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Greystanes Edible Forest Garden Report Dec 2013
 

Greystanes Edible Forest Garden Report Dec 2013

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Report to Client for Edible Forest Garden Design in Greystanes.

Report to Client for Edible Forest Garden Design in Greystanes.
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    Greystanes Edible Forest Garden Report Dec 2013 Greystanes Edible Forest Garden Report Dec 2013 Document Transcript

    • Provide Environmental Advice To Clients Design of an Edible Forest Garden – Final Report Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden for 89 Dawn Street Greystanes Paul Boundy 17 Dec 2013
    • Provide Environmental Advice To Clients Design of an Edible Forest Garden – Final Report The Garden Design Figure 1 – The Edible Forest Garden Design i
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes Executive Summary This is the final report on the design of an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes, NSW. The research and design work was performed both as an independent project of interest for the author, and the focus of the authors environmental studies. The design concepts and recommendations unfolded over time in a not necessarily logical sequence, but have been assembled into the report is the most logical sequence for the benefit of the client and anyone wishing to gain an understanding of the garden in the future. The garden design was used to build the garden on Sunday 3 November 2013 using volunteer labour contributing to Permablitz Sydney. The first section of the report details some overall concepts on Permaculture and Edible Forest Gardens. The second section details the site analysis and design strategies applicable for this site. The third section gives a detailed description of the design, explaining the decisions and recommendations made. Appendix A shows the final concept drawings and Appendix B shows the multiple functions and uses of the selected edible and support plants. A separate document, the Material & Plant Cost spreadsheet accompanies this report. ii
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes Table of Contents The Garden Design ........................................................................................................................................................ i Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... ii Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................................................ iii Figures ......................................................................................................................................................................... iv Design Drawings in Appendix A ................................................................................................................................... iv 1 Introduction to Sustainable Gardening Concepts ................................................................................................1 1.1 Permaculture ................................................................................................................................................1 1.2 Edible Forest Gardening ...............................................................................................................................1 1.2.1 1.2.2 Forest Mimicry ......................................................................................................................................2 1.2.3 Nitrogen Fixation ..................................................................................................................................2 1.2.4 Dynamic Accumulators .........................................................................................................................2 1.2.5 Paths and soil compaction ....................................................................................................................2 1.2.6 Resource Sharing ..................................................................................................................................2 1.2.7 2 Forest Layers .........................................................................................................................................1 Nectary & Evergreen Plants for Pollinators and pest predators ..........................................................2 Design Methods and Strategies for this site .........................................................................................................3 2.1 Site Analysis ..................................................................................................................................................3 2.1.1 Client Preferences.................................................................................................................................3 2.1.2 Location and Climate ............................................................................................................................3 2.1.3 Zones and Sectors .................................................................................................................................3 2.1.4 Slope .....................................................................................................................................................4 2.1.5 Soil analysis ...........................................................................................................................................4 2.2 Design Strategies ..........................................................................................................................................4 2.2.1 2.2.2 Low cost and ease of assembly in one day ...........................................................................................4 2.2.3 Ecological Plant Feeding .......................................................................................................................4 2.2.4 Perennial Cover Crop and Living Mulch for Orchards ..........................................................................4 2.2.5 Annual Green Manure ..........................................................................................................................4 2.2.6 Flower Nectary and Evergreen plants ..................................................................................................5 2.2.7 Disease avoidance ................................................................................................................................5 2.2.8 3 Material selection .................................................................................................................................4 Creative assembly & aesthetic feel.......................................................................................................5 Design Outcomes and Recommendations ...........................................................................................................6 3.1 Improving Clay Soil .......................................................................................................................................6 3.2 New Soil ........................................................................................................................................................6 3.3 General Soil Preparation and Garden Bed Assembly ...................................................................................6 iii
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes 3.4 Tree Selection and Placement ......................................................................................................................6 3.4.1 Banana ..................................................................................................................................................6 3.4.2 Asian / Nashi Pear .................................................................................................................................7 3.4.3 Mulberry ...............................................................................................................................................7 3.4.4 Placement .............................................................................................................................................7 3.5 Banana-Pawpaw circle ..................................................................................................................................7 3.6 Pear and Mulberry Orchard ..........................................................................................................................7 3.6.1 Sleeper Selection ..................................................................................................................................7 3.6.2 Grass barrier .........................................................................................................................................7 3.6.3 Perennial Cover Crop and Living Mulch................................................................................................7 3.6.4 Strawberry Ground Cover .....................................................................................................................7 3.6.5 Flowering Nectary Plants ......................................................................................................................8 3.7 Annual Vegetable Garden.............................................................................................................................8 3.8 Materials list and cost...................................................................................................................................8 4 Maintenance .........................................................................................................................................................8 5 Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................................................9 Appendix A– Concept Drawings ...................................................................................................................................1 Appendix B – Multiple-Function Plant List ...................................................................................................................6 Figures Figure 1 – The Edible Forest Garden Design.................................................................................................................. i Figure 2 – An Illustration of an Edible Forest Garden (Jacke, D. 2005) ........................................................................1 Figure 3 – Forest Garden Layers (Burnett, G. 2000) ....................................................................................................1 Figure 4 – Peas are legumes .........................................................................................................................................2 Figure 5 – Root nodules on a legume hosting Rhizobia ...............................................................................................2 Figure 6 – Comfrey is a Dynamic Accumulator. ............................................................................................................2 Figure 7 – Satellite Image during Summer months ......................................................................................................3 Figure 8 – Satellite Image during Winter months.........................................................................................................3 Figure 9 – Heavy clay ....................................................................................................................................................4 Figure 10 – Compost Bin...............................................................................................................................................4 Figure 11 – Lacewing Pest Predator. Various species eat aphids, caterpillars, mealy bugs and other pests. .............5 Design Drawings in Appendix A A-1 – Aerial View ..........................................................................................................................................................1 A-2 – South East View ...................................................................................................................................................2 A-3 – South West View .................................................................................................................................................3 A-4 – North West View .................................................................................................................................................4 A-5 – North East View ...................................................................................................................................................5 iv
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes 1 Introduction to Sustainable Gardening Concepts This Edible Forest Garden was designed for Peter and Reyne Grullemans at 89 Dawn Street, Greystanes. The garden was designed using both permaculture design strategies and also strategies more specific to edible forest gardens or food forests. 1.1 Permaculture Permaculture is an evolving and growing body of knowledge stemming from ethics and principles of traditional and modern sustainable living. These ethics and principles are applicable not only to gardening, but to all human society and environments. They can be used as a guide to make a transition from being a dependent consumer to responsible producer. This journey builds skills and resilience that will help us prepare for an uncertain future with less available energy. Organic gardening, where no synthetic chemicals are used, is generally compatible with permaculture principles as it results in a healthy ecosystem and healthy food. Permaculture designers employ site analysis strategies to comprehend the existing energy flows for a site such as sunlight and shade, water flow under gravity, winds and seasonal changes. Some of the site analysis strategies are given in the later section on Design Methods and Strategies. 1.2 Edible Forest Gardening Edible Forest Garden designers may employ an additional or more focused set of design principles and practices, some of which are described here. An Edible Forest Garden can be described as a perennial polyculture of multipurpose plants. The elements of and edible forest garden are:  Perennial, as most plants regrow without replanting and the soil is not disturbed like annual vegetable gardening;  A Polyculture, as many species grow together and support each other;  Multipurpose, as each plant contributes to the success of the whole by fulfilling many functions. 1.2.1 Forest Layers The structure of a forest may be defined by seven or more layers: Tall Tree, Low Tree, Shrub, Herb, Ground, Vine, Topsoil, Subsoil, and Substratum. Ground covers are extremely important as they protect the soil life from damaging UV sunlight, reduce soil evaporation and prevent weed invasion. Some examples of the layers in a forest are shown the Figure 2 and Figure 3 below. Figure 2 – An Illustration of an Edible Forest Garden (Jacke, D. 2005) Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 Figure 3 – Forest Garden Layers (Burnett, G. 2000) 1
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes 1.2.2 Forest Mimicry The aim of an EFG Designer is to garden like a forest, thus to mimic forest ecosystems. Forest gardeners use the forest as a design metaphor, to model the structure and function while adapting the design to meet human needs. Forests develop numerous cooperative relationships between plant, insect, animal, fungi other species. 1.2.3 Nitrogen Fixation Plants and all life need nitrogen to create their structural building and in particular proteins and DNA. Molecular nitrogen (N2) is abundant in the atmosphere and the air in the soil, but it is relatively inert, meaning it does easily react chemically and is not readily available to plants and animals. Nitrogen Fixing plants are useful as these plants have a relationship with specific bacteria called Rhizobia that convert atmospheric nitrogen in the soil, to nitrates and other nitrogen compounds that the plant can use. These nitrogen fixing plants are mostly from the pea or ‘legume’ family, scientifically known as Fabaceae. When these plants die back through natural processes or by being cut for mulch, the nitrogen in their stems, leaves and roots become available to other plants and animals. Furthermore, the seeds or legumes that grow on the plants are high in protein and some are edible by people or other insects and animals. 1.2.4 Dynamic Accumulators Comfrey and other similar plants have deep roots and collect nutrients deep in the soil that may otherwise be lost to the forest ecosystem. They accumulate the nutrients in all parts of their tissues. If this plant later dies or is cut and used as mulch, the nutrients become available to the forest system via the upper soil layers. 1.2.5 Paths and soil compaction Air, water and life in the soil are essential in a forest garden and thus compaction of the soil by footsteps is to be avoided. But also access is required to enjoy the forest garden and collect its produce. Therefore, paths need to be carefully placed so that tree and plant root zones are not compacted. As root zones are radial from the centre of a tree or plant, circular or curving paths are useful to avoid root zone compaction. Such paths also are also more interesting for people and they increase the interfaces between plants therefore enhances biodiversity. Figure 4 – Peas are legumes Figure 5 – Root nodules on a legume hosting Rhizobia Figure 6 – Comfrey is a Dynamic Accumulator. 1.2.6 Resource Sharing The forest will function best when its resources are shared cooperatively rather than competitively. Therefore, when placing trees and other plants, the size and depth of each plant’s roots need to be considered so that adjacent plants are not competing for resources in the soil. Similarly, the diameter and height of tree canopies need to be considered so that the trees do not excessively compete for sunlight and airflow. Canopy size can give an estimate for root zone size if the root pattern is unknown. Annual pruning of the canopy is useful this will keep both the canopy and the trees root-zone to a cooperative size. 1.2.7 Nectary & Evergreen Plants for Pollinators and pest predators Providing flowering plants year-round will encourage pollinating bees and insects to live in the area, which in turn enables fruit trees and plants to be more productive. Flowering and evergreen plants also support the predators of pest insects so that pest insects are kept in check before serious damage is done to plants and foods. Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 2
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes 2 Design Methods and Strategies for this site Permaculture site analysis and design strategies were employed along with design strategies specific to edible forest gardens. 2.1 Site Analysis A fundamental strategy in permaculture is to analyse the site so that the design takes advantage of its natural features. The design thought processes can be circular or iterative where design ideas are trialled and modified several times as new information comes to hand. 2.1.1 Client Preferences The clients had little previous food gardening experience and were unsure what they could grow in their backyard. They were therefore willing to be guided by designers with more experience. Reyne, being from the Philippines was naturally interested in fruits and foods native to tropical areas so this was considered in the design. Creating a garden that the client will enjoy as well as ‘obtain a yield’ from is a key factor in the success of the garden. 2.1.2 Location and Climate Sydney generally has a temperate climate. Greystanes is located on Sydney’s Cumberland Plain area, which has approximately 900mm of rain per year and hot summers (Benson & Howell 1990). This location is not ideal for growing tropical plants or temperate fruits with high chilling needs like apples. However the selection of more tolerant plant varieties and the modification of the site can adjust the microclimate giving these fruits more chance of success. Average July minima 4oC, Average January maxima 28oC; (Benson & Howell 1990) 2.1.3 Zones and Sectors Zone analysis considers the geography of the site and attempts to place frequently accessed plants and systems close to the home. Others plants and items are placed progressively further away with the least frequently accessed placed the furthest away. As the backyard is a relatively small site, only one or two zones are considered. Herbs and vegetables should be close to the house while fruit trees can be further away. A compost system should not be far away or difficult to access or it will not be used and maintained. Sector analysis describes the angles of the available sunlight and the extremes the sunlight varies from summer to winter. Plants and systems have varying needs for light, heat, shade and even chilling hours for fruit to set. For example tropical plants need warmth and so in this climate should be placed in a sunniest location. Other plants such as pears, apples and peaches benefit from winter chilling, so a location with some winter shade should benefit them such as closer to the garden shed. Figure 7 – Satellite Image during Summer months Paul Boundy Figure 8 – Satellite Image during Winter months 17 December 2013 3
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes The house faces east at the street and the northern midday sunlight comes from the direction of the backyard garden shed. This shed provides some shade on its southern side during cooler months. The house blocks some morning sunlight, and the small native trees along the rear, western fence partially blocks the afternoon sunlight. 2.1.4 Slope Slope can impact the intensity of sunlight and water flow on a site. This location is fairly flat with a slight slope down to the west and north-west of the garden. Sunlight will not be greatly moderated by this slope, but excess rainwater will be directed towards the western back fence and north-west corner. 2.1.5 Soil analysis A 40cm deep profile in the client’s backyard revealed the top 10cm of to contain a fair amount of organic matter. Below this, heavy clay was found with a pH of 6.5. A follow-up test on the clay indicated it to be dispersive which flocculated with the application of gypsum. Such soil is not favourable for most plant growth so strategies need to be considered to improve the soil structure to allow air, water and Figure 9 – Heavy clay plant roots to penetrate it. 2.2 Design Strategies 2.2.1 Material selection Following the permaculture principles ‘Produce no waste’, and ‘Use and value renewable resources and services’, wherever possible, existing materials should be sought for reuse rather than purchasing new materials. This will also reduce the overall cost of the installation. 2.2.2 Low cost and ease of assembly in one day The assembly of a garden from scratch generally requires significant labour over a period of time. Taking advantage of a Permablitz, a collection of people can achieve a significant amount of work in one day. The scope of assembly work needs to consider how much approximately 10 people can achieve in one day. 2.2.3 Ecological Plant Feeding Plants that produce large volumes of fruit need to be fed to grow. The above section on Edible Forest Gardening indicates how some plant nutrients can be obtained through Nitrogen Fixing and Dynamic Figure 10 – Compost Bin Accumulator plants. In addition to this, compost and mulch should be used to return nutrients to the soil and create healthy soil ecology. 2.2.4 Perennial Cover Crop and Living Mulch for Orchards A Cover Crop and Living Mulch refers to perennial plants that live for many years and support the adjacent plants particularly for orchard trees. They protect the soil from competitive grasses, damaging UV, drying out, feed it with nitrogen, reduce compaction and also attract beneficial insects such as pest predators & pollinators. The supplier Green Harvest provide further details of the benefits of a living mulch and can supply suitable plant seed with an inoculant with each pack of seed. The inoculant contains the correct compatible nitrogen fixing bacteria to enable the rapid commencement of nitrogen accumulation. 2.2.5 Annual Green Manure ‘Green Manures’ may sound similar to Living Mulches but are quite different. They are composed of annual plants, having a life cycle less than a year and are best used with other annual plants such as an annual vegetable garden. A mix two types of plants are selected. One type is high in nitrogen such as a legume and the other high in carbon, such as a cereal grain. These are managed by slashing the plants before they flower to create rich mulch for feeding the surrounding plants. Sometimes green manures are dug into the topsoil to be more effective. Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 4
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes 2.2.6 Flower Nectary and Evergreen plants As previously mentioned, an important design strategy is to include flowering plants that provide nectar throughout the whole year. This provides the ecological service of pollinators and pest predators such as wasps and lacewings. Furthermore, providing plants that have evergreen leaves provide places for predators to over-winter or lay eggs of the next generation so the pest predator is in place before a pest can damage a plant. 2.2.7 Disease avoidance Figure 11 – Lacewing Pest Predator. Tree diseases can be prevented by minimising pests that may bring Various species eat aphids, caterpillars, mealy bugs and other pests. viruses using the above strategy. Also, by correct placement of trees and through annual pruning, the tree canopies can be kept in check so they do not touch or do not excessively overlap. This ensures the trees receive good airflow and reduces the likelihood of mould diseases forming. 2.2.8 Creative assembly & aesthetic feel Assembling all these elements in a garden requires the designer to be creative and to experiment with novel arrangements so that the garden has an appealing aesthetic and well as functions effectively. For example, paths should be placed to allow effective access for harvesting as well as have an interesting layout for people and children to explore. Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 5
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes 3 Design Outcomes and Recommendations The previous sections detailed the overall design concepts, the site analysis and design strategies applicable for this site. This section gives a detailed description of the design explaining the decisions and recommendations made. Appendix A shows the final concept drawings that were conceived through the design process. Many garden components and plants have multiple functions or uses and therefore it is not easy to explain all these functions in a completely logical order. The multiple functions and uses of plants selected are shown in Appendix B. The three garden beds recommended in the design are:    A Micro Orchard with Mulberry and Nashi Pear trees. (5m x 5m); A Banana-Pawpaw circle (4m x 4m) An Annual Vegetable and Herb Bed (5m x 1.5m); Other elements on these drawings are provided for information only including the raised patio and pergola and the rainwater tanks. Using rain water for the garden will provide the best health for the garden as mains water contains an antibacterial chlorine compound plus other chemicals such as fluorine and metals from the pipework system. Details of the garden design recommendations are given below. 3.1 Improving Clay Soil The following approaches will aid the growing of plants in this environment:  Addition of large amounts of organic matter such as compost plus gypsum at a rate of 1kg per square metre will help break up the clay soil to form structure or openings in the soil. This will allow space for air, water and roots to move through the soil;  Raising soil height with composted organic matter and soil will give the plant roots a chance to grow while the clay soil is opening up;  Selecting native plants and food plants that are adapted to or can tolerate clay soils;  Using plants with deep roots that will break up the clay. 3.2 New Soil For simplicity of assembly, one type of new soil suitable for the three garden beds was sought. A total of 7 cubic metres of new soil was calculated as needed. The majority of the new soil was to be placed on top of the existing soil, not mixed with it, so the best soil for this situation is well composted mix of organic matter mixed with some mineral based soil. 3.3 General Soil Preparation and Garden Bed Assembly For all garden beds, the following general preparation and assembly is recommended. The existing soil and grass should be loosened with garden forks and then gypsum added with some well composted organic matter and basalt rock dust as a long term mineral source. Tree holes and the central compost pit are then dug and refilled with a mix of the existing soil and some well composted organic matter. The location of the tree holes should be marked with garden stakes. Then a layer of thick cardboard from discarded bicycle boxes should be placed to suppress and compost the grass. On top of this should be placed the new composted organic matter and soil. Into this, all trees and other plants can be planted and then covered with straw mulch. 3.4 Tree Selection and Placement In search for trees suitable for clay soils, Annette McFarlane’s book, Organic Fruit Growing, indicated Banana, Mulberry and Pear Trees were suitable among others. 3.4.1 Banana Banana trees were selected for Reyne, as she has a Filipino background and tropical plants were expected to be of interest to her. The banana trees should grow to around 3-4 metres tall and being on the southern side of the garden will receive good sunlight all year. Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 6
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes 3.4.2 Asian / Nashi Pear The Asian (Nashi) pears were selected as they are easy to cultivate and hardy. The rootstock used for these pears is tolerates wet clay soils. Two matched varieties were selected from ‘Daleys Fruits’ as they will provide more fruit by cross pollination. These trees has a low chill requirement to produce fruit, but were placed closest to the shed so they may receive the best available shade or winter chilling. 3.4.3 Mulberry The Mulberry was selected as it is very easy to cultivate, is largely pest free, will grow in many climates’ and in any soil. The Dwarf – Red Shahtoot variety was selected for its best tasting berries and for its smaller tree size. It was placed in the central area as it grows well in full sun to part shade. 3.4.4 Placement The trees in the design were arranged so that when fully grown, they would be best placed to receive the sunlight and/or shade they prefer. The Mulberry and Asian Pears were particularly arranged so their canopies overlapped by the least amount and thus good airflow around them would minimise fungal disease. 3.5 Banana-Pawpaw circle Pawpaw trees were added to the banana circle to provide a greater variety of tropical fruit for the client and are known to grow well in banana circles. Both the existing knowledge of banana circles and that of edible forest gardens indicates that the other plant layers of this system need to be filled with supporting plants and edible plants. Edible ginger and nasturtiums were added at the shrub layer and herb layers. Sweet potato was added at the to the herb and root layers. Nasturtiums are excellent dynamic accumulators so the leaves can be used as mulch; the flowers are edible; the leaves provide strong ground cover shade maintaining soil moisture and the deep roots and leaves will out compete other plants keeping weeds and the nearby grass out of the area. 3.6 Pear and Mulberry Orchard 3.6.1 Sleeper Selection The edges of the raised orchard were built using eight railway-type sleepers with dimensions: 2.4m x 100mm x 200mm. Considerable time was spent finding a supplier of appropriate quality and priced sleepers. Peter the client, assisted the designer to find AAA grade ironbark railway sleepers at a retail supplier. These were priced reasonably cheaper that wholesale at $55 each, but as cost was important consideration, new hardwood sleepers at $28 each were selected in agreement with the client. 3.6.2 Grass barrier Over time, the adjacent grass could grow into the orchard area, so the borders were planted with deep rooted comfrey and lemongrass that will block grass runners. Comfrey is also a very hardy dynamic accumulator, the leaves of which can be used as mulch. Lemon grass can be used as a tea or for cooking. 3.6.3 Perennial Cover Crop and Living Mulch The north western corner of this bed was seeded with seeds of Lucerne, Barrel Medic, and White Clover. These plants will fix nitrogen in the soil and will also provide a ground cover to protect the soil from UV and drying sunlight. Being perennial plants, they should last for many years. Seed from ‘Green Harvest’ was selected as this supplier provides a good variety of organic seed and an inoculant with each seed pack. Other areas of the orchard bed without any plants or ground covers would benefit from further addition of living mulch plants. 3.6.4 Strawberry Ground Cover Strawberries were also used as a ground cover in the south western corner of this area simply to protect the soil and provide a fruit that most people enjoy. Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 7
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes 3.6.5 Flowering Nectary Plants The south east corner of the orchard was planted with various blue and violet coloured low shrubs to fill the ground cover, herb and shrub layers at attract nectar feeding pollinators and pest predators. 3.7 Annual Vegetable Garden The annual vegetable garden was constructed by digging a low trench to support roofing tiles placed vertically. Familiar annual vegetable plants and herbs were selected based on plants that were in season and seedlings being available at the local nursery. Reyne appeared interested in growing more seedlings in the future and the vegetable bed will be an area for the clients to experiment with vegetable and herb growing. Common crop rotation practices are recommended to be followed. 3.8 Materials list and cost The list of materials and plants and their costs is supplied in a separate spreadsheet document. This document is still a working document as parts of a proposed drip irrigation system were purchased but the system has not been installed at the time of writing and a few additional parts will be required. The drip irrigation system was not installed on the implementation day due to a lack of time. The design work for this system has been done, but it is not included here as there is in sufficient time to make the design presentable. 4 Maintenance The garden was designed to be low maintenance although some maintenance will be required. Further maintenance information was not included in this report. Some support information has been supplied to the client verbally. Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 8
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes 5 Bibliography Suggested Introductions to Gardening McFarlane, A 2010, Organic Vegetable Gardening, Harper Collins Publishers, Australia McFarlane, A 2011, Organic Fruit Growing, Harper Collins Publishers, Australia Woodard, P 2011, Pest-Repellent Plants, Hyland House Publishing, Melbourne, Australia Food Gardening, Native Gardening and Other Allen, P 2011, Heritage & Dwarf Fruit Trees for urban backyards and small orchards, Telopea Mountain Permaculture, Monbulk, Victoria Green Harvest, 2013, Cover Crop and Living Mulch Seed http://greenharvest.com.au/SeedOrganic/CoverCrops/LivingMulch.html Hopkins, R 2008, The Transition Handbook – Australian & New Zealand Edition, Finch Publishing, Sydney, Australia Low, T 1991, Wild Food Plants of Australia, Angus and Robertson, Harper Collins Publishers, Australia Parry, N & Jones, J 2009, Small Native Plants for Australian Gardens, New Holland Publishers, Australia Robinson, L 2003, Field Guide to the Native Plants of Sydney, Kangaroo Press, Simon and Schuster, Pymble, Australia Smith, K & Smith Irene 1999, Grow your own Bushfoods, New Holland Publishers, Australia Edible Forest Gardening Crawford, M 2010, Creating a Forest Garden – Working with Nature to Grow Edible Crops, Green Books, Devon, UK Crawford, M 2012, How to grown Perennial Vegetables, Green Books, Devon, UK Jacke, D & Toensmeier, E 2005, Edible Forest Gardens, Chelsea Green Publishing, Vermont, USA Toensmeier, E 2007, Perennial Vegetables, Chelsea Green Publishing, Vermont, USA Permaculture Holmgren, D 2002, Permaculture – Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability, Holmgren Design Services, Hepburn, Victoria Mollison, B 1991, Introduction to Permaculture, Tagari Publications, Tasmania, Australia. Morrow, R 2006, Earth Users Guide to Permaculture, Kangaroo Press, Simon & Schuster, Pymble, Australia. Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 9
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes Appendix A– Concept Drawings A-1 – Aerial View Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 1
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes A-2 – South East View Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 2
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes A-3 – South West View Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 3
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes A-4 – North West View Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 4
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes A-5 – North East View Paul Boundy 17 December 2013 5
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes Appendix B – Multiple-Function Plant List This table details the multiple functions that the selected plants play in this garden. Zone Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Pear Orchard Banana Circle Banana Circle Banana Circle Edge Edge Select ed Yes Pineapple Sage (Salvia elegans) Yes Blueberry Yes Borage Starflower (Borago officinalis) Yes Comfrey Yes Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Yes Chamomile 'German' (Matricaria chamomilla) Yes Chicory Yes Coriander Yes Dandilion (Taraxacum sp.) Yes Dill (Anethum graveolens) Yes Dock / Sorrels (Rumex sp.) Yes Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Yes Geranium (Pelargonium rodneyanum) Yes Sorrel (Rumix acetosa) Yes Thyme Yes Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) Yes Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Yes Lemon Grass Yes Sage Yes Strawberry Yes Warrigal Greens Yes Clover - Red (Trifolium pratense) Yes Clover - White (Trifolium repens) Yes Lucerne Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Yes Barrel Medic (Medicago truncatula) Option Lomandra Option Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos sp.) Option Native Raspberry (Rubus parvifolius) Option Woolly Pod Vetch (Vicia villosa) Option Raspberry (Rubus sp.) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Option Option Cotton Lavender (Chamaecyparis) Cutleaf Cranesbill (Geranium solanderi) Option Feverfew (Chrysanthemum parthenium) Option Option French Sorrel O Northern Cranesbill (Geranium homeanum) ption Option Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) False Sarsaparilla Hardenbergia violacea Option Option Wombat berry Option Passionfruit Yes Ginger Yes Sweet Potato Yes Nasturtium (Tropaeolum) Yes Finger Lime (Microcitrus australasica) Yes Davidson Plum Plant Name Paul Boundy Layer Height B-Shrub B-Shrub C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb D-Ground D-Ground LivMulch LivMulch LivMulch LivMulch B-Shrub B-Shrub B-Shrub B-Shrub B-Shrub C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb C-Herb E-Vines E-Vines E-Vines C-Herb C-Herb D-Ground A-Tree A-Tree Native Plant Family . . . . . . . . . . . . Native . . . . . . . Native . . . . Native Native Native . . . . Native . . Native . Native Native . . . . Native Native Lamiaceae . Boraginaceae Boraginaceae Lamiaceae Asteraceae . . Asteraceae Apiaceae Polygonaceae . Geraniaceae Polygonaceae Lifetime Edible Peren . SS Annual Peren . SS Annual . . Annual A/P . . Peren Peren Peren Lamiaceae Peren Lamiaceae . . . Peren . Peren . Peren Fabaceae Peren Fabaceae Peren Fabaceae Peren Fabaceae SS Annual . Peren Haemodoraceae Peren Rosaceae Peren Fabaceae SS Peren Rosaceae Peren Fabaceae Annual . . Geraniaceae Peren . . . . Geraniaceae Peren Polygonaceae Peren Fabaceae Peren Philesiaceae Peren . Peren . . . Peren Tropaeolaceae Peren Rutaceae Peren Peren Toxin Weedy Tea . . Berries . . Leave and Flowers . . Tea Part . . . . Tea . . Part . . Leaves . . Tea . . Leaves . . Leaves . Weedy . . Weedy . . . Leaves . Weedy Leaves . . . . . Condiment . . . . . Leaves . . Fruit . . Salad Part . . . . Parts . No Sprouts . . Leaves . . Part . . No . . Berries . . . . Maybe Berries . . Leaves & Seeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stalk Leaves . Tea . . Berry pulp & Roots . Fruit . . Rhizome . . Root . . Flowers . . Fruit No . Fruit . . 17 December 2013 Establishment Months . . Sow Spr-Aut 9-5 . . . . Sow Spr & Aut . . . Sow 2-4 . . Sow Spr 9-11 . . . Sow Spr 9-11 . . Sow 3-6 or 8-10 Sow 3-6 or 8-10 Sow 3-5 or 8-10 Sow 3-5 or 8-10 . . . Sow 3 or 9 . Sow Autm 2-6 . . . . . . . . . . . Sow Spr-Aut 9-5 . . N2 DA Mulch Roots Scent Nectar Inv Shltr . . . Inv Shltr . . . . . . . . . . Grass Barrier . . . Barrier . . Barrier . . . Barrier . . . . . . N2 . . N2 . . . . . . . . . DA DA . DA . . DA . DA DA . DA . . . Mulch . . . . . . Mulch . . . . . . Deep . . . . Tap . . . . . Scent . Scent . Scent . . Scent . . . Scent Scent . Nectar . Nectar . . . . . . Nectar . Nectar . . . . . . . . N2 N2 N2 N2 . . . N2 . N2 . . . . . . N2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DA . . . . DA . . . . . . . . . . . . . DA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Living . Living . Living Deep Living . Mulch . . . . . Mulch . . . . Clay Break . . . . . . Mulch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scent Scent . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scent . Scent . . Scent . . . . . Scent . . Nectar . . Nectar . . . . . Nectar . . . . . . . . Nectar . . Nectar . . Nectar Inv Shltr . . . . . . Barrier Nectar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barrier . . . . . . Nectar Inv Shltr . Nectar . . . . . . . . . . . Nectar . . . . . . . . 6
    • Design Report for an Edible Forest Garden in Greystanes Terminology Multiple-Function Plant List: Only terms requiring explanation are detailed here Column Zone Term Edge Selected Option Layer-Height Lifetime Various Terms Annual Peren SS Annual Establishment Months N2 DA Mulch Scent Nectar Inv Shltr Grass Barrier Paul Boundy A/P Sowing months 1-12 Nitrogen Fixer Dynamic Accumulator Living Scent Nectar Inv Shltr Barrier Explanation Two native plants that were planted along the edges of the garden among the existing native plants These plants were considered for planting, but not selected. They could provide a useful or interesting plant for the future. Refer to the layer the plant fills in an forest garden Annual: indicates the plants complete life cycle is less than one year. The plant needs to regrow from seed. Perennial: indicating the plant lives for many years without dying out completely. Self-Seeding Annual: Is an annual plant that set seed and regrows well by itself giving it some characteristics of a perennial plant. Annual or Perennial depending on the local climate conditions Numbers indicate the months the plants is best planted to become established See section 1.2.3 for details See section 1.2.4 for details Living Mulches are perennial plants good at supporting trees in orchards Indicates the plant scent will deter pests Indicates the plant will provide nectar for beneficial insects. See section 1.2.7 Indicates the plant will provide shelter for invertebrates / insects Indicates the plant has deep roots that create a barrier the spread of grass runners 17 December 2013 7