InDEX● Energy definition● Types of energy● Energy sources● Renewable energy● Non-renewable energy● Types of power stations● Wind turbine
ENERGY DEFINITION The energy isthe capacity of an object to doing a work.
TYPES OF ENERGY
MECHANICAL ENERGYThere are two types ofmechanical energy:Kinetic energy: is the energy thatobjects have when they are inmotion. For example the windmill.Potential energy: is the energythat the objects have when theyare moved from their stableposition of equilibrium. Forexample an arch.
ELECTRICALENERGYIt is the energy associated withan electrical current. Forexample high voltage network.
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGYThis energy istransported byelectromagnetic waves.For example atelevision or aradio.
SOUND ENERGYIt is associated withsounds waves thatare transmittedthrough vibrations.For example amegaphone.
CHEMICAL ENERGYChemical energy isstored in substances. Itcan be realasedorabsorbed duringchemical processes.For exampe a battery.
NUCLEAR ENERGYIts contained in thenuclei of atoms. Itrealised by a nuclearreaction. Also it canbe called atomicenergy.For example anuclear power plant.
THERMAL OR CALORIFICENERGYIt comes from thevibration of particlesin matter.For example athermometer.
ENERGY SOURCESEnergy sources are natural resources that providesdifferent formes of energy.This energy is transformedfor especific uses.Energy sources are classified into renewable and non-renewable sources.
NON-RENEWABLESOURCESNon-renwable energy sources come fromnatural resources that are limited and we onlycan use them once. The main sources ofenergy that we use are:-Nuclear energy-Fosil fuels -
NUCLEAR ENERGYProduction: this energy is storedin the nuclei of atoms, it isrealised in the nuclear reactionthat occurs in certain atoms.There are two kinds-Nuclear fusion: when two lightnuclei joints two form a heviernucleus.-Nuclear fission: When a heavynucleus is divided into twolighter nuclei by bombarding itwith neutrons.Transformation: nuclear powerstations use fission energy.
COALExtraction: there are twomethods for extracting it:-Open cast mines when the coalis close to the surface.-Underground mines when themineral is burried deep belowthe surface.Transport: by sea, by land andby road.Uses:-For energy: to generateelectricity.Nowadays: For central heatingsystemsIn the past: For street lighting
PETROLEUMIt is formed from the buriedremains of plants andanimals that havedescomposed.Extracting: From land orunder the sea, using pumpsand the extraxted petroleumcontains salt water, rock,mud and gas, so it is thenpurified.Storage and transport:-Oil tankers-Oil pipelines
NATURAL GASIt is a mixture of gases formed fromdescomposed plants and animals.Extraction: It is expenses to extract and it isextrated by drilling.Storage and transport:1.Natural gas is transported from gas fieldsby gas piperlines to a liquefaction plant2. It is convert into liquid.3.It is transformed in LNG carries.4.Then its returned to a gaseus state and it istransported once again through gaspiperlines.Uses: It is used in industry and in homes toproduce thermal energy and in thermalpower station to obtain elecrtical energy.
RENEWABLE ENERGYIt comes from unlimited natural resources.There are differnet types:-Hydraulic energy-Solar energy-Wiind energy-Marine energy-Geothermal energy-Biomass energy-Energy produced from municipal solid waste
HYDRAULIC ENERGYThis is the mechanical energyproduced by the movement of water.Production: We build dams to storeriver water.Transportation: Mos hydraulic energyis used to produce electricicy inhydroelectric power stations.Advantages: It is cheap, clean andnon-pollutid.Desadvantages: Building powerstation is very expensive, if the damsbreaks, there is a risk of acatastrophe...
SOLAR ENERGYIt is capable of taking advantage oflight to convert it into chemicalenergy. Solar energy is produced bythermonuclear radiation frominside the sun.Advantages: It is clean, big powerstatioons are not needed and itśunlimited.Disadvantages: its variable sourceof energy, solar pannels are veryexpensive.
WIND ENERGYIt has used since ancient times tomove sailing ships.Production and transportation: Itis produced by the effect ofradiation on the atmosphere. Thewinds kinetic energy isconverted into electricity.Advantages: It is unlimited andnon-polluting, the cost ofmanteining at wind farms is low.Desadvanteges: It is a variablesource of energy, wind turbinesproduce noise pollution...
MARINE ENERGYThere are several meansfor generating energyfrom the sea:Tidal energy can beextracted from the tides.
POWER STATIONSA power station is an industrial facility for thegeneration of electric power.At the center of nearly all power stations is agenerator, a rotating machine that convertsmechanical power into electrical power.There are many types:-Nuclear Power Station-Thermal Power Station-Solar Power Station-Heolic Power Station-Hidraulic Power Station
NUCLEAR POWERSTATIONA nuclear power plant is a thermal powerstation in which the heat source is one or morenuclear reactors.
THERMAL POWER STATIONA thermal power station is a power plant in which th
HYDRAULIC POWER STATIOIt´s generated by the pressure of fa
SOLAR POWER STATIONIt´s where the light is converted into c
WIND POWER STATIONIt´s where the wind is transformed i
WIND TURBINESWind turbines have long produced renewable energy buOne turbine can produce up to 1,000 liters of water everywind speeds.