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- 1. Chapter 2: Analog To Digital Conversion
- 2. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>ADC Types </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy and Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Noise Histograms </li></ul><ul><li>ADC Output Averaging </li></ul>
- 3. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>ADC Types </li></ul><ul><li>Successive Approximation Register </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage to Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Dual Slope </li></ul><ul><li>Sigma-Delta </li></ul>
- 4. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>Successive-Approximation ADC </li></ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul><ul><li>200 kHz </li></ul><ul><li>12 to 16 bit </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul>Figure 2.01
- 5. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>Voltage-to-Frequency ADC </li></ul><ul><li>High Noise Rejection </li></ul><ul><li>Remote sensing in noisy environments </li></ul><ul><li>Output pulse train proportional to input amplitude </li></ul>Figure 2.02
- 6. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>Integrating ADC (Dual Slope) </li></ul><ul><li>Filter Improves Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>60 Hz Notch </li></ul><ul><li>High resolution measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent noise rejection </li></ul>Figure 2.03
- 7. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>Sigma-Delta ADC </li></ul><ul><li>Oversample Rate </li></ul><ul><li>One bit typical </li></ul><ul><li>Low Speed – 60 Hz </li></ul><ul><li>High Speed – 12 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Approaching – 60 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution: 16 to 24 Bits </li></ul>Figure 2.04
- 8. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>Sigma-Delta ADC with Digital Filter </li></ul><ul><li>Filter improves accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>60 Hz Notch </li></ul><ul><li>High Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Oversampling </li></ul><ul><li>Input – High frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Output – Low Frequency </li></ul>Figure 2.05
- 9. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>Table of ADC Attributes </li></ul>Figure 2.06
- 10. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>Accuracy and Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>ADC Accuracy vs. Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Quantization Error: Half LSB </li></ul>Equation 2.01
- 11. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion Accuracy and Resolution <ul><li>ADC Accuracy vs. System Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Calibration (Gain & Offset) </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware (Trimpots) </li></ul><ul><li>Software (Correction Factors) </li></ul>
- 12. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>ADC Accuracy and Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal Conversion </li></ul>Figure 2.07A
- 13. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>ADC Accuracy and Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Gain Error </li></ul>Figure 2.07B
- 14. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>ADC Accuracy and Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Linearity Error </li></ul>Figure 2.07C
- 15. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>ADC Accuracy and Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Code </li></ul>Figure 2.07D
- 16. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>ADC Accuracy and Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Offset Error </li></ul>Figure 2.07E
- 17. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>ENOB: Effective Number of Bits </li></ul><ul><li>Noise Histograms </li></ul><ul><li>FSR = Full-Scale Range of ADC </li></ul><ul><li>FSR/2 n = Bin Width </li></ul><ul><li>2 n = Number of Bins </li></ul><ul><li>n = ADC Bit Resolution </li></ul>Figure 2.08
- 18. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion <ul><li>The ENOB Test </li></ul><ul><li>ADC </li></ul><ul><li>MUX </li></ul><ul><li>PGA </li></ul><ul><li>SSH Amp </li></ul><ul><li>Cross talk </li></ul><ul><li>FFT </li></ul><ul><li>Test Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonic Distortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog Circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADC Accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise Pickup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel Cross Talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonlinearities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel Offset </li></ul></ul>
- 19. Chapter 2 Analog to Digital Conversion ADC Output Averaging <ul><li>Improved Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>More Stable Readings </li></ul><ul><li>Gaussian Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Dither/Random Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Audio Recordings </li></ul>

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