Additional advice for Module 3
Analysis and Learning
For the Critical Review
Where are you now? Evaluate…
Where are you now in your process? You could be in several places at once now!
CS3 Review of the Critical Review structure
• Title Page see example on the Libguide
1. Introduction – Indicative 500 words – talked about
2. Evaluation of the Inquiry Process – Indicative
2500 words - talked about this CS2 – 1 slide in
3. Analysis of the Findings – Indicative 2500
4. Critical Reflection – Indicative 500 words
• Bibliography (Harvard style) and Appendices
• Supporting Evidence – explained later
Section 2 Review: Evaluation of the Inquiry Process
relates to the Analysis Tools that were used
Describe these in your evaluation but make sure to be clear about the
ones you used in your analysis.
Don’t forget other gathering data tools like participant observation from
your private journals, the gathering of documents while doing interviews,
You may have gathered visual or audio-visual materials that you need to
consider for anonymity (this depends on the consent issues you agreed
with your participants).
Section 3 Analysis of Findings
Analysis: your findings (what you found out from the data
you gathered) and your analysis of the findings compared to
your literature and earlier perceptions of the topic, conclusion
of this stage.
What implications/benefits/impact did your inquiry have?
Did you conduct any activities/events/interventions that used
what you found out in your practice? and possible further
Analysis of Findings: possible points to consider
What did the data indicate about your topic, research
question or hypothesis? What did you find out?
The professional inquiry
has been a way to
gather data about a
Findings are interesting
because they relate to
how things actually are in
your work environment.
The inquiry tools that you used
should have provided you with
the evidence that you need for
your inquiry. If not… why not?
Think of analysis as a triangle of data to develop meaning that
you can tell others using your own point of view
Data – findings from your
others and from a
collected body of
knowledge in your
field and beyond
(Adesola with Paula added)
Analysis of Findings: critical arguments
How do your findings relate
to your literature i.e. earlier
perceptions of the topic or
critical arguments about the
Use examples from your
Conclusion of this section what
did your inquiry have to your
professional practice? Your
workplace? Your community
How did your own
ons relate to the findings
from your inquiry?
What additional knowledge
and understanding do you
have about your professional
practice? Possible further
Analysing Observations (revisited from Reader 6)
The data is gathered and displayed as descriptions, quotes,
diagrams to show relationships, quantitative charts/displays
to show quantitative data, audio, audio-visual, and
photographic evidence, etc.
Your observations record what has happened sensitively
and appropriately to issues of ethics, permission and
You need to report an understanding of the context for the
event or meeting that was observed in order to draw
conclusions from the data.
Analysing the survey/questionnaire data (revisited)
The framework for data analysis of replies determined in advance.
Coding your questionnaire: There are five steps involved in the
coding process (Survey Monkey can export this data):
1. Develop the coding frame for both pre-coded (closed) and open
2. Create a codebook and coding instructions.
3. Code the questionnaires.
4. Transfer the values to a computer (as in an Excel spreadsheet).
5. Check and clean the data (you can make simple graphs with the
Interpretation involves identifying significant results, trends, patterns,
similarities and differences and offering an explanation for them. This
can be expressed in the form of numbers or words in your findings.
Analysing interviews and focus groups (revisited)
The analysis of data collected from interviews can be
complex. It has been collected within a certain context
and must be analysed with that in mind.
The qualitative researcher can categorise (code) data
that has emerged into themes. Quotes can be selected
because they typify the data (common responses) or there
might be some statements that are significant though only
said once (significant).
The data is organised so that comparisons, contrasts and
insights can be made with the aim of finding the
meaning of the evidence presented.
Or use your research questions to format this part of
the analysis – whatever is the clearest way to discuss.
Or use your research questions to format this part of
Exercises for Analysis
Using the Critical Review as
a structure for discussion
On pieces blank piece of A4
– 5 minute exercise
1.Review your introduction
using 3 main bullet points
2.Review your evaluation
using 5 main bullet points
Note: guidelines for these sections are in
Module Handbook if you need to review them.
1.Tell the someone your
main findings and points of
2.Write out what you say
while you are talking and
give you the notes
3.Reflect on responses and
questions from the group
and write a blog about your
Section 4 - Critical Reflection
Critical Reflection - a critical self-analysis of the learning journey based
on your learning journal
Have your acquired new knowledge and understanding about yourself?
Your job? Your workplace? Your community of practice?
What is it? explain by
Your learning journey has been continuous since the 1. beginning of
the course and 2. this module… what has changed? How has the
work you have done on the BA (Hons) affected your performance
and progression? How has your professional practice been
Group Exercises for the Critical Reflection
Mindmap your critical
reflection using 1 A4 piece
Discuss this with the group in order to
explain in further depth the things that you
have learned – scan mindmap and put on
Please do this at home if you are not in the campus session!
Supporting Evidence as Appendices
Supporting Evidence blog texts,
visual evidence, blank consent form,
blank questionnaires, interview
questions, observation grids, etc. Each
appendix should be cited (e.g.
Appendix 1) in the Critical Review and
be relevant to what you have said.
These are a way that you can more
clearly show what you have
accomplished – and relate to the
thinking and actual activities of the
How are you using
Should images of
your work be put in
the text of the
Harvard citation and bibliography
The use of citation for words and images – any ideas
that are quoted or paraphrased – you must reference
these in a Bibliography,
Review university guidelines on copyright.
Use Harvard referencing – WORDS and PICTURES
Advice on Harvard Referencing is in the Programme
Handbook and under the Writing Tab for the BAPP
1. Q&A from Module 3 BAPP
1. The questions that you ask in the interview survey, should you
comment on each answer? (i.e. the Interview has 14 questions and
the Survey has 24 questions). How many graphs do you put in?
Often there is not space to look at every response, so you may want to
focus on the most significant findings and the ones that most
participants used (more common) – in some cases these might be
the same BUT in the interviews only a few might have brought up
important issues that you want to talk about. You can use your
appendices to show findings that you were unable to spend much
time on in your analysis and refer the reader when needed.
Put in the number of graphs (data) or quotes (data) that relate to your
main points of analysis.
2. Q&A from Module 3 BAPP
2. Does it matter if the information you’ve gathered is rubbish as long
as you comment that it is rubbish?
Difficult one… in this process you try to ask the right interview/survey
etc. questions to gather the data that you need to address your
research questions or hypothesis. However, there might be some
of the questions that did not lead to data that you expected or that
was useful as findings. In this case, you rely on the data that has
been useful and comment within the evaluation and perhaps in the
critical learning sections about the process BUT some unexpected
data is genuine so should be reported as a part of the inquiry.
Think this through – if your inquiry process has not allowed you to
explore the specific issues in your inquiry topic using primary
evidence from other people and literature, you need to discuss this
with your adviser.
3. Q&A from Module 3 BAPP
3. What does the literature review in the Evaluation section cite?
The literature review covers the sources you have used, the people
and theories examined as knowledge and understanding mainly
from written sources BUT also videos, audio tapes, etc.
Investigating your topic by looking at what others have said about it
allows you and the reader to understand the context of your
You can quote and paraphrase from your literature to describe this
context and theorise your findings in your analysis – to compare
the findings to the debates in your field, back up certain findings,
use larger data sets that discuss your indicative findings, give a
historical setting, etc.
4. Q&A from Module 3 BAPP
4. How much do we mention the Professional Artefact in the Critical
Yes, it is appropriate to mention the Professional Artefact in your
Critical Review, especially in your analysis or critical reflection.
You might also consider an explanatory section to your artefact–
we discussed the addition of a cover or written insert often found in
CDs to show what they are about and give credits.
The final ‘shape’ of the artefact and how it is explained is up to you, but
it would make sense to cover this explanation somewhere in the
work you submit.
5. Q&A from Module 3 BAPP
5. What is the difference between the inquiry and the professional
The inquiry is the process you have used for exploring a research
question or hypothesis – the topic area that you have focused on
during the module. Your inquiry includes your practitioner research
and might include a workshop or teaching intervention, but the
process of questioning and exploring the topic would have
informed your practice in order for you to do that activity.
The professional artefact exhibits the knowledge and understanding
from the inquiry findings, like the critical review, but will be some
type of product or ‘work in progress’ you have made for a
6. Q&A from Module 3 BAPP
5. What is the difference between an ‘opinion’ and an ‘interpretation’?
This comes from Paula’s work based learning and the ‘interpretevistic’
and ‘constructivist’ vocabulary, hoever be aware that in different
academic cultures (arts and humanities) the term ‘opinion’ might
represent something else. It might be helpful to think of an opinion
as a personally held belief that could be used in your critical
reflection and an interpretation as an analysis based on evidence –
evidence that comes from the data you have gathered through your
practitioner research and inquiry work (both the literature and the
‘tool’ like interview or survey) – so in your analysis section you will
be interpreting your findings using critical thinking that relies on
judgement. What did you find out and what did it mean?
Feedback from peers and tutors
Week 9: Send to adviser draft sections of your Critical Review
(Introduction, Evaluation, Analysis and Critical Reflection) for written
feedback. Get in touch with your adviser to negotiate this feedback and
when you will be sending this in…
The due date for the Critical Review and the Professional Artefact are the
7th January 2014. Digital submission are sent to the MyLearning (Moodle)
with with BAPP@mdx.ac.uk as a back up for any who cannot get
onto the system. Paula will be in on the office 6th of January for any
Presentations will be the 22nd and 23rd of January We
will only change
if we need to – and some may have to Skype. RSVP now for
these dates in am/pm slots (contact Paula)
The Oral Presentation
This will be on the 22nd and 23rd January 2014 this year –
you can talk to your adviser about it after you submit your
first two parts of the coursework. If you cannot come on
the days above, get in touch with your adviser to negotiate
There will be more advice about the presentations up on
the blogs – but search this as key words on tutor blogs for