O. Ivar Lovaas Model of ABA: What is it?

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A brief description of Lovaas MoABA & DTT: Lovaas the man & the method.

A brief description of Lovaas MoABA & DTT: Lovaas the man & the method.

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  • Lovaas is alive and well @ 81 years this May 8. Last available for interviews w/Lou Diamond Phillips on 4/25/08 at a Press conference w/Dr. Greeshop???? To reveal four individuals who completed intensive interventions for years (maybe over a decade) and no longer exhibit characteristics of autism (per DSM-IV).

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  • 1. Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Paula R. Ulloa ED657 Advanced Techniques: Multiple & Severe Disabilities July 11, 2008 Ole Ivar Lovaas, Ph.D.
  • 2. Why are we here?
    • Gain an understanding of how Lovaas and ABA are related.
    • Define Applied Behavioral Analysis.
    • Understand how Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) and ABA are related.
    • Understand the components of DTT.
  • 3. Ole Ivar Lovaas
    • “ His”-story
    • Clinical exploration
      • 1965 aversive treatment methods
      • Behavioral focus
    • Behavioral Analysis
      • Applied Behavioral Analysis
  • 4. Lovaas Model aka Home-Based Behavior Intervention or UCLA Model of ABA
    • Intended specifically for autism
      • Spectrum
    • Early treatment
      • 3 ½ - 5 years
    • Home-based program: STAGE 1
    • Home-based program: STAGE 2
    • Lovaas Method: STAGE 3 & BEYOND
      • School-aged (5++)
  • 5. A pplied B ehavioral A nalysis
    • ABA is a scientific discipline based on the theory of behaviorism (Behavior Analysis)
    • Principles of ABA
    • Observe what is worthy of scientific investigation.
    • Internal events are private & cannot be known by others.
    • Reinforcement and punishment adequately model the way the world works.
    • Principles of Lovaas Method
    • A behavioral emphasis
    • Family participation
    • One-to-one instruction
    • Integration
    • Comprehensiveness
    • Intensity
  • 6. D iscrete T rial T eaching
    • Teaching Strategy Based on ABA
    • DTT breaks down the task into specific skills and teaches them in a consistent manner.
    • DTT Involves:
      • Break Skill into Smaller Parts
      • Teaching sub-skill @ a time
      • Repeated Practice
      • Consistency in Teaching
      • Prompting & Prompt Fading
      • Use of reinforcement procedures
  • 7. Relationship between… Behavior Analysis (BA) A scientific discipline based on the theory of behaviorism The Lovaas Model (Applied BA) Rigorous, peer reviewed research, with long-term & follow-up studies, proving its effectiveness as an intervention in treating children with autism DTT (Approach) Teaching unit consisting of an antecedent, behavior, and a consequence to the behavior
  • 8. ABA Umbrella PRT PECS FCT DTT NET
  • 9. It’s discrete because there is a clear beginning & a clear end Parts of a Trial:
    • = I nstruction
      • Simple and concise instructions
      • 1x Rule
      • Provide reinforcement for good performance & attending
    • = R esponse
      • 3 - 5 seconds (variable)
    • = F eedback
      • Immediate feedback
      • Correct Response = Positive FB + Reinforcer
      • Incorrect/No Response = Corrective FB
    http://www.youtube.com/v/NbVG8lYEsNs&hl=en&fs=1 DTT
  • 10.  
  • 11. Prompts
    • An additional stimulus that facilitates correct responding
    • Errorless Learning vs. No No Prompt
    • Prompts must accompany instruction or occur before response
    • Use the least intrusive prompt & fade
    • Prompted trials = mild reinforcement
    • Prompted trials should be followed by non-prompted or reduced prompted trial
  • 12. Types of Prompts
    • Within Stimulus Prompt ( Prompt within the drill itself)
    • Positional Prompt (Proximity)
    • Gestural Prompt
    • Partial Physical Prompt
    • Full Physical Prompt
    • Verbal Cues
    • Inadvertent Prompts
    (Video)
  • 13. Improving the Response Quality Differential Reinforcement (reinforcer assessment)
    • A+ (strong-to die for): Correct answer/good attention and engaged.
    • B (moderate): Correct answer, attention is off.
    • C (mild): Incorrect answer but good attention and really tried.
    • Strengthens response), Motivator, Tangibles (age appropriate) + social praise
    • Intermittent Schedule of Reinforcement – most powerful
    • Reinforcement vs. Bribery
    • Inadvertent/inappropriate reinforcement
    Reinforcers Anything that increases the likelihood a behavior will occur again
  • 14. What do we know now?
    • Behavioral Analysis is the theory
    • Lovaas developed a specific ABA methodology
    • DTT is the ABA intervention strategy used within the Lovaas model
    • The Lovaas Model is scientifically proven to work with individuals with autism
  • 15.
    • Leaf, R. & McEachin, J. A Work In Progress .
    • New York, NY: DRL Books, Inc.
    • The Texas Observer Journal http://www.texasobserver.org/article.php?aid=2780
    • Families for Early Autism Treatment (BC): http:// featbc.org/www/featbc/INFOSOURCES.html
    • Autism Treatment Info: http://www.autismtreatment.info/what+is+a+discrete+trial.aspx
    • Guam Public School System Division of Special Education Autism Program
    References
  • 16. References
    • Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivar_Lovaas
    • About.com: http:// autism.about.com/od/treatmentoptions/f/WhatisABA.htm
    • Youtube.com: http:// youtube.com/watch?v =593_9tGB3hs&feature=related
    • National Autistic Society, UK: http://www.nas.org.uk/nas/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=297&a=3345
    • Applied Behavioral Associates, LLC: www.aba4kids.org
  • 17. References
    • Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis (JABA): http:// seab.envmed.rochester.edu/jaba /
    • Autismconnect: http://www.autismconnect.org/interviews.asp?section=000100040001&id=4096
    • AOL video: http://video.aol.com/video-detail/lovaas-institute-partners-in-possibilities/3923340976
    • National Autism Association: http://www.nationalautismassociation.org/advisoryei.php
    • Association for Behavior Analysis International: www.abainternational.org
  • 18. (Ancillary) Lovaas Related contacts…
    • Goliath Business Knowledge on Demand: http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-198358/The phantom-chaser-for- Ivar.html
    • Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB): www.bacb.com
    • The Lovaas Institute: www.lovaas.com
    • All About ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis): autism.about.com
    • Autism-PDD Resource Network: www.autism-pdd.net
    • Autism Resources (John Wobus' Site): www.vaporia.com/autism
    • Wrightslaw: www.wrightslaw.com
  • 19. (Ancillary) Lovaas Related contacts…
    • United Kingdom
    • Parents for the Early intervention of Autism in Children (PEACH) The Brackens, London Road, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 8BE Tel: +44 (0)1344 882248 Fax: +44 (0)1344 882391 Email: [email_address] Website: www.peach.org.uk
    • UK Young Autism Project Room 107, 20 Mortlake High Street, London SW14 8JN Tel: +44 (0)20 8392 3931 Fax: +44 (0)20 8392 3931 Email: [email_address] Website: www.ukyap.org
    • United States
    • Dr. O. Ivar Lovaas, Lovaas Institute, 11500 West Olympic Boulevard, Suite 318, Los Angeles, CA 90064, USA Tel: +1 310 914 5433 (West coast) Tel: +1 856 616 9442 (East coast) Fax: +1 310 914 5433 Email: [email_address] Website: www.lovaas.com
    • Norway
    • Professor Svein Eikeseth, Akershus University College, PO Box 423, N-2001 Lillestrom, Norway. Tel: +47 64 84 9000; Mobile: +47 922 10 988; Fax: + 47 64 84 9001 Email: [email_address]
  • 20. Lovaas Method aka Home-Based Behavior Intervention or UCLA Model of ABA
    • Early treatment
    • Home-based program: STAGE 1
      • 40 hrs/wk of intensive therapy (3 personnel)
      • One-to-one for six-eight hrs/day
      • two-three hour teaching sessions
      • Five-seven days a week
      • Two or more years
      • Family participation (generalization of skills)
      • Skills broken down into small achieveable tasks
      • Taught in a very structured manner
      • Accompanied by praise and reinforcement. 
      • Reduce/replace aggressive/self-stimulatory behaviors
      • Progresssion from basic self help & language skills to..
      • … non-verbal & verbal imitation skills & beginnings of toy play
      • Expressive and early abstract language
      • Interactive play with peers
    • Home-based program: STAGE 2
    • Lovaas Method: STAGE 3 & BEYOND
      • In more advanced stages of the intervention the child can be taught at home and school
    (Ancillary)
  • 21. DTT Process A Instruction B Behavior C Feedback Reinforcement? Prompt 3-5 secs 2-3 secs. (Ancillary)