Reading in elementary school chapter 9
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Reading in elementary school chapter 9 Reading in elementary school chapter 9 Presentation Transcript

  • Teaching reading in today’s elementary schools
    Chapter 9 – Major approaches and Materials for Reading Instruction
  • Basal reading series
    For many years, basal reading series have been the most widely used materials for teaching reading in the elementary schools
    Provide anthologies of stories
    Include a teacher’s manual with detailed lesson plans
    Many include workbooks and masters skills sheets
    Some series offer suggestions for differentiating instruction
  • Uses and misuses of basal materials
    • Teachers should assess skill mastery and determine if additional practice is needed
    • Strategy instruction should be planned to fit the needs of their class
    • Discussion of completed workbook pages should follow completion
    • Provide additional enrichment activities to stimulate critical thinking
    • Do not have to follow all suggestions in the manual- provide students with a variety of reading materials
    • Basal instruction is a good as the teacher using it
    • Should be looked at as a total reading program
    • Basal series will not provide appropriate instruction for all students
  • Types of basal reading programs
    • Linguistic series- linguistics (study of human speech) has been applied to many basal series.
    • Beginning readers should be presented with material that uses only a single sound for a letter at a time
    • Irregularly spelled words should be avoided in beginning reading material
    • Word attack skills are taught with minimally contrasting spelling patterns
    • Sounds should not be isolated from words
    • Intensive phonics series- synthetic phonics approach, strong emphasis on decoding
    • Literature based-quality literature selections in their entirety
  • Instructional procedures with basal series
    • DRA- directed reading activity, used to extend and strengthen a student’s reading ability.
    • 5 components to DRA
    • Motivation and development background-activating schema
    • Directed story reading-teacher provides purpose, and directs reading
    • Strategy or skill building activity-direct instruction
    • Follow up-practice strategies and skills- worksheet, games
    • Enrichment activities- connect the story with music, art, or creative writing
  • Guided reading
    Involves matching students with books that provide an appropriate level of challenge and familiarity to support reading strategies
    Guided reading groups are flexible
    During reading the student’s miscues guide strategy instruction
    After reading there is a discussion of the book
    Extension activities- re-read, read new book, writing, vocabulary exercises
  • Directed reading-thinking activity DRTA
    • Focuses on student control rather than teacher guidance
    • 5 steps
    • Making predictions from title clues
    • Making predictions from picture clues
    • Reading the material
    • Assessing the accuracy of predictions, adjusting predictions
    • Repeating the procedure until all parts of the lesson have been covered
    • Teacher selects points in which to pause for students to make new predictions
  • Literature – based approaches
    • Places emphasis on connecting stories to students’ personal background knowledge, analyzing stories and selections for particular elements, and on monitoring students’ understanding of the reading materials.
    • Foundation of a literature based approach is trade books
    • Reading skills and strategies are taught within the context of the material that students are actively reading
    • Can be hard to assess that all needed strategies and skills are being covered
    • Sustained Silent Reading
  • Whole class reading of a core book
    Teachers select books based on quality of material, fit in overall curriculum, related to topics.
    Every student has a copy of the same book
    Rereading activities used to activate prior knowledge, introduce vocabulary, essential questions, purpose for reading
    During reading activities- pauses for discussion to evaluate comprehension, literary analysis, reader responses
    Postreading activities- elaborate ideas, retelling, apply information, create presentations
    When using a whole class book- modifications will be necessary
  • Literature circles
    Teacher chooses several books for which multiple copies are available
    Four or five groups of no more than 6 students each
    Each group reads a different book
    Groups may be heterogeneous
    Groups meet two to five times a week
    Student leader conducts discussion of book
    Reading response journals or literature logs allow for collections of the reactions
    Books may be chosen by theme, genre, setting, author
  • Thematic literature units
    Structured around themes based on topics like homes, families, survival, social studies or science topics, authors.
    Allows students to delve more deeply into ideas and thus develop deeper understandings and connections
    Enhances metacognition
    Promotes positive attitudes toward reading and writing
    Time is less fragmented – teacher can embed instruction from one subject into another
    Can use a single book as a focus or read aloud multiple books of the same topic
  • Individualized reading approach
    • Encourages each student to move at her or his own pace through self-chosen reading materials
    • Self selection- students choose material
    • Self-pacing- each student reads at his or her own pace
    • Strategy and skill instruction-teacher helps as needed
    • Recordkeeping-teacher keeps individual records of student’s progress
    • Student-teacher conferences- one or two times a week teacher meet with each student
    • Sharing activities-each week students share books that they have read
    • Independent work-students do a great deal of work at their seats instead of in a group with the teacher
  • Literature based programs and English Language learners
    Read alouds, literature circles, book talks, retellings, and other literature response activities help support ELL students
    In selecting books- consider the students’ maturity levels, cultural background, interests, and current reading ability
    Picture books make great choices
    Books with themes such as moving, being different, family concerns
    Books that offer survival vocabulary
    Nonfiction trade books can be useful in scaffolding learning from content textbooks
  • Language experience approach LEA
    • Interrelates the different language arts, uses the students’ experiences as the basis for reading materials
    • Consistent with the schema theory
    • Works well with students who have a variety of learning styles
    • Kindergarten-children see the transformation from oral language to print, students dictate stories and teacher records, class edits
    • Primary grades- after students have participated in shared experience they compose a group story. Teacher records title, students contribute content
    • Higher grades- group comparison charts use of technology to present information
  • Programmed instruction and computer use
    Programmed instruction offers individualized instruction
    Follow up reinforcement for instruction
    Does not lend itself to complex comprehension instruction
    CAI- computer aided instruction, READ 180, Expert 21, Reading Plus
  • ECLECTIC APPROACHES
    Combine the desirable aspects of a number of different methods rather than strictly sticking to a single one
    An effective teacher integrates material and methods as is appropriate to meet students’ needs
    Effective teacher are eclectic
    Requires teachers who are adaptive decision makers
  • Summary chapter 9
    Basal reading series are the most widely used materials for teaching reading in the elementary schools in this country. DRA is the teaching strategy presented in many basal manuals. An alternative to DRA is guided reading-matching students to reading material in leveled books. Literature based reading approaches include whole class reading of a core book, literature circles, thematic literature units, and individualized reading approach. The LEA interrelates the different language arts and uses students’ experiences. CAI individualizes skill based instruction. An eclectic approach combines desirable aspects of a number of different methods.