Implementing universal accessability
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Implementing universal accessability

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This presentation was given at a Library Technology Exchange Forum on Accessability on May 16, 2006. Based on the work of Sarah Horton, this presentation describes the challenge of serving users with ...

This presentation was given at a Library Technology Exchange Forum on Accessability on May 16, 2006. Based on the work of Sarah Horton, this presentation describes the challenge of serving users with special needs, and some of the methods for doing so.

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Implementing universal accessability Implementing universal accessability Presentation Transcript

  • Universal Accessability Paul Houle Library Systems CU Library Based on a presentation by Sarah Horton slide 1 of 64
  • What is universal accessability?  An extension of usability  Make systems usable for everyone  First: be flexible to people’s needs  Second: provide alternative access  Gives best user experience  At least cost Designing Accessible WebsitesDEFINITIONS slide 2 of 64
  •  Access by accommodation… Designing Accessible WebsitesDEFINITIONS
  •  … versus design Designing Accessible WebsitesDEFINITIONS
  • Prevalance of Disabilities • US Census: 1 in 5 Americans report disability • 9% of incoming freshman have a disability that affects computer use Designing Accessible WebsitesEQUITABLE USE slide 5 of 64
  • Disabilities and Adaptations • Blindness (screen readers, ALT text) • Low vision (scalable text) • Color blindness (use colors carefully) • Deafness (captions) • Motor problems (access keys) • Cognitive deficits (general usability) Designing Accessible WebsitesEQUITABLE USE slide 6 of 64
  • •Time to complete task varies: • 2.4 times between 25% and 75% percentile • 15 times between fastest and slowest Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox 5/15/2006
  • “Technologically Challenged” • Text web browsers • Old equipment • Small screens (PDA, cell phone) • Large screens (16:9, HDTV) • Web robots Designing Accessible WebsitesEQUITABLE USE slide 8 of 64
  •  www.nln.ac.uk Some sites offer “accessible” or “text-only” versions… Designing Accessible WebsitesEQUITABLE USE
  •  www.nln.ac.uk …but alternate versions are often accessible but not equivalent Designing Accessible WebsitesEQUITABLE USE
  •  www.oldnavy.com Some sites put the onus on users… Designing Accessible WebsitesEQUITABLE USE
  •  www.jkrowling.com …by requiring them to adapt their environment Designing Accessible WebsitesEQUITABLE USE
  •  www.newyorker.com Fixed-width columns, mix of text and graphic text FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  www.newyorker.com The main text scales but the column width remains the same… FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  www.newyorker.com …and the image-based navigation does not scale FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  Fixed designs hold together at a certain text size… www.academicimpressions.com/ FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  …but break apart when the text is enlarged www.academicimpressions.com/ FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  www.newyorker.com Fixed-width pages use only a portion of a large display… FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  www.newyorker.com …and do not reflow for viewing on small screens FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  • Cascading Style Sheets • Can display document parts out of order (put navigation at the end for screen readers) • Users can customize (Opera) • Support flexible layouts Designing Accessible WebsitesEQUITABLE USE slide 20 of 64
  •  www.wikipedia.org Flexible pages adapt to modifications, such as… FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  www.wikipedia.org …enlarged type… FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  www.wikipedia.org …larger page widths FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  www.wikipedia.org …smaller page widths FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  www.wikipedia.org …customized for small screens FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  www.wikipedia.org …and formatting turned off… FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  •  www.wikipedia.org …and with custom formatting FLEXIBLE DESIGN
  • Be careful about • Frames • Pop-up windows • Javascript • AJAX • Flash Designing Accessible WebsitesEQUITABLE USE slide 28 of 64
  • Accessable Flash • Good: text in Flash is really text • Good: Flash supports video with captions • Good: Flash supports access keys (use them!) • Bad: many sites have broken flash detection • Bad: many platforms will never support flash (text mode browsers) Designing Accessible WebsitesEQUITABLE USE slide 29 of 64
  • Fallbacks offer alternate modes of access  Primarily text-based because text can be seen and heard  Some provisions for alternates built into technology  Otherwise, alternates can be integrated into interface FALLBACKS slide 30 of 64
  •  www.apple.com Image-based content that is not accessible to non-visual users… FALLBACKS
  •  www.apple.com …can be supplied via alternate text (alt-text) FALLBACKS
  •  www.apple.com Though for equitable use… FALLBACKS
  •  www.apple.com …the alt-text must be equivalent FALLBACKS
  •  Equivalent text for text graphics is essential… www.creativecommons.org FALLBACKS
  •  …but alt-text describing reinforcing graphics is not helpful www.creativecommons.org FALLBACKS
  •  www.warnerbros.com Flash-based content can be presented with a fallback… FALLBACKS
  •  www.warnerbros.com …though it often isn’t FALLBACKS
  •  solarsystem.nasa.gov On some sites, the Flash fallback… FALLBACKS
  •  solarsystem.nasa.gov …is a suggestion to install Flash, here offered with an additional fallback link… FALLBACKS
  •  solarsystem.nasa.gov …to a text version FALLBACKS
  •  www.kidshealth.org The most successful Flash fallback… FALLBACKS
  •  www.kidshealth.org …is invisible to the user FALLBACKS
  •  Another way to provide fallbacks is to offer alternates in the interface www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/ FALLBACKS
  •  Providing alternate formats accommodates technology preferences and constraints www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/ FALLBACKS
  •  Audio-based content that is not accessible to users who cannot hear… www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/ FALLBACKS
  •  …can be supplied via captions www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/ FALLBACKS
  •  …can be supplied via captions www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/ FALLBACKS
  •  …as well as a transcript www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/ FALLBACKS
  • Guidelines  Universal design Principles of Universal Design Center for Universal Design North Carolina State University  Usability Jakob Neilson, useit.com Steve Krug, Don’t Make Me Think  Universal usability Sarah Horton, Access by Design Designing Accessible WebsitesGUIDELINES slide 50 of 64