Pros and cons of community based natural resource management.

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Pros and cons of community based natural resource management.

  1. 1. Course Title: Dryland Resource Economics Community Based Natural Resources Management Sub title: What makes them successful or Fail? Case Studies Analysis Compiled By: PhD Students Moses Kaiira and Pauline Gitonga Dryland Resource Management Doctoral Programme University of Nairobi, Department of Land Resource and Agricultural Technology
  2. 2. Background Information  Community based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a way for communities to work together to protect their natural resources and at the same time bring long-lasting benefits to the community and future generations  CBNRM projects vary within and between nations resulting in considerable diversity in project development, implementation and outcomes.  This presentation will highlight the principles that make one project to be a success and another to fail.
  3. 3. Background cont.… 7 principles of successful CBNRM 1.Diversification of livelihood options in the use of natural resources so as to minimise risks in case of natural and economic disasters. 2. Natural resource base sustainably maintained to secure livelihoods for current and future generations 3.Involve all stakeholders e.g. local organisations, local governments and community organisations. 4.Community receive direct and indirect economic, social, cultural and spiritual benefits. 5.Community involved in the development and implementation of policies and laws e.g. land tenure and distribution of benefits and resources 6.Capacity building and technology transfer to the communities that respects the local knowledge and experiences. 7. Good understanding of local leadership who should fully understand and support the projects. (Tang and NanZhao 2011)
  4. 4. Background cont…  Most CBNRM projects have 4 main focus areas; 1. Sustainable livelihoods 2. Incentive based approach 3. Devolution 4. Community proprietorship
  5. 5. 1. Sustainable livelihood focus: Successful case The Kam’mwamba Community Integrated Natural resource management and Use Project in Malawi Background Community had been experiencing heavy deforestation from both commercial exploitation and locals striving to earn a living to enhance their livelihoods from 3000 hectares of indigenous forest Implementation Designed to identify economic value in the indigenous forests and devise mechanisms through which the community can benefit from such value and create an incentive to conserve the forests economic value was identified to be in the harvesting and marketing of non-timber forest products. Lessons learned Incorporation of sustainable livelihood and environmental management strategies build on community resilience and adaptive capacity lessens the vulnerability of the community to future climate change (Chishakwe et al., 2012).
  6. 6. 2. Incentive based approach; Successful Masoka CAMPFIRE Programme - Zimbabwe Background Wildlife was the most valuable resource but it was also the greatest threat to agricultural production. The solution was to promote the conservation of wildlife through the provision of economic benefits of wildlife hunting as well as agricultural production. Implementation Decision to implement was community self driven with NGOs playing and advisory role on request and on community term. Erection of fences to protect and enhance agricultural production. Right to hunting quota approved by parks and wildlife authority given to private operator who marketed hunts internationally then revenues shared by community, rural district council and the private safari operator.
  7. 7. Campfire cont.. Lessons learned To enhance capacity to respond and cope with vulnerabilities caused by climate change communities will be motivated to embrace initiatives if the incentives are direct, visible and sustainable. This demonstrates that cash dividends can assist in reducing a community’s short-term vulnerability, enabling households to respond to climate-related shocks, aiding households to manage risk and facilitating livelihoods transitions (Chishakwe et al., 2012).
  8. 8. 2. Incentive based cont.. Failed case Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary as a CBNRM initiative: maintaining livelihoods and wetland health Background and Implementation Analyzed different components of CBNRM initiatives by interviewing managing committee members and local households on how the project works and associated benefits and constraints. Lessons Learned In order to conserve the wetland there is need for proper monitoring and clear leadership Communities should be made aware of the monetary benefits accrued from conserving the natural resource (Gosling 2011)
  9. 9. 3. Devolution –Failed case The quest for governance: Decision making on a groundwater commons in India’s Drylands Background India has over 20 million private tubewells for irrigation and is the largest consumer of groundwater throughout the world. The overuse of tubewell technology by private investment is causing groundwater scarcity and salinity. Implementation Survey on social capital to measure the norms and networks of participants, predict extraction levels and find a link if any between social capital and collective action. Lessons Learnt CBNRM ground water management can work but communities have different social preferences for the extraction and use of ground water and state interventions may be necessary to streamline and secure common property rights especially for private extraction (Lekha 2011).
  10. 10. Devolution cont… Failed case Bawa and Daque in Mozambique Background and Implementation In Bawa project aimed at sustainable management of wildlife - buffalo and antelope while Daque there was collaborative management of water resources, forests, wildlife and fishing Community committees for natural resource management were established by interested community members, using a gender-sensitive approach and were turned into legally recognized organizations to represent the people interests on natural resource issues. Unlike other devolution approaches that originate from central government, devolution in this case was site specific and originated from rural community, district and provincial levels. In some cases conflicts emerged with the creation of the institutions, as traditional authorities felt that their positions and powers were being taken away
  11. 11. Devolution cont.. Mozambique case New institutions faced difficulties in imposing their authority to communities that were used to free access to natural resources,  In addition, the traditional local authorities questioned the legitimacy and accountability of such institutions. Lessons learned  CBNRM projects should not only consist of new structures but should also recognize and include existing traditional institutional structures to be effectively implemented  Institutional arrangements must be inclusive and create space for all relevant stakeholders - such as elected representatives, community members, NGOs and the private sector to participate at any time (Chishakwe et al., 2012). 
  12. 12. 4. Communal Proprietorship –Successful case Mayuni Conservancy - Namibia Background Namibian Government’s approach to CBNRM focused on encouraging and recognizing communally defined and owned “conservancies.” Under laws enacted in 1996 The large population in Mayuni conservancy resulted in more competition for natural resources such as construction poles, grazing pastures, thatching grass, foods and land. A problem of “open access” developed, with local indigenous populations unable to control the settlement of outsiders on communal lands or the use of communal resources.
  13. 13. Communal Proprietorship cont… Implementation Community elected a committee to represent the group, agreed upon a legal constitution that provides for sustainable management of hunting and “non-consumptive” uses of wildlife (e.g., tourism). They also established means of managing funds, approved equitable method for distributing income and defined geographic boundaries of proposed conservancy. An institutional Board of Trustees was formed with two tribal courts representatives and an appointed executive Committee which carried out the day-to-day conservancy activities The key role of the Board of Trustees was to ensure that the policies and activities of the conservancy were implemented.
  14. 14. Communal Proprietorship cont.… Implementation cont.. The conservancy management committee and the tribal authority facilitated the formation of a development committee. This committee also had strong relationship with institutions like the conservancy water committee. The community enjoyed rights of ownership over wildlife resources for their own purposes. Lessons learned Traditional leadership can play an important role in signifying and symbolizing community ownership. Social capital elements such as ‘relationships of trust’ between the community and its traditional leadership and between the traditional leadership and project implementers is an important factor in promoting communal ownership of CBNRM projects (Chishakwe et al., 2012).
  15. 15. In conclusion, successful CBNRM ;  Build local leadership, share the control and responsibility by involving the community in decision making.  Ensure Individuals or groups don't use the project for their own ambitions by ensuring projects have clear goals and plans that can be monitored and evaluated continuously.  Keep everyone informed and allow people to make contributions, set rules and have powers to discipline offenders .  Should be ready for unexpected events and surprises over which you have little control. Need patience and different skills to encourage community to work together.
  16. 16.     Conclusion cont… Realize that community organisation and project takeoff can be slow and difficult process that can take years. Everyone needs to stay committed and give support for as long as necessary. Respect and understand communities history, religion, traditional and cultural practices. Build trust between people and work hard to keep it. Guiding policies involve communities at developmental stage and these policies should be easy to understand, acquire, all inclusive, capture local rules and give clear guidelines on handing over authority to communities after ensuring projects are sustainable (conserve as well as economically benefit the people in the long run).
  17. 17. References     Chishakwe, N., Murray, L. and Chambwera M.,( 2012). Building climate change adaptation on community experiences: Lessons from community-based natural resource management in southern Africa, International Institute for Environment and Development. London. Lekha A. K. (2011). The quest for governance: Decision making on a groundwater commons in India’s Drylands. A Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation in Natural Resources and Environment at the University of Michigan Gosling A. (2011). A case study of Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary as a community driven Community-Based Natural Resource Management initiative: maintaining livelihoods and wetland health. A Master of Science thesis at Rhodes University TANG Z. and NAN ZHAO (2011). Assessing the principles of community-based natural resources management in local environmental conservation plans. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management:13 : 405–434

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