Teaching reading intoday’s elementaryschools Assessment and Intervention Chapter 3
Current trends in assessment Assessment is the process of collecting and analyzing data for the purpose of measuring student achievement. Enables teachers to discover student’s strengths and weaknesses Plan appropriate instruction Evaluate the effectiveness of teaching strategies Should involve multiple measures Observations Conferences Interviews Work samples Formal means
Formative Assessment Summative Assessment assessmentContinuous and End of an instructionalongoing periodFeedback on progress Summarize progress offor both teacher and studentslearner Formal- standardized testsObservation records
Current Trends in Assessment Curriculum standards- statements or descriptions of expectations outlining what students should know and be able to do at a particular grade level and in specific content areas AYP- adequate yearly progress- a component of NCLB that requires states and school systems to collect annual data that represent the progress of students in meeting established assessment goals or progress Disaggregated data-scores that show progress of subgroups including racial/ethnic groups, SES, students with disabilities, ELL. Goal of NCLB all students will demonstrate proficiency by 2013- 2014
Current Trends –Standards movement Standards Movement- education movement aimed at getting all students to a specified level or stage. Purpose of movement – to challenge schools to improve Academic- core subject knowledge and performance Content –basic agreement of the body of education knowledge for all students Performance- what level is good enough for students to be described as advanced, proficient, basic, below basic
Current trends- no child left behind act (NCLB) 4 Pillars-1-Stronger accountability2-More freedom for states3-Proven education methods4-More choices for parents The federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), a major reform of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), was passed by Congress and signed into law by the president on January 8, 2002 Long term goal of NCLB- all students will demonstrate academic proficiency by the 2013-2014 school year
Current trends in assessment-high stakes testing Emphasis on accountability created an environment of high-stakes testing Teachers prepare students to demonstrate progress on tests mandated by their states and school districts Creates a climate that encourages “teaching to the test” Greater emphasis on reading and math leads to less emphasis on other subjects Testing has resulted in higher qualifications for teaching
Formal Assessment Formal assessment-The use of a testing instrument based on extensive normative data for which reliability and validity can be verified. Standardized tests-a formal assessment that has been constructed by experts in the field and is administered, scored, and interpreted according to specific criteria. Norm-referenced tests-standardized tests that measure a student’s standing in relation to comparable groups of students across the nation or locally.
Formal assessment Validity- the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure Reliability-the consistency of scores students would receive on alternate forms of the same test Grade equivalent- grade level in years and months for which a given score was the average score in a standardization sample. Percentile rank- score in terms of its position within a set of 100 scores Stanine- scores are divided into 9 equal parts with 5 as the mean
Limitations of standardizedtests Do tests really reflect what we know about the reading process today? Is the test fair to diverse learners? How are test scores being used?
Criterion-referenced tests Criterion referenced tests- designed to yield measurements interpretable in terms of specific performance standards Designed to match standards or expectations of what students should know at successive points or benchmarks Intended to be used as guides for developing appropriate instruction Students do not compete with other students but only try to achieve mastery of each objective Can make reading appear to be a series of skills taught Difficult to set appropriate standards- too high or low
Alternativeauthentic assessments Alternative- all types of assessment other than standardized tests Authentic- a measurement of a student’s performance on activities that reflect real-world learning experiences
Alternative assessments- informal Observation- >Anecdotal Records- written accounts of specific incidents in the classroom >Checklists and rating scales-a quick glance on accomplishments and weaknesses Conferences and Interviews-scheduled or spontaneous Retellings-a student’s retelling of a story can be done oral or written response Rubric Portfolio-enables students and teachers to reflect on student work to evaluate progress
Informal tests- reading skills Informal tests of specific skills- worksheet type format Cloze procedure- a method of estimating reading difficulty by omitting every nth word (usually 5th) in a reading passage. Multimedia and computer approaches-video recordings, presentations, on-line testing Informal reading inventories (IRI)-designed to help teachers determine a child’s independent (on his or her own), instructional (read with help), frustration (baffles), and listening comprehension levels (comprehend when read to).
Informal tests- reading skills Miscue analysis-reading miscue inventory (RMI) considers both the quantity and quality of miscues (unexpected responses) Running records- detailed account of a student’s reading behavior. Used to record miscues during a student’s oral reading and gain information to guide further instruction.
Alternative assessment Subjective- the teacher’s personal biases may influence judgment Can be time consuming it takes longer to write narrative reports about each student than it does to grade a test Teachers must know how to interpret and apply information gained Collect alternative assessments from multiple sources
Assessment of emergentliteracy NAEYC- National Association for the Education of Young Children sets guidelines and recommendations for assessments that are developmentally appropriate for young children. Marie Clay- Concepts About Print-1st 2 years of literacy instruction- provides observation data An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement – another component used in early literacy assessment
Using assessment to guide intervention Teachers use information collected on student performance data to identify instructional needs for each student and implement an intervention plan of strategies to scaffold student learning. An intervention plan includes: What is to be taught How it is to be taught What will provide evidence that learning occurred
RTI Response to Interventions The RTI model provides a framework for a responsive classroom where the learning environment is modified by three tiers of differentiated instruction Tier 1- Primary Instruction-classroom level Tier 2- Secondary Intervention- involves instruction delivered to those students who are not making adequate progress in Tier 1, the interventionist delivers instruction in small focused groups Tier 3- individual/small-group instruction- students who fail to make progress in Tier 2 are placed in an individual or small group for instruction by a specially trained educator
Assessing text difficulty Methods of identifying text difficulty include the use of readability formulas, cloze tests, and text-leveling techniques. Readability-the difficulty of written material Cloze tests-teachers create a cloze passage from a particular text to determine text difficulty Text leveling techniques-a process that organizes texts according to a defined continuum of characteristics so that students may be matched with appropriate materials
Assessment is-A process not an event Ongoing A necessary part of an instructional program Key way to analyze strengths/weaknesses Best done in a variety of ways