Imagining a Future: Expectant parent’s
hopes and dreams for their unborn
children

Dr Paula Pereda
December 2012
Associati...
Aims of this presentation
• In this presentation I will:
– Present the strategy used in the data analysis
– Explain what a...
I Method: Data analysis using DC, CA and CS
• Data: Parents were asked antenatally:
“Please give us one or two sentences a...
Hopes, Dreams and Expectations word
frequency tag cloud
able achieving activity

baby

become best

better born boys caree...
What are hopes, dreams and expectations?
Why are they important?
Hopes(s)
Mythology
Religion
Philosophy
Psychiatry
Psychol...
What are hopes, dreams and expectations?
Why are they important?
Future
Imagination

Past

Present

Uncertainty
Emotion

P...
III Method: Data analysis using DC, CA and CS
Codes developed on the bases of:
• Frequent words analysed in context (withi...
IV Method: Domains, themes and coding
structure
Domains

Health and Wellbeing

Psychological and
Cognitive Development

Ed...
Non Domain Analytical themes
• Overarching Signifiers
happiness, hope, good, grow, well, safe, love, opportunities,
best, ...
Hopes, dreams and

expectations

Text frequency analysis classification

Societal
context, neighbour
hood, environment
al
...
Hopes, dreams and

expectations

Domains

Hopes, dreams and expectations
participants multiple responses
All

Mother

Part...
Health and Wellbeing
Health and Wellbeing
participants multiple responses

Body - normal physical
appearance
Mental health...
Psychological and Cognitive Development
Text frequency analysis classification

Personality Traits

Characteristics

Consc...
Psychological and Cognitive Development
Personality Traits
participants multiple responses
Partner

Mother

All

Conscient...
Education
Education
Education
Participant multiple responses
All

Mother

Partner

•

Education

80%

•

School, university, college...
Family & Whanau
able achieve activities

baby

become best better born boys brother career

caring child children chooses ...
Culture and Identity
Culture and Identity
Culture

Culture and Identity

•

Culture, multiculturalism

•

Travel, international,

50%

•

Langu...
Societal context,
Neighbourhood and Environment
Societal context,
Neighbourhood and Environment
Societal Context, Neighbourhood and Environment
Participants Multiples res...
Un-wishful Hopes
able achieve active alcohol allblack anything away

baby

bad become best

better birth born boy bullying...
Final Remarks
• Methodological challenges of large qualitative data sets
• Ground and operationalize elusive concepts such...
The End

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Conference paper presentation: ‘Imagining a future: expectant parents’ hopes and dreams for their unborn children’ presented at the Association of Social Anthropology of Aotearoa/New Zealand (ASAANZ) Annual Conference, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, Dec 8-10, 2012.

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  • Current intention is to ask this question again at the pre-school data collection, and it will be interesting to track how hopes, dreams and expectations shift when the parents have actually lived with their child for some years, and as they are about to start an important transition into schooling.
  • Entire data set read to identify dominant themes.Using a combination of theoretical perspectives and analytical techniques from Discourse Analysis (DC), Content Analysis (CA) and Cognitive Semantics (CS) Codes were developCognitive Semantics: The meaning commonly associated with words, that is to say, linguistic concepts, reflect mental representations of the external world, rather the external world itself. This does not mean that concepts are dissociated from objective reality, but that they are related to a lived experience. This principle leads to the idea that semantic structure is encyclopaedic in nature. Within cognitive semantics, a concept itself does not refer only to a neat set of meanings related to a specific word, but also introduce a wide range of diversity of meanings associated with any linguistic concept, which allows the concept to make sense. Words constitute ‘points of access’ for the process of meaning construction, which involves the selection of an appropriate interpretation within the context of the utterance. The principle that meaning construction is drawing upon encyclopaedic knowledge involves inferencing strategies, which consider the local connections (mapping) between distinct temporary conceptual packing of information (mental spaces) within a local discourse context. Meaning construction is always context bound (Evans & Green, 2006).
  • In this current slide we can observe the frequency tag cloud from the full free text data set from the antenatal DCW. The visual image of the word frequency allows to quickly identify central concepts and ideas. The size of the font identify the frequency on the word in the text. I would like to draw your attention first to key concepts included in the open ended questions “Please give us one or two sentences about the hopes, dreams, and expectations you have for your baby”, namely hopes, dreams and expectations. We could observe that the word hopes was mentioned much more frequently for participants that the words dreams and expectations. This for me was a significant piece of information that give me some clues on how to understand and interpreted the data. The questions “Please give us one or two sentences about the hopes, dreams, and expectations you have for your baby” was largely understood and answered by participants as a question about the hopes their have for their children. Based on this word frequency analysis parent’s dreams and expectations for the child were marginal and secondary to their hopes.Then if this was primarily understood as a questions about hopes, it is relevant to inquires what exactly are we talking about when speak about hopes. What are hopes?
  • To hope is to imagining the possible, but yet uncertain. Expectant parents face the uncertainty of waiting for their baby with hope, dreams, and expectations. The experience of expecting a child probably on of the most hope-inducing and hope intensiveexperiences in human life. Children inspire hope for the future and miracles of new life who renew relationships and open possibilities, sometimes not only for their close family, but for a community or for entire regulations of kin. The research inquire in this study question whether having a child can meaningfully be understood as and individual experience? It is about goal attainment? It is cognitive in its origin?Before to progress in to answer those question I would like to reflect on the concept of hope. Hope relates to our unique human capacity to orient ourselves to the future.Hopes alike expectations have the same orientation –toward the future–but expectations relate to a more proximate horizon of time than hopes. In the expectation there is a feeling of anticipation with a greater degree of confidence of fulfilment. Expectations usually include a feeling that something is going to happen. While expectation and hope share a belief about the future, a mental representation of it, hope has a degree of confidence that is ‘reasonable’, this aspect of hope, that is to say, its moderate prospect of fulfilment presupposes a judgment of the possibility of fulfilment of what we hope for, and therefore bonds hopes to reality. The realistic nature of hope eliminates the sense of anxiety that often accompanies expectation, while confident in the future, when we hope there is an implicit acceptance that our hopes might or might not turn out as we expected, that is to say we accept the inherent uncertainty that future unfolds. Other important distinction between hope and expectation is that when we hope for something, we must desire it, want it or wish it, in the expectation this is not necessarily present, we do not necessary wish, desire or want the things or event we expect. Let’s think on statements such as “I am expecting a lot of work this week”, “we expect rain for tomorrow”, “market analysts expect a drop in the value of shares” and so forth. In these examples there is high level of confidence that the event or things expected will occur, yet they are not desired, wished or wanted, thus expectation is first and foremost anticipation. In hoping, we are move to desire, want or wish for something, “I hope to have a happy life”, “hope to find a job”, “I hope to recover from…” “I hope it does not rain tomorrow”. This aspect of hope, makes hope an emotion, we wish, want or desire something that affect us or something we are affected by. Thus, while hopes are bounded to reality and therefore there is an objective dimension in them, the experience of hoping is subjective. Dreams alike hopes and expectations, share the future orientation, but their anticipatory feature is of a different kind. Day dreams are journeys in which we envisioned a future in which our hopes are fulfilled.So far, I have clarified some features present in hope, whether we speak about hope as a noun or as verb. Hope (the noun) and to hope (the verb), have a future directed orientation, are bounded to reality and are emotional. We hope for things that have a reasonable possibility of fulfilment, the judgment of the possibilities of fulfilment of what we hope for is based on an objective reality experienced to at subjective level. Hoping is the emotion of trust, of reasonable confidence in the future and hope is the object of wish, desire or wants we envision in our future. Uncertainty about the future is the condition of possibility of hope, we hope, but we do not expect, because of this uncertainty, the future thus remain to us open-ended. “Hoping for possible state of affairs is one stance that human beings can take towards this uncertainty. Certainty creates no space for hope; uncertainty creates space for hope”.(Eliott, 2005, p. 67). The emotional state of being face to permanent uncertainty is balanced out with the emotion of trust, of confidence in the future. From this perspective I argue that hope can be seen as coping or adaptive mechanism of human beings, as uncertainty about the future is a human existential condition. Hope, while closely related to desire unlike this does not “presuppose human agency for its fulfilment… [it] depends on some other agency – a god, fate, chance, an other, - for its fulfilment” (Crapanzano, 2003, p. 7). The inherent indeterminacy of the future connects hopes to the realm of imagination, as to “hope is to imagine what has not come to pass but what is still possible”(Lynch, 1965, p. 9). “The work of imagination involves the construction (or, for a realist, the discovery) of possibilities. Since our everyday thought automatically involves us in assessing possibilities and probabilities, the capacity to envisage “possible worlds” is already implied in our day-to-day psychology”(SCRUTON). Imagination however must not be understood as fantasy, as I argue before hoping and hopes are closely bounded to reality; we understand that there is a limit of what we can hope for. The work of the imagination in fact is to cast light on our wishes, wants, desires and dreams and on the reality that ultimately inspire them. It must be noted that unlike fantasy “imaginative thoughts are constrained by the need to be appropriate to reality”. Imagination, thus “contributes to our narrative understanding and interpretation of what has happened and could happen and helps us to integrate these experiences into our lives, thereby increasing our chances that we will be able to find something to hope for. (Simpson, 2004, p. 435). From the previous analysis my second argument is that emergent character of hopes encompasses an adaptive element, which constitute the relational dimension of hope. At an individual level, our hopes vary according to our trajectories and circumstances, our hopes adapt and respond to our cycles of life.  When thinking about the hopes, dreams and expectation for their baby, parents resort to their imagination to reflect on how the baby’s life would be. In this process, they elaborate a mental picture of how the context in which the child will grow up would be like. Parents elaborate horizons of possibilities of themselves and of their baby in the world. At a basic level, these include the baby in the family, with the network of relationships that can comprise a broad range of family members ranging from the parents themselves to the extended family. However, the family is not only a network of relationships, it is also the site and space where the concept of home emerges, given place to the notion of family home and the accompanying feelings of belonging and attachment. In addition to the family dimension, parents also elaborate imagine horizons of possibilities in which they see their child’s future in a broader context which include the neighbourhood, the school, the university, the job market, the community, society, the country, and ultimately the world, to mention some. This broader context constitutes the platform above which the child and their family interact during the course of their life. At a first glance, we observe that there is an intimate connection between hopes and imagination. According to Ludema (2000) imagination is portrayed as the engine of hoping: it is the uniquely human function that allows people to participate actively and construct meaningful realities. Lynch (1965) asserts that hope is tied to the life of imagination – that constantly proposes itself that the boundaries of the possible are wider than they seem… it is able to wait for a moment of vision, which is not yet there… it is not overcome by the absoluteness of the present (p. 35). The role that imagination plays in assisting parents to consider possibilities for the future of their unborn baby is tightly connected to the uncertainty of these future possibilities (for a greater discussion of the role of imagination in hoping see Simpson, 2004). In fact as Crapanzano notes, hopes depends on some other agency – god, fate, chance, and other – for its fulfilment. The hopes, dreams, and expectations of expectant parent for their unborn children are therefore complex mental maps of interwoven imagined potential realities, in which the child, the family and their environment, intersect at multiple levels. Those mental maps might include the projection of parent’s individualities and trajectories, as well as their beliefs, morals, rules, values, goals and ways of thinking and behaving which are argued to be transmitted through parents’ behaviour toward their children, shaping the child’s development and world view in potentially important ways (Edwards, Knoche, Aukrust, Kumru, & Kim, 2006; Suizzo, 2007; Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2007). Furthermore, these mental maps include the culture and complexities of the society and of the country from which they emerge. Complexities that gather the spirit of the time, of an époque with unique characteristics. The study of hopes, dreams, and expectations thus is a journey to unfold the objective reality that conflated with the imagine horizons of possibility, which reflect both the potentialities and limitations that unborn babies might encounter in their life course.
  • Frequent words were analysed in context:Words constitute ‘points of access’ for the process of meaning construction, which involves the selection of an appropriate interpretation within the context of the utterance. The principle that meaning construction is drawing upon encyclopaedic knowledge involves inferencing strategies, which consider the local connections (mapping) between distinct temporary conceptual packing of information (mental spaces) within a local discourse context. Meaning construction is always context bound (Evans & Green, 2006). Interdiscoursivity: Refers to the relationship among institutional discourses, most notably the penetration of one discourse into another, or the encapsulation of one discourse within another. For example…Text: this term is used to refer to anything which can be 'read' for meaning, 'the world' is 'social text'Intertextuality: Intertextuality refers to the various links in form and content which bind a text to other texts. Each text exists in relation to others. Although the debts of a text to other texts are seldom acknowledged, texts owe more to other texts than to their own makers. Texts provide contexts such as genre within which other texts may be created and interpreted. The notion of intertextuality problematizes the idea of a text having boundaries: where does a text begin and end? Intratextuality: involving internal relations within the text. The sign is the whole that results from the association of the signifier with the signified (Saussure 1983, 67; Saussure 1974, 67). The relationship between the signifier and the signified is referred to as 'signification', and this is represented in the Saussurean diagram by the arrows. If we take a linguistic example, the word 'Open' (when it is invested with meaning by someone who encounters it on a shop doorway) is a sign consisting of: a signifier: the word open; a signified concept: that the shop is open for business. A sign must have both a signifier and a signified. You cannot have a totally meaningless signifier or a completely formless signified (Saussure 1983, 101; Saussure 1974, 102-103). A sign is a recognizable combination of a signifier with a particular signified. The same signifier (the word 'open') could stand for a different signified (and thus be a different sign) if it were on a push-button inside a lift ('push to open door'). Similarly, many signifiers could stand for the concept 'open' (for instance, on top of a packing carton, a small outline of a box with an open flap for 'open this end') - again, with each unique pairing constituting a different sign. A linguistic sign (such as a word)is a link betweenbut between a concept and a sound pattern. The sound pattern is not actually a sound; for a sound is something physical. A sound pattern is the hearer's psychological impression of a sound, as given to him by the evidence of his senses. This sound pattern may be called a 'material' element only in that it is the representation of our sensory impressions. The sound pattern may thus be distinguished from the other element associated with it in a linguistic sign. This other element is generally of a more abstract kind: the concept. (Saussure 1983, 66; Saussure 1974, 66) Master Signifiers: is what makes a message meaningful, is the terms that anchors, explains, or justifies the claims and demands contained in the message. Whereas other terms and the values and assumptions the bear may be challenged, master signifiers are simply accepted as having value or validity that goes without saying. Example, hopes, dreams, education, happiness, health, freedom, etc. they give the subject a sense of identity and direction. Master signifiers organized identity.Empty and Floating Signifiers: A master signifier with a vague, highly variable, unspecifiable or non-existent signifier. Such signifiers mean different things for different people: they may stand for many or even any signified; they may mean whatever the interpreters want them to mean. Example: love, happiness, health, body, ethnicity, gender, race…Nodal Points: Nodal points organized discourses.Before their articulation, nodal points were floating signifiers, elements which are not fixed to a particular signified and are therefore particularly open to differential ascriptions of meaning. Nodal points are thus privileged signifiers whose meaning within a discourse has already been established, whereas floating signifiers are potential nodal points whose meaning is still subject to struggle and contestation between different discourses (Torfing, 1999, p. 98-99; Žižek, 1989, p. 88ff.). Due to the virtual absence of a specific signified, floating signifiers can be inserted into a system of meaning differences and, turning into nodal points, derive their meaning from establishing equivalential relationships to other signifiers. As such they can serve to unify a discourse, binding together initially disparate moments and representing the totality of the social field (Jørgensen and Phillips, 2002, p. 26ff.; Torfing, 1999, p. 98). For example: health, health in the context of hopes, dreams and expectations refers to the baby’s normality (physically and mentally), absence of illness or disease for the baby, and pregnancy and delivery without complications.With these analytical tools in mind I identified coding frames for words and texts considering their frequency, these include 1500 most frequent words, ranging from XX to 1 within the entire free text data set of HDE. Coding frames were analysed (intra and intertextuality) Interrelations and combination between identified master, floating and empty signifiers where unfolded and analysed (interdiscoursivity and referentiality)Coding frames were organized into constructs and then into themes. Some themes were linked to the domains of GUPINZ, some themes were established as overarching analytical themes.
  • “all hope is directed to happiness” Kant
  • Health: healthiness, healthyhealth, healthfulnormal, 'normal', normallyalivenutrition, nutritionallyIllness/diseases: sick, sickly, sicknessill, illness, illnessesallergiesdeathdiabetesdiseasegeneticincubator, incubatorsinjuries, injurymedicinespainrefluxailmentsBody: disabilities, disability, disable, disabled,fingers,toes,bodied, bodies, body,brain, brainsdefect, defectsarm, armstalltallerarm, arms,deformities, deformity,eyes,lipappendagesMental Health: mental, mentallystress, stressed, stresses, stressfuldepressionanxiousMother-Child: bornbirth, birthingdeliverybreastlabour, labourer,pregnancies, pregnancypremature, prematurelypregnantdeliver, deliversbreastfeedmidwifenatal
  • Greater density and linguistic variation when referring to personality traitsThese personality traits come from the five factor model of personality. All of these factors are on a continuum.Openness to experience: Relates to having an active imagination, being attentive, flexible and curious. Words from the data that are representative (open, creative, imagination, inquisitive)Conscientiousness: Relates to being organised and efficient, having a strong need for achievement and success and being neat and systematic. Words from the dataset (succeed, goal, ambition, pursue, focussed – other side of the continuum shy)Agreeable: Relates to being kind to others, sympathetic, cooperative and considerate. Words from the dataset (compassionate, affectionate, empathy, heart, considerate)Extraversion: This is one side of the continuum that relates to whether an individual externalises or internalises their energy and ideas. Extraverts tend to be talkative and energetic. Words from the dataset (energetic, sociable, vibrant)Neuroticism: To be high on this trait the individual would be anxious and emotionally unstable, low neuroticism relates to high self efficacy, self esteem and emotional stability. Words from the dataset (adjusted, self esteem, assertive, able) Sports, hobbies and interests: relates to the type of activities the child may engage in (rugby, netball, outdoorsy)Qualities/abilities/skills: Broad qualities of the child (pretty, intellectual, clever, adorable)Values/virtues: attributes that the parent would like to be socialised into the child (honest, respectful, trusting, humble)
  • Greater density and linguistic variation when referring to personality traitsThese personality traits come from the five factor model of personality. All of these factors are on a continuum.Conscientiousness: Relates to being organised and efficient, having a strong need for achievement and success and being neat and systematic. Words from the dataset (succeed, goal, ambition, pursue, focussed – other side of the continuum shy)Agreeableness: Relates to being kind to others, sympathetic, cooperative and considerate. Words from the dataset (compassionate, affectionate, empathy, heart, considerate)Neuroticism: To be high on this trait the individual would be anxious and emotionally unstable, low neuroticism relates to high self efficacy, self esteem and emotional stability. Words from the dataset (adjusted, self esteem, assertive, able)Openness to experience: Relates to having an active imagination, being attentive, flexible and curious. Words from the data that are representative (open, creative, imagination, inquisitive)Extraversion: This is one side of the continuum that relates to whether an individual externalises or internalises their energy and ideas. Extraverts tend to be talkative and energetic. Words from the dataset (energetic, sociable, vibrant)CharacteristicsQualities/abilities/skills: Broad qualities of the child (pretty, intellectual, clever, adorable)Values/virtues: attributes that the parent would like to be socialised into the child (honest, respectful, trusting, humble)Sports, hobbies and interests: relates to the type of activities the child may engage in (rugby, netball, outdoorsy)Conscientiousness: ablesuccess, successes, successful, successfullyachievable, achieve, achieved, achievement, achievements, achiever, achievers, achieves, achievingfulfil, fulfilled, fulfilling, fulfilment, fulfilsmember, memberscontribute, contributed, contributes, contributing, contribution, contributivelycitizen, citizenssucceed, succeeded, succeeding, succeedsgoal, goalsdecision, decisionsresponse, responsibility, responsible, responsibly, responsivereach, reached, reaches, reachingpursue, pursued, pursues, pursuinguse, used, useful, uses, usingexcel, excelled, excellence, excellent, excelling, excelsaspirations, aspire, aspiresfullestproductiveadvantage, advantagesoption, optionsambitiouscapability, capableambition, ambitionsembrace, embraced, embraces, embracingmanage, management, manager, managescarefreecompetentequip, equippedconscientiousconsciousconsider, considered, consideringcompetition, competitivejudgement, judgementalmaximiseattainfoundAgreeableness:loving, caring, friendly, friendshelp, helped, helpful, helpfulness, helping, helpsinvolve, involved, involvement, involvements, involves, involvingbehave, behaved, behavingfair, fairing, fairly, fairnessconsiderable, considerateheart, heartedcompassionateempatheticcompassionempathywelllikedwellrespectedclearwellpaidadherencesaffirmingNeuroticism: confide, confidence, confident, confidentlystablebalance, balancedemotional, emotionally, emotionsselfesteemselfconfidence, selfconfidentcope, copesattitude, attitudesselfassuredprepare, prepared, preparingadapt, adaptable, adapted, adaptssensitiveadjust, adjusted, adjustsshyesteemselfaware, selfawarenessovercomewellgrounded,selfdefenceOpen to experience:experience, experiences,tries, try, tryingopen, opening, openly,creative, creativityimagination, imagineinquisitiveExtraversion:social, socialize, sociallypassion, passionate, passionsoutgoingsociablesocialisation, socialise, socialised, socialisingenthusiasticoptimist, optimisticcorrectcheerfulenergeticvibrantCharacteristicsQualities/Abilities/Skills: activate, activates, active, actively, actives, activities, activitysmart, smartsintelligence, intelligentwellroundedfunwellbalancedround, roundedphysical, physicallywelladjustedknowledge, knowledgeableskill, skilled, skillscleverbeautiful, beautifully, beautytalent, talented, talentsprettyprosper, prosperities, prosperity, prosperouswellmanneredstrength, strengthsresilientfamousbilingualhand, handful, handswelllovedcommit, commitment, commitments, committedintellectual, intellectuallyshoulder, shouldersthinker, thinkershandsomebravecutespoil, spoilingadorable, adoredbrilliantgorgeousliteratebrainylegalgapselfimageValues/virtues: respect, value, moral, morally, morals, independent, mind, minded, honest, treat,free, understanding, encouraging.decentwise, wisely, appreciates, proud, manner, aware, peace, accepting, polite, integrated, integrity,trust, trusted, grounded, humourethic, humble,relaxed, spiritual, tolerante,hardworking,generous,adventure, adventurous,naughty,obey, obeyed, obeyscurioushonestysensibleobedientcourage, courageousloyaltrustworthyhonour, honourable, honoursdetermination, determine, determined,driven,selfsufficient,selfworthcourteouspride, pridingreliablewisdomselfreliantselfrespectvirtuesselfishSports/hobbies/interests: sport, sporting, sportsinterest, interested, interesting, interestsoutdoor, outdoorsmusic, musical, musicallysportyrugbyplayerallblack, allblacksart, artsfish, fishingathlete, athleticleagueartisticswim, swimmingsoccersportsmanbeach, beachescricket, cricketerdance, dancingnetballwelltravelledoutdoorsyseadancerfootball, footballergolferinstrument, instrumentsleisuremartialmotorbike, motorbikeswater, wateredsurfergarden, gardeninggolf, golfing
  • EducationEducation: educate, educated, educating, education, educational, educationally, educationsschool, schooled, schooling, schoolsjob, jobslearn, learning, learnscareer, careersuniversitystudies, study, studyingteach, teaches, teachingprofessional, professionally, professionalsacademic, academicallyqualification, qualificationstertiaryemployed, employmentdegreehigherteacher, teachersclass, classeshighestlearner, learnerscollegestudent, studentsgraduatelearntlessonssecondarycrèchepreschoolqualifiedscholar, scholarlyscience, sciencesdiplomauniSchool – safe, quality, not drop outUniversity – go to…Preschool ? Professions/CareersTraditional Professions: doctor, doctorslawyerlaw, lawsSocial worker engineer, engineeringbusinessmandentistastronautnasanurse, nursesscientistsurgeonOther professions/careers: farm, farmingmusician, musicianspolice, policingministerpastormissionarypilotsingertradeofficerpolicemanfarmermechanic, mechanismpolitician, politicianssoldierambassadorarmy
  • Family relationships (nuclear family and extended family)ParentingStable family home/enviromentPotential conflict with siblingParent concern by not being likedSome parent hope their kids to not be like them, be better than themSome parent hope for their kids to have a better life they didThere is no significant differences between the mother and the partnerFamily: families, familyparent, parental, parenting, parentsson, sonsdaughter, daughtersbrother, brothersdad, dadsmum, mumssister, sistersmother, mothersfathersibling, siblingselder, elderly, elderspartner, partners, partners’husbandwifemarried, marrywhanaugrandparentscousin, cousinsdaddygrandchildrenmommummycouplespousefamiliargrandfathermaraemarriagemotherhood
  • Culture:cultural, culturally, culture, cultured, culturestravel, traveling, travelled, traveller, travelling, travelskiwi, kiwiness, kiwislanguage, languagesbelief, beliefsethnic, ethnically, ethnicities, ethnicitytradition, traditional, traditionsbilingualinternal, internally, internationalmulticultural, multiculturalismmultiinheritfluentlylingualnativetongueancestorsEthnicity and Nationality: zealand, zealander, zealandersmāoriindianenglishfilipinosamoanchineseafricaaucklandindiaphilippine, philippinesrussiantonganukaustraliaamericabritishchinacroatianeuropeanfijifrenchhistorykingdomisland, islanderafrikaansenglandfijianirelandjapanesekoreanmaoripacificromaniansamoaafricanReligion:god, godly, godschurchchristian, christianity, christiansfaith, faithfulreligiousreligion, religionspray, prayed, prayinglordjesusspirit, spiritedjesuschristmuslim, muslimscatholicpastorsaviourmissionarymissiondevote, devoted, devotionpreachallah
  • Community EnvironmentGeographical EnvironmentSocial EnvironmentEconomic Capital (wealth)Community Environment: environment, environmentsschool, schooled, schooling, schoolscommunicate, communication, communications, communicative, communicators, communities, communitysocietyhome, home'club, clubscitizenshipGeographical Environment: world, worldly, worldsplace, placed, placescountries, countryneighbourhoodsurround, surrounded, surrounding, surroundingsoutdoor, outdoorsarea, areashouse, housingunitruralfield, fieldsbeach, beachesglobal, globallypublicseacityenvironmentallylifelongwater, wateredairlandgarden, gardeningurbanzone, zoningSocial Environment:human, humanity, humanly, humansfriendship, friendshipsEconomic Capital (wealth): provide, provided, provider, provides, providingfinancial, financiallymoneyafford, affordability, affordable, affordedwealthyrichincomeroofwealthclass, classesasset, assetseconomic, economicallylowermaterial, materiallyinsurance, insurepoorpovertyupperwellpaidaffluent
  • Community Environment: environment, environmentsschool, schooled, schooling, schoolscommunicate, communication, communications, communicative, communicators, communities, communitysocietyhome, home'club, clubscitizenshipGeographical Environment: world, worldly, worldsplace, placed, placescountries, countryneighbourhoodsurround, surrounded, surrounding, surroundingsoutdoor, outdoorsarea, areashouse, housingunitruralfield, fieldsbeach, beachesglobal, globallypublicseacityenvironmentallylifelongwater, wateredairlandgarden, gardeningurbanzone, zoningSocial Environment:human, humanity, humanly, humansfriendship, friendshipsEconomic Capital (wealth): provide, provided, provider, provides, providingfinancial, financiallymoneyafford, affordability, affordable, affordedwealthyrichincomeroofwealthclass, classesasset, assetseconomic, economicallylowermaterial, materiallyinsurance, insurepoorpovertyupperwellpaidaffluent
  • Imagining a future: expectant parents’ hopes and dreams for their unborn children

    1. 1. Imagining a Future: Expectant parent’s hopes and dreams for their unborn children Dr Paula Pereda December 2012 Association of Social Anthropology of Aotearoa/New Zealand (ASAANZ) 2012 Annual Conference
    2. 2. Aims of this presentation • In this presentation I will: – Present the strategy used in the data analysis – Explain what are hopes, dreams and expectations and why are they important for study? – Present part of the analysis and preliminary findings • Broader intentions: – Further analysis using demographic and descriptive variables from GUPINZ – Set a methodology for analysis of large qualitative data sets
    3. 3. I Method: Data analysis using DC, CA and CS • Data: Parents were asked antenatally: “Please give us one or two sentences about the hopes, dreams, and expectations you have for your baby.” • Responses entered verbatim. • Blended approach (data based analysis + interdisciplinary theoretical perspectives) • Entire data set read • Word and text frequency using NVIVO • Relevant theories on hopes were selected • Codes - informed by - Discourse Analysis (totality, tensions/contradictions, process, praxis) - Content Analysis (conceptual and relational) - Cognitive Semantics (encyclopaedic and representational)
    4. 4. Hopes, Dreams and Expectations word frequency tag cloud able achieving activity baby become best better born boys career caring child childhood choices chooses citizen close community confident contribute cultures daughter dreams experiences education enjoy environment expectation family feel financially find finish follow friends fulfilling full future girls giving good grows happy healthy hope god health helps home independently intelligent involvement job kids kinds knows learns life lifestyle look loving member morals needs nice normally opportunities parents people person place positive possibly potential provide relationship respect rights safe school secure sense smart society son sports strongly successful support university upbringing values want well time well-educated world New Zealand
    5. 5. What are hopes, dreams and expectations? Why are they important? Hopes(s) Mythology Religion Philosophy Psychiatry Psychology Healthcare Sociology Political Science Education : : : : : : : : : Evil (Pandora Box) Faith, Virtue Disposition/Utopia Survival mechanism Goals, Expectations, Optimism Coping mechanism Access to social opportunities Substantive Democracy Empowerment (educated hope) Dreams Psychoanalysis Cognitive science Biology Philosophy :Unconscious wishes :Memory consolidation :Brain function :Wish fulfilment Expectations Economy : Assessed probability Psychology : Self-efficacy, motivation Organizational Studies : Needs, wants Management : Behaviour based on rewards
    6. 6. What are hopes, dreams and expectations? Why are they important? Future Imagination Past Present Uncertainty Emotion Possibilities Confidence Future Hopes, dreams and expectations “Reality holds within itself the anticipation of a possible future” “The present is pregnant with the future” Daniel & Moylan Leibniz “The past is a source of knowledge”, the future is a source of hope” Stephen Ambrose “We need to control the present in order to be able to shape the future” P. Bourdieu
    7. 7. III Method: Data analysis using DC, CA and CS Codes developed on the bases of: • Frequent words analysed in context (within text and discourse) • Interdiscoursivity, intertextuality and intratextuality approaches • Identification of Nodal Points, master signifiers, empty signifiers and floating signifiers
    8. 8. IV Method: Domains, themes and coding structure Domains Health and Wellbeing Psychological and Cognitive Development Education Family & Whanau Themes Health Personality traits Characteristics Education Professions/Careers Codes Health Illness/Diseases Body Mental health Mother-Child Open to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Sports/Hobbies/Interests Values/Virtues Qualities/Abilities/Skills Education Traditional professions/university degree Other professions/career (Diploma/Trade cert/Technical, Security/defence, Arts, Religion, Politics) Kinship, family and family members Culture and Identity Culture Ethnicity/Nationality Religion Societal context, Neighbourhood and Environment Social Environment Geographical Environment Economic capital (wealth) Community Environment
    9. 9. Non Domain Analytical themes • Overarching Signifiers happiness, hope, good, grow, well, safe, love, opportunities, best, better, enjoy, dream, expectations, possibilities, access, wish, chances • Temporal dimension grow, life, future, become, time, childhood, upbringing, develop, day, older, young, path, age, year, month, past, progress, present • Un-wishful Hopes Negative anticipatory emotion
    10. 10. Hopes, dreams and expectations Text frequency analysis classification Societal context, neighbour hood, environment al Text Culture and Identity Health and Wellbeing Family & Whanau HealthPsychological and Cognitive Development and Wellbeing Education Family & Whanau Societal context, neighbourhood, environmental Culture and Identity Education Psychological and Cognitive Development
    11. 11. Hopes, dreams and expectations Domains Hopes, dreams and expectations participants multiple responses All Mother Partner 70% 60% Participants 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Health andPsychological and Cognitive Development Wellbeing Education Family & Whanau Culture and Identity Societal context, neighbourhood, environmental
    12. 12. Health and Wellbeing Health and Wellbeing participants multiple responses Body - normal physical appearance Mental health depression, anxiety, stress • 100% Illness/diseases - be affected by, inherit some, cope with… • Partner Health – as a totality • Mother • • All Mother and Child pregnancy, birth (premature) and delivery Participants 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Health Illness/Diseases Body Mental health Text frequency analysis classification Mental health MotherChild Body Illness/ Diseases Health Mother-Child
    13. 13. Psychological and Cognitive Development Text frequency analysis classification Personality Traits Characteristics Conscientiousness Personality traits Agreeableness Neuroticism Open to experience Extraversion Characteristics 0% 10% 20% 30% Text Sports/Hobbies/Interests Qualities/Abilities/Skills Values/Virtues 40% 50%
    14. 14. Psychological and Cognitive Development Personality Traits participants multiple responses Partner Mother All Conscientiousness • Agreeableness • Succeed, achiever, goal oriented, with ambitions, focussed Compassionate, loving, caring, friendly, considerate Neuroticism • Adjusted, confident, assertive, self esteem Openness to experience • Open, creative, imaginative, inquisitive Extraversion • Social, passionate, outgoing, optimistic 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Characteristics Participants • • 60% Active, smart, fun, skilled, beautiful, tale nted Honest, respectful, with values and morals, trusting, humble Sporty, outdoorsy, with interests (i.e. musical, artistic, nature) All Mother Partner 50% Participants • participants multiple responses 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Qualities/Abilities/Skills Values/Virtues Sports/Hobbies/Interests
    15. 15. Education
    16. 16. Education Education Participant multiple responses All Mother Partner • Education 80% • School, university, college 60% • Jobs, employment, professional 40% • Learning, study, teach 20% Participants 100% • Academic, qualification, degree, diploma • Graduate 0% Education Professions/Careers Professions/Careers Participant multiple responses • Doctor, lawyer, social 80% t, astronaut, nurse, scientist, surgeon • Farmer, musician, police, prime minister, pastor Participants worker, engineer, businessman, dentis missionary, pilot, singer, trade, mecha nic, politician, soldier, ambassador All Mother Partner 60% 40% 20% 0% Traditional professions Other professions/careers
    17. 17. Family & Whanau able achieve activities baby become best better born boys brother career caring child children chooses church citizen close community confident contribute cultures dad daughter dreams expect experiences family fulfilling future giving god hope father feel financially find follow friends good happy lifestyle look education enjoy environment health great grows healthy helping home independent interests involved job kids kind knows learns loving member morals mothers mum needs nice parents people person life opportunities positive possibly provide relationship respect safe school secure sense siblings sister society son sports stay strongly successful support time travel upbringing values educated well-rounded world New Zealand want well well-
    18. 18. Culture and Identity
    19. 19. Culture and Identity Culture Culture and Identity • Culture, multiculturalism • Travel, international, 50% • Language 40% • Beliefs 30% • Tradition Participants multiple responses All Participants 60% Mother Partner 20% Religion 10% • 0% Culture Ethnicity/Nationality Religion Ethnicity and Nationality New Zealand, Māori, India, England, Phili ppine, Samoa, China, Croatia, Euro pean, Africa, Auckland, Russian, To ngan, Uk, Australia, America, Irelan d, Japan, Korea, God, Lord, Jesus Christ, Allah • Church • Christian • Faith, faithful • Religious, religion • Pray • Spirit • Muslim, Catholic • Pastor, Missionary
    20. 20. Societal context, Neighbourhood and Environment
    21. 21. Societal context, Neighbourhood and Environment Societal Context, Neighbourhood and Environment Participants Multiples responses All Mother Geographical Environment Partner World, place, country 50% Participants 60% neighbourhood, surrounding, outdoors 40% , area, house, unit, rural, beach, globa 30% l, public, sea, city, water, air, land, gar 20% den, urban, zoning 10% Community Environment 0% Geographical Environment Community Environment Social Environment Economic capital (wealth) Social Environment Environment, community society, home, clubs, citizenship Humans, humanity, people, friendships Economic Capital (wealth) Provide, financially, money afford, wealth, rich income, roof, class (upper, middle, lower) assets, economically, materially insure, poor poverty, well-
    22. 22. Un-wishful Hopes able achieve active alcohol allblack anything away baby bad become best better birth born boy bullying career caring child childhood children choose come community confident crime cultures decisions disabilities dreams drugs education enjoy environment expect family fearing feel find finish free friends future give god happy hard hope financially good grows healthy health help home involved job keep kids knows learn mistakes needs nice opportunities life look love parents people person place possible problems provide respect right safe school society son sports stay stress strong struggle study successful support think time trouble values violence want well world worrying wrong New Zealand
    23. 23. Final Remarks • Methodological challenges of large qualitative data sets • Ground and operationalize elusive concepts such as hopes, dreams and expectations • Introduce hopes and un-wishful hopes as categories of analysis • Analysis and preliminary findings • Broader intentions: Further analysis using demographic and descriptive variables from GUPINZ Policy development applicability
    24. 24. The End Thank you for attending to this presentation

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