Prototyping

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Prototype is an early sample or model built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.

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Prototyping

  1. 1. Prototyping<br /><ul><li>Developing a Prototype
  2. 2. User’s Role in Prototyping
  3. 3. Rapid Application Development</li></li></ul><li>The word prototype derives from the Greek Word:<br />prototypon - primitive form<br />prototypos - original, primitive" <br />protos - first<br />typos - impression<br />
  4. 4. What is Prototype?<br />A prototype is an early sample or model built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.<br />
  5. 5. Developing a Prototype:<br />Outline of the prototyping process<br />1. Identify basic requirements<br /><ul><li>Determine basic requirements including the input and output information desired. Details, such as security, can typically be ignored.</li></ul>2. Develop Initial Prototype<br /><ul><li>The initial prototype is developed that includes only user interfaces.</li></li></ul><li>3. Review<br /><ul><li>The customers, including end-users, examine the prototype and provide feedback on additions or changes.</li></ul>4. Revise and Enhance the Prototype<br /><ul><li>Using the feedback both the specifications and the prototype can be improved. Negotiation about what is within the scope of the contract/product may be necessary. </li></li></ul><li>Note:<br />If changes are introduced then a repeat of steps #3 and #4 may be needed.<br />
  6. 6. Users Role in Prototyping<br />The user is involved to test the program, to make sure it works to achieve it's function, and more importantly, that it's user friendly (the interface is uncluttered; easy to read and follow), and can be used easily by someone without a lot of technical knowledge/skills.<br />
  7. 7. Rapid Application Development(RAD)<br />A Software Development methodology that uses minimal planning in favor of rapid prototyping. The "planning" of software developed using RAD is interleaved with writing the software itself. The lack of extensive pre-planning generally allows software to be written much faster, and makes it easier to change requirements.<br />
  8. 8. Four (4) Phases of RAD<br />Requirements Planning phase – combines elements of the system planning and systems analysis phases of the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Users, managers, and IT staff members discuss and agree on business needs, project scope, constraints, and system requirements. It ends when the team agrees on the key issues and obtains management authorization to continue.<br />
  9. 9. User design phase – during this phase, users interact with systems analysts and develop models and prototypes that represent all system processes, inputs, and outputs. The RAD groups or subgroups typically use a combination of Joint Application Development (JAD) techniques and CASE tools to translate user needs into working models. User Design is a continuous interactive process that allows users to understand, modify, and eventually approve a working model of the system that meets their needs.<br />
  10. 10. Construction phase – focuses on program and application development task similar to the SDLC. In RAD, however, users continue to participate and can still suggest changes or improvements as actual screens or reports are developed. Its tasks are programming and application development, coding, unit-integration and system testing.<br />
  11. 11. Cutover phase – resembles the final tasks in the SDLC implementation phase, including data conversion, testing, changeover to the new system, and user training. Compared with traditional methods, the entire process is compressed. As a result, the new system is built, delivered, and placed in operation much sooner. Its tasks are data conversion, full-scale testing, system changeover, user training.<br />
  12. 12. Advantages of Prototyping<br /><ul><li>Reduces development time.
  13. 13. Reduces development costs.
  14. 14. Requires user involvement.
  15. 15. Developers receive quantifiable user feedback.
  16. 16. Facilitates system implementation since users know what to expect.
  17. 17. Results in higher user satisfaction.
  18. 18. Exposes developers to potential future system enhancements.</li></li></ul><li>Advantages of Prototyping<br /><ul><li>Can lead to insufficient analysis.
  19. 19. Users expect the performance of the ultimate system to be the same as the prototype.
  20. 20. Developers can become too attached to their prototypes
  21. 21. Sometimes leads to incomplete documentation.</li></li></ul><li>Thank You For Listening…<br />Prepared By:<br /> Paul Anthony F. Solis<br />

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