Internet Privacy,Ethics, and OnlineSecurityPaul BerrymanMelissa Pabon
IntroductionThe topic for this module is Internet Privacy, Ethics, and OnlineSecurity. We have divided this topic into the following sub-topics: Internet Privacy, including laws enacted to protect theprivacy of children; Internet Ethics, including plagiarism andcyberbullying; and Online Security.
IntroductionEach of these areas are gradually evolving with the developmentof new technology. Traditionally, most issues addressed by thesetopics have only general guidelines governing users’ behavior;however, some structured rules are starting to develop to maintaina safe environment online.
Introduction• Internet Privacy – The protection of sensitive and personal information, sometimes called Personally Identifiable Information (PII), from unauthorized or inappropriate disclosure.• Internet Ethics – The acceptable behavior while using the Internet; being honest and respecting the rights of others on the Internet.• Online security – is protecting students from inappropriate material online and protecting students and teachers from threats from outsiders and each other.
The 5 Big QuestionsWhy is it used? or why is it an important issue?Who uses it? or who is affected by it?How is it used? or how does it work?What is needed to use it? or what does it do?What else is important about this technology tool or topic?
Why is it used? or why is it an important issue?• Internet privacy, ethics, and online security are important issues because they are present in every action taken by every user online. With incidents of hacking, cyberbullying, and identity theft rising, it is clear that students and teachers need directions now more than ever.• Yet, not every case has a clear-cut answer. Is hacking always wrong? Are there ever cases where it’s acceptable for companies and advertisers to collect data about customers online, without violating their privacy? With these vague areas, it is valuable to explore and discuss the boundaries of security, privacy, and ethics.
Who uses it? or who is affected by it?• Anyone who interacts online, in a closed off network (i.e. school network), or even just uses a stand-alone computer is affected by these topics.• Internet ethics are practiced by, and affect, every user online. While each person lives by his or her own moral code, Internet ethics can be thought of as a general set of guidelines that users follow.
How is it used? or how does it work?• Privacy, ethics, and security is a combination of user education, technological tools, and administrative policies and procedures. Each group of individuals has a responsibility to protect users, data, and systems from a variety of threats.
What is needed to use it? or what does it do?• Organizations, from the top down, must take security seriously and do their best to protect students, teachers, faculty, and administrators. Administrations should conduct due diligence and pay for good technical support and tools to protect the network. But most importantly schools must educate their faculty and students that they are the first line of defense in security and maintain privacy.
What else is important about PRIVACY?Lee Rainie (2005) gives several basic insights about Internet privacy:1. Privacy is a value for most, but not all people. • About two thirds of Americans will give up information in return for something of value.2. Privacy means different things to different people. • Privacy can be divided into the categories of Anonymity, Confidentiality, and Security.3. There is a variety of privacy violations. • These range from Embarrassment to Personal Loss and Theft.
4. Not all information is guarded at the same level. • Health and financial information is considered to be more valuable.5. People want control over information that relates to them. • 86% of Americans say that Internet companies should ask permission to use personal information.
What else is important about ETHICS?The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) issued RFC 1087 Ethics and the Internet, a policy concerning Internet ethics in 1989.An excerpt from the policy: The IAB strongly endorses the view of the Division Advisory Panel of the National Science Foundation Division of Network, Communications Research and Infrastructure which, in paraphrase, characterized as unethical and unacceptable any activity which purposely: • Seeks to gain unauthorized access to the resources of the Internet. • Disrupts the intended use of the Internet. • Wastes resources (people, capacity, computer) through such actions. • Destroys the integrity of computer-based information. • Compromises the privacy of users.
RFC 1087 has since resulted in regulations concerning spamming messages, privacy policies for websites requesting users to provide personal details, and debate over whether governments or individuals should monitor ethics on the Internet.
Educational RelevanceAs technology evolves, teachers try to keep up by encouraging students to utilize the Internet both inside and outside the classroom. However, teachers and students face privacy concerns, ethical concerns, and online security threats, along with growing Internet use. School administrations must develop plans for staying ahead of new issues, such as plagiarism, cyberbullying, and privacy threats to students’ personal information.
Educational RelevanceAdditionally, it is important for schools to stay current with laws pertaining to student Internet use. The Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) was enacted in 2000 to protect children from accessing harmful content over the Internet. Eligible schools and libraries are required to follow certain requirements under CIPA in order to receive discounts for Internet access though the E-rate program. These requirements include having an Internet safety policy that includes technology protection measures that block access to harmful content. This policy must include monitoring the online activities of minors.
Educational RelevanceAn amendment to CIPA, called the Protecting Children in the 21st Century Act, further requires that schools educate students about appropriate online behavior, including cyberbullying awareness and response.
Educational Relevance• In regards to online security, there are several factors that make it important for educators to understand. First, and foremost, is for teachers of K-12 students. Children do not understand the risks they may be taking by providing personal information on the Internet.
Educational Relevance• Besides the risk from cyberbulling and child stalkers, children may unintentionally compromise their or others personal information. Finally, their lack of understand makes them prime targets for criminals and for virus/malware infections. They are more likely to trust links in emails or other messages and be exposed to attacks from fake websites and email attachments.