.6% more females indicated compared to males (χ2 = 45.707, P < 0.0001; Figure 4) Table 4: Perception that Trelawny Stadium should be renamed the Usain Bolt Stadium 15
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Issue III: Favourite Sport, Jamaica Popular Sprinters and Coaches There is a reduction in per centage of Jamaicans who indicated that Football, Other sports, and Cricket was their favourite sport (Figure 5). Whereas there has been per centage increases in Netball, Horce Racing, and Track and Field being people’s favourite sports. Track and Field showed the greatest per centage increase in being Jamaican’s favourite sports (19.5%), with Football revealing the largest reduction 5.6%. Figure 5: Perception of Favourite Sport for Two Surveyed Periods (I and II) 16
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Ninety-three in every 100 Jamaicans indicated that Usain Bolt is Jamaica’s greatest male sprinter, with Asafa Powell coming a distant second (Figure 6). Figure 6: Perception as to who people consider to be Jamaica’s greatest male sprinter 17
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Forty-nine out of every 100 Jamaicans indicated that Merlene Ottey is Jamaica’s greatest female sprinter followed by Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (27.8%) and Veronica Campbell-Brown (20.5%) – Figure 7.1. Figure 7.1: Perception as to who people consider to be Jamaica’s greatest female sprinter 18
    • Bourne et al, 2013 There is a gender disparity in the perception of who is considered to be Jamaica’s greatest female sprinter (χ2=20.323, P < 0.0001). Fifty-two per centage points of females indicated that Merlene Ottey is Jamaica’s greatest female sprinter compared to 46.5% of males, whereas for Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce the figures are the same (Figure 7.2). Figure 7.2: Perception as to who people consider to be Jamaica’s greatest female sprinter by gender 19
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Neville Bell continues to be Jamaican’s favourite coach (47.3%), with Glen Mills followed by Theodore Whitmore showing the great reduction 9.3 and 8.8 respectively (Figure 8). Figure 8: Perception as to favourite Jamaican coach 20
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Issue IV: Track and Field Following being placed 8th in the national trials and prior to his positive doping test, we asked Jamaicans ‘Should Asafa Powell be given the opportunity to run the men’s 4X100 metres relay at the 2013 World Championships?’, 63% of Jamaicans indicated yes. When the figure was disaggregated by gender, more males believed that he should be given a chance to run one of the relay legs (68.5%) compared to females (51.9%; Figure 9). Figure 9: Following being placed 8th in the national trials and prior to his positive doping test, the perception of Jamaicans as to whether Asafa Powell should be given the chance to run the 4X100m relay at the 2013 World Championships 21
    • Bourne et al, 2013 The number of Jamaicans who would like to see Usain St. Leo Bolt run the 400m at the 2015 World Championship have fallen from the previous survey (Figure 9). Figure 9: Perception of Jamaicans on wanting to see Usain Bolt run the 400m at the 2015 World Championship by gender 22
    • Bourne et al, 2013 When the respondents were asked ‘Do you believe that Asafa Powell is suffering from a psychological problem that prevents him from performing at his best in the 100m at the Olympics?’, 36.4% indicated yes and 34.6% mentioned that they were unsure (Figure 10). Figure 10: Perception that Asafa Powell is suffering from a psychological problem as it relates to 100m at an Olympics 23
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Issue V: Football and Related Issues When the respondents were asked ‘Should FIFA use goal line technology in the 2014 World Cup and beyond?’, 89 out of ev ery 100 Jamaicans indicated absolutely yes with more males stating absolutely yes (93.1%) than females (81.7%) – χ2=72.209, P < 0.0001 (Figure 11). Figure 10: FIFA should use goal line technology in 2014 World Cup and beyond 24
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Two in every 5 Jamaicans (or 40%) indicated that the Reggae World will make it to the 2014 World Cup tournament in Brazil. On disaggregating the figures by gender, more females (47.7%) indicated yes than males (35.4%) – χ2=17.952, p < 0.0001 – Figure 11. Figure 11: The Reggae Boyz will make it to the 2014 World Cup tournament 25
    • Bourne et al, 2013 When the respondents were asked ‘Is Theodore Whitmore a good football coach?’, 4.1% indicates yes with 2.6 times more females stating yes compared to males (See Figure 12, χ2= 30.523, P < 0.0001). Figure 12: Theodore Whitmore is a good football coach by gender 26
    • Bourne et al, 2013 In response to the question ‘ Do you think that Captain Horace Burrell is critical to the future success of the Reggae Boyz’, 48.7% of Jamaicans indicates yes and 14.2% stated that they are uncertain. Disaggregating the figures revealed that more males indicates yes (53.1%) than female 40.7% (χ2 = 36.212, P < 0.0001; Figure 13). Figure 13: Captain Horace Burrell is critical to the future success of the Reggae Boyz 27
    • Bourne et al, 2013 When Jamaicans were asked ‘ Was Theodore Whitmore the best available coach for the Reggae Boyz squad?’, 3 out of every 20 (ie. 12%) indicated yes with more females stating yes (17.4%) than males (8.4%) – χ2 = 46.014, P < 0.0001. Figure 13: Perception as to whether Theodore Whitmore was the best available coach for the Reggae Boyz 28
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Marginally more Jamaicans indicated that the ‘Italian League’ is the best football league in the world (see Figure 14). Figure 14: Perception as to the best football league in the world 29
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Two out of every 5 Jamaicans indicated that Walter Boyd should not be engaged in assisting the current Reggae Boyz squad (Figure 16), with more males stating no (83.8%) than females (73.3%) – χ2= 35.838, P < 0.0001. Figure 16: Walter Boyd should be engaged in assisting the current Reggae Boyz squad 30
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Issue VI: Cricketing Matters Forty-six per centage points of Jamaicans indicated that the West Indies Cricket Board (WICB) has helped to destroy the quality of West Indies Cricket, with 37.1% being unsure. When the figures were cross tabulated by gender, 50% of males indicated yes compared to 38.3% of females (χ2=17.775, P < 0.0001)- Figure 17. Figure 17: West Indies Cricket Board (WICB) has helped to destry the quality of West Indies Cricket 31
    • Bourne et al, 2013 When the respondents were asked ‘ Do you think that the West Indies Cricket Board should have removed Darren Sammy as captain of the ODI team?’, the majority of the people indicated no (82%). Figure 18: Views as to the removal of Darren Sammy as captain of the ODI team 32
    • Bourne et al, 2013 The majority of Jamaicans (89.7%) indicated that T20 is the most entertaining cricketing format, with more males (95.4%) stating this than females (79.2%) – χ2= 82.028, P < 0.0001 (Figure 19). Figure 19.1: The most entertaining cricketing format 33
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Figure 19.2: Perception of the best regional T20 cricketing team 34
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Issue VII: Sports Journalist From a listing of 13 Jamaican sports journalist, the top five ones were Jermaine Brown (17.4%); Simon Crossgill (17.0%); Patrick Anderson (12.3%); Andre Lowe (9.0%), and Orville Higgins (8.6%). Figure 20: Views as to the favourite Jamaican sports journalist 35
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Figure 21: Views as to the favourite Jamaican sports journalist by gender 36
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Issue VIII: Issues relating to the Wray and Nephew Contender The majority of Jamaicans watched the Wray & Nephew Contender in 2012 and 2013, with there being a reduction in viewership in 2013 (Figure 22). Figure 22: Viewership of the Wray & Nephew Contender seasons 37
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Figure 23: Viewership of the Wray & Nephew Contender seasons by gender 38
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Fourteen out of every 25 Jamaicans indicated that they always tuned into the 2013 Wray & Nephew Contender. Figure 24: Frequency of viewship of 2013 Wray & Nephew Contender 39
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Fifteen out of every 25 Jamaicans indicated that they were always tuned into the 2012 Wray & Nephew Contender (Figure 25). Figure 25: Frequency of viewship of 2012 Wray & Nephew Contender 40
    • Bourne et al, 2013 When the respondents were asked ‘Should CXC introduce a new subject focusing on the history, business and development of sports in the Caribbean region?’, two-thirds of the people indicated yes with 10.2% more females stating yes than males (χ2=33.323, P < 0.0001) – Figure 26. Figure 26: CSEC should introduce a new subject focusing on history, business and development of sports in the Caribbean 41
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Conclusion The sports arena is filled with the contributions of people from small states, particularly from the Caribbean, for centuries. The ironic nature of people from small states, especially in the Caribbean region, rivals the contribution, greatness and influence of those in the developed world. The heroic contribution of Usian Bolt, Merlene Ottey, Asafa Powell, Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, Kirani James, Arthur Wint, Dayron Robles and George Rhoden have equalled and in same instances surpassed the distinctions attained by peoples in the First World, especially the United States, England, Russia, Germany, and Canada. Historically, sports, particularly track and field, was dominated by the aforementioned developed nations with peoples from small states like Jamaica, Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, and Grenda being more viewers than participants. The small state ideology does not apply to sports, particularly track and field, as the Caribbean and Africa have proven their international greatest and superiority in this area. This superiority in track and field by small states is a call for the redefinition of small states like many nations in the Caribbean to include sports as a part of the conceptualization of states. Hence, the political power that has blossomed with small states owing to sports, especailly track and field, has been a thorn in the flesh of the developed nations. There is, therefore, a need to institutionalize political sports in small states, and use this has a vehicle to speak to the international community, as athletes, particularly top performer like Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, have the socio-political and economic power that can be brought to bear on international politics. 42
    • Bourne et al, 2013 References Benn D., Hall K. eds. (2000-1). Globalization: A Calculus of Inequality. Ian Randall Publishers: Jamaica Benn D., Hall K. eds. (2000-2). Contending with Destiny: The Caribbean in the 21st Century. Ian Randall Publishers: Jamaica Bernal, R. (2005). “The CARICOM Single Market and Economy and CARICOM External Trade Negotiations”, Journal of Caribbean International Relations, April 2005 pp 35-50. Buddan, R. (2001). Foundations of Caribbean Politics. Arawak Publications: Jamaica. Hey, J. (2003). Small States in world Politics: Explaining Foreign Policy Behavior. Lynne Rienner Publishers: London The Commonwealth Secretariat (1997). A Future for Small States: Overcoming vulnerability. Pantin, D. (2005). Are SIDS more vulnerable to natural disasters?: Impications for sustainable development in the Caribbean. Reading NO. 34. Wint, A. (2003). Competitiveness in Small Developing Economies: Insights from the Caribbean. University of the West Indies Press: Jamaica. 43
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Appendix I SPORTS ISSUES SURVEY II, 2013 © BOURNE2 , JULIAN & RILEY, 2013. All rights reserved INSTRUCTIONS This survey is to probe Jamaicans’ VIEWS on current sporting issues. Please read each question carefully and indicate your response by placing a check mark or writing your answer in the space provided. In order to maintain confidentiality, no marks or name should be placed on the paper that can be used to identify the response back to you. If at any time in the process you care uncomfortable, you may withdraw and return the instrument. SECTION ONE: Demographic data 1. What is your age at last birthday?_________________________ 2. What is your gender? [ 1 ] Male [ 2 ] Female 3. What is your employment status [ 1 ] Student [ 2 ] Self-Employed [ 3 ] Employed [ 4 ] Housewife [ 5 ] Unemployed 4. What best represents your current social class? Lower (working or poor) class [ 1 ] Lower-Middle class [ 2] Middle-Middle class [ 3] Upper-Middle class [ 4 ] Upper class [ 5] 5. What is the highest level of education that you have attained? No formal education [ 1 ] Primary/Preparatory [ 2 ] Secondary [ 3 ] 2 Dr. Paul Andrew Bourne, Director, Socio-Medical Research Institute, Kingston 9, Kingston, Jamaica. WI. Tel: (1 876) 566 3088. Or email: paulbourne1@yahoo.com, paulbourne1@gmail.com . 44
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Tertiary [ 4 ] 45
    • Bourne et al, 2013 SECTION TWO: Sporting issues 6. Should FIFA use goal-line technology in the 2014 World Cup and beyond? 1. Absolutely Yes [ 1 ] 2. Maybe [ 2 ] 3. Absolutely No [ 3 ] 7. Should Europe’s Top Five Leagues (eg. BPL, Bundesliga, League 1, La Liga, etc) use goal-line technology in the 2013-2014 season? 1. Absolutely Yes [1] 2. Maybe [2] 3. Absolutely No [3] 8. Who is your favourite Jamaican Coach 1. Steven Francis [ 1 ] 2. Glen Mills [ 2 ] 3. Neville Bell [ 3 ] 4. Theodore Whitmore [ 4 ] 5. Junior Bennett [ 5 ] 6. Connie Francis [ 6 ] 9. Which is your favourite Sport 1. Cricket [ 1 ] 2. Football [ 2 ] 3. Track & Field [ 3 ] 4. Netball [ 4] 5. Horse Racing [ 5] 6. Other------------------- [ 6] 10. Who would you consider to be Jamaican’s greatest female sprinter? 1. Merlene Ottey [ 1 ] 46
    • Bourne et al, 2013 2. Veronica Campbell [ 2 ] 3. Grace Jackson [ 3] 4. Juliet Cuthbert [ 4] 5. Shelly-Ann Fraser [ 5] 11. Who would you consider to be Jamaican’s greatest male sprinter? 1. Yohan Blake [ 1] 2. Raymond Stewart [ 2 ] 3. Donald Quarrie [ 3] 4. Arthur Wint [ 4] 5. Herb McKenley [ 5] 6. George Rhoden [ 6] 7. Bert Cameron [ 7] 8. Asafa Powell [ 8] 9. Usain Bolt [ 9 ] 12. Should Asafa Powell run the men’s 4X100m relay at the 2013 World Championships? 1. Yes [ 1 ] 2. No [ 2] 13. Should Usain Bolt run the men’s 400m at the next World Championships? 1. Yes [ 1] 2. No [ 2] 14. Which would you consider to be the best football league in the world? 1. Barclays Premier League [ 1] 2. UEFA Champions League [ 2] 47
    • Bourne et al, 2013 3. SERII ‘A’ [ 3] 4. Major League Soccer (MLS) [ 4 ] 5. Spanish La liga [ 5 ] 6. BUNDESLIA [ 6 ] 7. French League [ 7 ] 8. Brazilian League [ 8 ] 15. Do you believe Asafa Powell is suffering from a psychological problem that prevents him from performing at his best in the 100m at the Olympics? 1. Yes [ 1] 2. No. [ 2] 3. Not sure. [ 3] 16. Which one of the cricketing formats is most entertaining? 1. T20 [ 1 ] 2. 50-Overs [ 2 ] 3. Test cricket [ 3 ] 17. Do you think the West Indies Cricket Board has helped to destroy the quality of West Indies Cricket? 1. Yes [ 1] 2. No. [ 2] 3. Not sure [ 3] 18. Which regional cricket team would you rate as the best First Class side? 1. Jamaica [ 1] 2. Trinidad & Tobago [ 2] 3. Leeward Islands [ 3] 4. Windward Islands [ 4] 48
    • Bourne et al, 2013 5. Guyana [ 5] 6. Barbados [ 6] 19(i). Which regional cricket team would you rate as the best 50-Over side? 1. Jamaica [ 1] 2. Trinidad & Tobago [ 2] 3. Leeward Islands [ 3] 4. Windward Islands [ 4] 5. Guyana [ 5] 6. Barbados [ 6] 19. (ii). Which regional cricket team would you rate as the best T-20 side? 1. Jamaica [ 1] 2. Trinidad & Tobago [ 2] 3. Leeward Islands [ 3] 4. Windward Islands [ 4] 5. Guyana [ 5] 6. Barbados [ 6] 20. Do you think the Senior Reggae Boyz will make it to the 2014 World Cup Tournament in Brazil? 1. Yes [ 1] 2. No. [ 2] 3. Not sure [ 3] 21. Should Usain Bolt be made a national hero? 1. Yes [ 1 ] 2. No [ 2 ] 49
    • Bourne et al, 2013 3. Not sure [ 3] 22. Do you think that Captain Horace Burrell is critical to the future success of the Reggae Boyz? 1. Yes [ 1 ] 2. No [ 2 ] 3. Not sure [ 3 ] 23. Was Theodore Whitmore a good football coach? 1. yes [ 1 ] 2. No [ 2 ] 3. Not sure [ 3] 24. Is Theodore Whitmore the best available coach for the current Reggae Boyz squad? 1. Yes [ 1] 2. No [ 2] 3. Not sure [ 3] 25. Do you think the West Indies Cricket Board should have been removed Darren Sammy as Captain of the ODI team? 1. Yes [ 1 ] 2. No [ 2 ] 3. Not sure [ 3] 26. In 2012, did you watch the Wray and Nephew Contender? 1. Yes [ 1 ] 2. No [ 2 ] 27. If your answer to Question 26 was yes, how frequently did you watch the Wray and Nephew Contender? 1. Always [ 1] 2. Most times [ 2] 3. Sometimes [ 3] 50
    • Bourne et al, 2013 4. Never [ 4] 28. For the 2013 season of the Wray and Nephew Contender, did you watch this programme? 1. Yes [ 1 ] 2. No [ 2 ] 29. If your answer to Question 28 is yes, how frequently do you view the programme? 1. Always [ 1] 2. Most times [ 2] 3. Sometimes [ 3] 4. Never [ 4] 30. How often do you attend matches in the Red Stripe Premier League? 1. Always [ 1] 2. Most Times [ 2] 3. Sometimes [ 3] 4. Never [ 4] 31. How frequently do you follow the Red Stripe Premier League on television? 1. Always [ 1] 2. Most times [ 2] 3. Sometimes [ 3] 4. Never [ 4] 32. Which team currently in the Red Stripe would you say you support annually? 1. Waterhouse [ 1] 2. Boys Town [ 2] 3. Harbour View [ 3] 4. Tivoli Gardens [ 4] 5. Arnette Gardens [ 5] 51
    • Bourne et al, 2013 6. Humble Lion [ 6] 7. Cavalier [ 7] 8. Portmore United [ 8] 9. Savannah [ 9] 10. Sporting Central Academy [10] 11. Montego Bay United [11] 12. Highgate United [12] 33. What would you say is the reason you support the team you do? 1. Closeness to the community you live in [ 1] 2. Family members support the team [ 2] 3. Know persons who play/have played for the team [ 3] 4. Attracted by past success [ 4] 5. Peers support the team [ 5] 34. Rate your perception of a Digicel as a result of sponsoring Caribbean Cricket Very favourable [ 1] Favourable [ 2] Not sure [ 3] Unfavourable [ 4] 35. Rate your perception of Wray and Nephew as a result of sponsoring the Contender Very favourable [ 1] Favourable [ 2] Not sure [ 3] Unfavourable [ 4] 36. Rate your perception of Lime having sponsored the Boys and Girls’Championship 52
    • Bourne et al, 2013 Very favourable [ 1] Favourable [ 2] Not sure [ 3] Unfavourable [ 4] 37. Should the services of Walter Boyd be engaged to aid the current Reggae Boyz squad? 1. Yes [ 1 ] 2. No [ 2 ] 3. Not sure [ 3] 38. Should CXC introduce a new subject focusing on the history, business and development of sports in the Caribbean region? 1. Yes [ 1 ] 2. No [2 ] 3. Not sure [ 3 ] 39. Do you believe Jamaican athletes are using performance enhancing drugs? 1. Yes [ 1 ] 2. No [ 2 ] 3. Not sure [ 3 ] 40. Do you think William Knibb High School should be renamed, Usain Bolt High School? 1. Yes [ 1 ] 2. No [ 2 ] 3. Not sure [ 3 ] 53
    • Bourne et al, 2013 41. Should the Trelawny Stadium be renamed the Usain Bolt Stadium? 1. Yes [ 1 ] 2. No [ 2 ] 3. Not sure [ 3 ] 42. Did you attend the Boys and Girls Championships at the National Stadium? 1. Yes [ 1] 2. No [ 2] 3. Not sure [ 3] 43. Which School did you support for the Boys Championship? __________________ 44. Which school did you support for the Girls Championship? __________________ 45. Did you ever attend the school that you supported for the Boys and Girls Championships? 1. Yes [ 1] 2. No [ 2] 46. What is your degree of loyalty to a company that sponsors a community and/or national event, activity and/or occasion? 1. Very loyal [ 1] 2. Loyal sometimes [ 2] 3. A little loyal [ 3] 4. Never loyal [ 4] 47. A company that sponsors a community and/or national event, activity and/or occasion, is likely to receive support from me in the form of purchasing their product(s) 1. Always [ 1] 2. Most Times [ 2] 3. Sometimes [ 3] 4. Never [ 4] 54
    • Bourne et al, 2013 48. Who is your favourite sports journalist? 1. Kayon Raynor [ 1] 2. Andre Low [ 2] 3. Ryon Jones [ 3] 4. Hubert Lawrence [ 4] 5. Patrick Anderson [ 5] 6. Orville Higgins [ 6] 7. Tony Becca [ 7] 8. Rohan Daley [ 8] 9. George Davis [ 9] 10. Simon Crossgill [10] 11. Leighton Levy [11] 12. Jermaine Brown [12] 13. Ed Barnes [13] 55