Vietnam society and culture Post WWII – an overview  Presenter: Paul O’Connor School of Property, Construction & Project M...
Introduction to the speaker <ul><li>Undergrad degree   BA (Asian Studies) </li></ul><ul><li>I have been visiting or livin...
Scope of this presentation… <ul><li>Key dates and events from 1945-present </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese occupation by consen...
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
Key dates and events from 1945-present RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor Aug 1945 Defeat of Japanese in WW2 (Hanoi occu...
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
Japanese occupation under Vichy French <ul><li>Prior to WW2, Viet Nam was part of France’s Indochina colonies (Tonkin, Ann...
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
Independence declared by Ho Chi Minh <ul><li>The Viet Minh (led by Ho Chi Minh and other nationalist communists) resisted ...
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
First Indochina War (the French War) <ul><li>French troops commenced re-occupation of VN in late 1946 </li></ul><ul><li>Vi...
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
Temporary partition of North & South <ul><li>Geneva Peace Accords called for temporary demarcation of pro- and anti- Frenc...
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
Second Indochina War (the American War) RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>The Gulf of Tonkin Incident of 2 Aug ...
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
Fall/Liberation of Sai Gon in 1975 RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>‘ Nixon doctrine’ saw prosecution of groun...
Cambodia intervention & China Border War RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>From 1975 Khmer Rouge forces under c...
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
doi moi  (renovation) policies from 1989 RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>Reformers within the Viet Nam Commun...
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
from deep poverty to middle-income nation RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>Since  doi moi  VN has achieved imp...
RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
Vietnam is a “country”  not  a “war” RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>This is a key reflection point for Viet ...
Questions and discussion… <ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul><ul><li>My contact details: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul O’Connor...
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Vietnam Society And Culture Post Ww2

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Vietnam Society And Culture Post Ww2

  1. 1. Vietnam society and culture Post WWII – an overview Presenter: Paul O’Connor School of Property, Construction & Project Management
  2. 2. Introduction to the speaker <ul><li>Undergrad degree  BA (Asian Studies) </li></ul><ul><li>I have been visiting or living in Vietnam since late 1994 and have a house here </li></ul><ul><li>5 years working as a journalist/editor (I speak pretty good Vietnamese) </li></ul><ul><li>+10 years in the Federal, Northern Territory and Victorian public sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Post Grad Cert in PPPs (Melb.) </li></ul><ul><li>Master of Public Infrastructure (Melb.) </li></ul><ul><li>Candidate in Doctor of Project Management program (RMIT) </li></ul><ul><li>Sessional lecturer in the School of Property, Construction and Project Management </li></ul>RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  3. 3. Scope of this presentation… <ul><li>Key dates and events from 1945-present </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese occupation by consent of Vichy French </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of independence by Ho Chi Minh in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>French re-invasion and First Indo China War (the French War) </li></ul><ul><li>1954 Paris Peace Accords and temporary partition of North and South </li></ul><ul><li>Second Indochina War (the American War) </li></ul><ul><li>Fall/Liberation of Sai Gon in 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia intervention by VN and Chinese Border War of 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>doi moi (renovation) policies from 1989 and opening up of economy </li></ul><ul><li>20 years of economic growth – from deep poverty to middle-income nation </li></ul><ul><li>How do we conceptualise Vietnam as a “country” not a “war” </li></ul>RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  4. 4. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  5. 5. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  6. 6. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  7. 7. Key dates and events from 1945-present RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor Aug 1945 Defeat of Japanese in WW2 (Hanoi occupied by Kuomintang troops) 2 Sep 1945 Declaration of Independence by Ho Chi Minh in Ba Dinh Square, Ha Noi Nov 1946 French re-invasion and start of First Indochina War (the French War) 27 April 1954 1954 Geneva Agreement call for temporary partition of North and South 7 May 1954 French forces defeated at Dien Bien Phu and withdraw from Indochina Oct 1955 Establishment of “Republic of Vietnam” (South Vietnam) by Ngo Dinh Diem 2 Aug 1962 Tonkin Incident and start of Second Indochina War (the American War) 30 Apr 1975 Fall/Liberation of Sai Gon (end of the American War) Dec ’78-Mar ’79 Cambodia intervention by VN and Chinese Border War of 1979 Dec 1986 Launch of Doi Moi (renovation) policies to liberalise the economy Sep-Dec 1989 Withdrawal from Cambodia by VN military forces 7 Nov 2006 VN joins as a member of the WTO
  8. 8. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  9. 9. Japanese occupation under Vichy French <ul><li>Prior to WW2, Viet Nam was part of France’s Indochina colonies (Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchina) </li></ul><ul><li>After Germany defeated France in 1939, the French colonials switched allegiance to the Vichy (Nazi-sympathetic) regime </li></ul><ul><li>Japan, as ally of Germany, occupied Viet Nam for resources, food, ports and airbases </li></ul><ul><li>Air raids on Singapore were launched from Sai Gon </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese maltreatment of farmers plus removal of food crops from the country triggered a massive famine killing a million people in 1944-45 </li></ul>RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  10. 10. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  11. 11. Independence declared by Ho Chi Minh <ul><li>The Viet Minh (led by Ho Chi Minh and other nationalist communists) resisted the Vichy and Japanese through guerilla warfare </li></ul><ul><li>The US OSS (precursor to the CIA) para-dropped instructors, weapons and supplies to assist the Viet Minh forces </li></ul><ul><li>After Japanese were defeated, Ho Chi Minh led the Viet Minh into Hanoi and declared independence on 2 Sep 1945. Many words in his speech echoed the American Declaration of Independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Allies did not recognise the declaration and gave northern Vietnam to Kuomintang to administer (using re-armed Japanese troops). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Free French” demanded return of their colonies for vital materials to rebuild France. Foreign legion despatched to Viet Nam. </li></ul><ul><li>Viet Minh and Ho Chi Minh, withdrew back to the hills embittered by this betrayal. </li></ul>RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  12. 12. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  13. 13. First Indochina War (the French War) <ul><li>French troops commenced re-occupation of VN in late 1946 </li></ul><ul><li>Viet Minh started a low-scale insurgency which quickly picked up in intensity due to support from and local population </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict eventually spread throughout the country from the North </li></ul><ul><li>Geneva Peace Conference in 1954 attempted to bring an honourable peace for France in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>French soundly defeated at Dien Bien Phu in April 1954, triggering total withdrawal from the country as per the Peace Accords </li></ul>RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  14. 14. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  15. 15. Temporary partition of North & South <ul><li>Geneva Peace Accords called for temporary demarcation of pro- and anti- French forces along the 17th parallel </li></ul><ul><li>360 days of “free movement” led to many Catholics and other pro-French in the north heading south and Viet Minh fighters in south heading north </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary partition was first step for new national elections to decide government </li></ul><ul><li>Ngo Dinh Diem (Prime Minister under Emperor Bao Dai) used a sham referendum in the South to declare establishment of “Republic of Vietnam” </li></ul><ul><li>New government carried out repressive policies against former Viet Minh, as well as militant Buddhists causing social and political instability </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of coalition of anti-Diem forces (National Liberation Front) colloqiually known as the Viet Cong (Vietnamese Communists) </li></ul><ul><li>US government supported the new country politically and economically (due to its anti-Communist nature) and also commenced military assistance </li></ul>RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  16. 16. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  17. 17. Second Indochina War (the American War) RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>The Gulf of Tonkin Incident of 2 Aug 1964 escalated the conflict and brought the US and North Vietnam into direct battle </li></ul><ul><li>The Incident was used to sponsor a resolution by Congress giving power to the US President to dramatically increase US combat forces </li></ul><ul><li>From this point onwards, extensive fighting between US and Allied forces against Viet Cong, as well as North Vietnamese main forces </li></ul><ul><li>Turning point was Tet Offensive of 1968, which saw nearly every major city in South Vietnam under attack (and sometimes overrun) </li></ul><ul><li>Public opinion in US turned away from war as people became appalled by loss of life and the carnage arriving in their living rooms via TV every day </li></ul><ul><li>From 1969, Nixon initially escalated conflict (by bombing Hanoi, Laos and Cambodia) but also commenced withdrawal of US troops and started secret peace talks </li></ul>
  18. 18. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  19. 19. Fall/Liberation of Sai Gon in 1975 RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>‘ Nixon doctrine’ saw prosecution of ground war move to the South Vietnamese forces, with US providing air and logistics support </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Kissinger sponsored Paris Peace talks of 1973, which resulted in an agreement for North and South to respect each other's sovereignty and cease hostilities, similar to the 1954 agreement </li></ul><ul><li>However by early 1975, South Vietnam was in political turmoil after numerous coups and extremely weakened as a functioning state </li></ul><ul><li>North VN saw an opportunity and commenced a final victory campaign </li></ul><ul><li>South VN forces quickly collapse and North VN forces surround and begin to enter Sai Gon in late April </li></ul><ul><li>US evacuates 50 000 people from Sai Gon to Thailand/offshore carriers </li></ul><ul><li>Gen Minh gives unconditional surrender of the South on steps of the Presidential Palace on 30 Apr 75 </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam officially declared as re-unified country on 2 Jul 1976 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cambodia intervention & China Border War RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>From 1975 Khmer Rouge forces under command of Pol Pot commit a number of incursions into Vietnam, executing thousands of civilians in VN towns </li></ul><ul><li>Relations between Vietnam and Pol Pot’s Kampuchea deteriorate, in part due to the Sino-Soviet split (KR supported by China, while VN by Soviets) </li></ul><ul><li>VN decides to remove threat of Khmer Rouge and on 25 Dec 1978 launches a blitzkrieg invasion into Cambodia, taking Phnom Penh by 7 Jan 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>VN forces control most of Cambodia and reach Thai border by end of Mar 79 </li></ul><ul><li>China, as sponsor of Khmer Rouge, conducts retaliatory attack upon VN and crosses border with 400,000 troops and 400 tanks on 17 Feb 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Deng Xiao Peng famously stated that “Children who don't listen have to be spanked“ when forecasting the incursion to US President Jimmy Carter </li></ul><ul><li>VN and China normalised relations by late 1991 and finalised border in 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive trade, culture, political and transport links increasing each year </li></ul>
  21. 21. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  22. 22. doi moi (renovation) policies from 1989 RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>Reformers within the Viet Nam Communist Party concerned that the long years of war and austerity weren’t being paid back by economic advances </li></ul><ul><li>6th Party Congress of Dec 1986 agrees to a range of economic reforms known as Doi Moi (renovation) similar to the perestroika reforms of USSR </li></ul><ul><li>These market reforms designed to manage the transition from a centrally-planned economy to a &quot;socialist-oriented market economy” </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms see massive expansion in food production, and improvements in living standards, although some state industries become moribund </li></ul><ul><li>New markets stimulate an emerging entrepreneurial class in cities </li></ul><ul><li>Massive inflows of cash from foreign capital, ODA and expatriate Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in export dollars from oil/gas, coffee, coal, textiles, rice and seafood </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on macro-economic stability while capitalising on high GDP growth </li></ul>
  23. 23. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  24. 24. from deep poverty to middle-income nation RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>Since doi moi VN has achieved impressive socio-economic results: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of poverty rate from 58% in 1993 to 16% in 2006 (source=ADB) </li></ul><ul><li>People living below the official poverty line fell from 20.2% in 2005 to 12.3% in 2009 (source=ADB) </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded exports to account for 40% of GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Averaged 7% GDP growth p.a. between 1990 and 2009 (source=ADB) </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved bilateral trade agreement with USA in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Joined WTO in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>FDI of $1.3-1.8 billion in 2002–06, soared to $6.6 billion in 2007 and $9.3 billion in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>The current Socio-Economic Development Plan of Viet Nam (SEDP) 2006–2010 sets Viet Nam’s goal of becoming a middle income country by 2010 and an industrialized nation by 2020 </li></ul>
  25. 25. RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor
  26. 26. Vietnam is a “country” not a “war” RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor <ul><li>This is a key reflection point for Viet Nam – as so much of its modern history has been defined by conflict, with popular culture defining views of Viet Nam as a tragic outcome of western aggression and imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>The reality is that Viet Nam has moved on  the war(s) ended 30 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>A new generation is emerging, with no memory of this recent history </li></ul><ul><li>The current generation is largely defined by its interest in making money, rather than getting caught up in politics or ideology </li></ul><ul><li>However strong national pride and identity underpins this commercialism </li></ul><ul><li>Human capital is becoming a major issue, with advanced professional skills now in greater demand, causing an explosion in higher education services </li></ul><ul><li>Urban-rural wealth gap is also widening, although targeted economic development in rural areas has assisted, along with rural  urban migration </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid economic growth leads to greater environmental and infrastructure pressures  sustainability will be the key challenge for the next 10 years </li></ul>
  27. 27. Questions and discussion… <ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul><ul><li>My contact details: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul O’Connor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DipPer&OpsMgt, DipGovMgt, BA(AsianStudies), GradCertPPPs (Melb.), MPubInfra (Melb.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School of Property, Construction and Project Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RMIT University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E: <paul.oconnor@rmit.edu.au> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M: +61 438 077 469 </li></ul></ul>RMIT University © 2010 Paul O'Connor

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