In this diagram, two of the KM dimensions have been divided into progressively smaller units - sufficient to please any bureaucrat. Each dimension is divided into three goals and then into nine program-level components. A more detailed framework has been published that includes 45 project-scale activities. As you can see, knowledge management is about a lot more than Government On-Line (dissemination). To do that one highly visible activity, one needs most of the framework shown here.
The National Crime Prevention Strategy is built on the common sense principle that the surest way to reduce crime is to focus on the factors that put individuals at risk -- factors such as family violence, school problems and drug abuse. Its goal is to develop community-based responses to crime, with a particular emphasis on children and youth, Aboriginal people and women. The National Crime Prevention Strategy provides communities with the tools, knowledge and support they need to deal with the causes of crime. Crime Prevention Through Social Development Crime prevention through social development (also referred to as CPSD) is a long-term, proactive approach. It is directed at removing those personal, social and economic factors that lead some individuals to engage in criminal acts or to become victims of crime. This approach aims at strengthening the quality of life for individuals, families and communities. CPSD is intended to increase positive attitudes or behaviours in individuals by influencing their experiences in areas such as family, life, education, employment, housing and/or recreation. While recognizing that societal influences such as poverty, gender inequality, media violence, racism, and discrimination are part of the crime prevention context, CPSD tends to concentrate on secondary prevention measures. This involves focusing on the many risk factors that contribute to involvement with crime. Some key examples include: inadequate living conditions, such as poor housing and unstable situations; family factors, such as poor or inadequate parenting, parental criminality, and parental substance abuse; individual personality and behavioural factors, such as “cognitive deficits” including a lack of problem-solving skills, self-control, critical reasoning, judgement and failure to consider the consequences of behaviour, hyperactivity, as well as the early onset of aggressive behaviour; peer association, such as relationships with friends who follow a delinquent or criminal lifestyle; school-related factors, such as poor educational achievement and truancy, as well as deficient school environments, and exclusionary policies; Crime prevention through social development seeks to foster “protective factors” such as positive family support that may mitigate situations of risk or disadvantage which contribute to crime and victimization. These protective factors also tend to reduce the risk of harm. CPSD makes connections beyond the traditional criminal justice sphere by recognizing the important role that policies, programs, and services such as social housing, education, health, income security, and social services play in preventing crime. Consequently, CPSD involves a wide range of players from various sectors working together to prevent crime problems. Because CPSD focuses on the social development end of the crime prevention equation, it can take time for the crime prevention benefits to accrue. For example, children and youth are the focus of many CPSD strategies. Some of the best known CPSD programs involve early intervention with children at risk and their parents. Programs such as the Perry Pre-School Project in Michigan and a new generation of “Headstart” programs in Canada (such as Moncton Headstart and Aboriginal Headstart) create supportive environments for children who are at potential risk of later life criminality. These programs demonstrate the ways in which supportive strategies can significantly improve child development, educational achievement and social adjustment, and reduce the likelihood of later involvement in crime. Develop community-based responses and support direct action by communities, especially those most affected. Focus on new and enhanced partnerships with stakeholders, such as local government, law enforcement agencies, the private and academic sectors, to broaden impact and learning Commit to synthesize relevant knowledge and experiences from Canadian communities, and information exchanges between these communities. The renewed NCPC will collaborate with partners at various levels to help mobilize and educate Canadians through: Developing and supporting research and evaluation, policy, and knowledge development on NCPC’s priority groups, including: children and youth, Aboriginal Peoples, and women; and Funding community-based projects through NCPC’s three funding programs, specifically, the Crime Prevention Action Fund (CPAF), the Research and Knowledge Development Fund (RKDF), and the Police, Corrections and Communities Fund (PCCF).
Some Barriers to Organizational Improvement in the Public Sector
Knowledge Management in the Public Sector 15 years of lessons learned… and other painful experiences January 2011 Paul McDowall Knowledge Management Advisor Canada School of Public Service
Explicit knowledge: knowledge that is articulated in formal language and which can be easily transmitted among individuals. It can be expressed in scientific formulae, codified procedures or a variety of other forms. It includes codified information, data, facts, records and documents, text, etc and is held in many different types of media.
Tacit knowledge: knowledge that is embedded in individual experience such as perspective and inferential knowledge. Tacit knowledge includes insights, hunches, intuitions, and skills that are highly personal and hard to formalize, making them difficult to communicate or share with others. It can be ‘learned’ from someone often only by close association with them for a period of time. It represents the cognitive abilities of people.
Its about the Creation and Flow of Knowledge (Nonaka and Takeuchi)
Knowledge Management, or the management of an environment to facilitate the creation and use of knowledge for increased innovation and value , is a multi-disciplinary field that draws from theories in economics, sociology, philosophy, and psychology. It also engages the applied fields of information technology, information and library science, and business. This matrix gives KM dimensions that other management approaches lack and thus can provide comprehensive and practical management solutions.
Knowledge management refers to the processes of creating, capturing, transferring and using knowledge to enhance organizational performance . Knowledge management is most frequently associated with two particular types of activities:
- those activities that attempt to document and appropriate knowledge that individuals have (sometimes called the codification of knowledge) and activities to disseminate that knowledge throughout the organization, and
- those activities that facilitate human exchanges in which knowledge that is not codified (tacit knowledge) can be shared.
“ Employee development is the responsibility of both the individual and the institution, but it serves a single purpose: to improve effectiveness and productivity in current and future jobs. This requires going beyond coursework and classroom learning. The task is to consciously create learning environments where knowledge management is done well and where employees have ready access to the information they need to do their jobs …
To renew the workplace, we must put greater emphasis on collaboration, technology, innovation, back office systems and knowledge management . We must also improve our ability to make choices and set priorities as we carry out our work.”
Clerk of the Privy Council’s Seventeenth Annual Report, 2010
“ Loss of vital knowledge and experience is taking its toll on Canada’s cherished institutions – the Public Service of Canada in particular. Veteran employees are retiring in unprecedented numbers. Continual change and organizational churn are now the norm. New technologies allow us to store vast amounts of information, but also to misplace vast amounts of information. We, as an institution, are forgetting important lessons from the past…
Preserving knowledge is a core responsibility of every manager…
There are no longer any excuses for doing nothing. ”
François Guimont, Chair, CSPS Action-Research Roundtable on Organizational Memory
(from Lost & Found A Smart-Practice Guide to Managing Organizational Memory , April, 2007)
The Interdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum (IKMF) creates an exploratory environment that stimulates Knowledge Management (KM) practice in the public sector. As a community of practice, the IKMF creates a safe environment for reflection, discovery, dialogue and innovation through the sharing of experiences, practices and insights between practitioners and those interested in KM.
The objectives of the Forum are:
to encourage dialogue and collaboration between colleagues from knowledge-intensive communities to focus on and share experiences in the implementation of knowledge management in the public sector
to be a centre of excellence and expertise in the development and use of knowledge management in the public sector
Mobility across the system at ALL levels, esp. senior managers
Myths and misconceptions
Costs – hard costs vs soft costs
Lack of business focus
KM Approach* Defence Research and Development CRTI Tacit Explicit Tacit Explicit Socialization Combination : Externalization Internalization : *Nonaka, I. and H. Takeuchi. The Knowledge Creating Company. New York: Oxford, 1995 . Tacit
Knowledge Management NRCan Canadian Forestry Service Capacity Building Organizational Context Resources Infra - structure Co n tent Gover-nance Culture Learning Funds People Time Technology Systems Management Acquisition Production Dissemination Vision Direction Commitment Change Sharing Controlling Education Skills Experience
Natural Resources Canada infrastructure & systems to capture, store, share content Content Tools Organization People
Learning, motivation, rewards, incentives
Processes roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources lessons learned, best practices, work routines forestry data, information & knowledge
Natural Resources Canada: What is Knowledge management?
What is KM? Knowledge Base & Relationships People Organization
Supporting innovation, creativity, involvement, and participation among people.
Assistive and accessible technologies & tools.
Venues (conferences, forums,
seminars, discussion groups, etc.) to
promote creating, preserving, sharing, and using
Developing an organizational culture
that values knowledge.
Champion practices that create,
store, preserve, share, and use knowledge.
Quality standards; governance processes.
Performance monitoring and reporting.
Building our knowledge base and relationships.
Storing, preserving and accessing our stock of knowledge, identifying gaps, and creating new knowledge.
Engaging, and partnering, with stakeholders to learn from experiences and maximize investments.
Sharing, exchanging, and disseminating knowledge internally and externally.
Using knowledge for policy/program development, service delivery, and supporting decision-making.
KM: A Key Corporate Strategy Involving Everyone HRSD Knowledge Management Initiative Core KM Team Dedicated, full-time team championing and developing KM. HRSD KM Working Group Branch representatives that work to mutually support DM priorities on KM. Share & exchange with Core KM Team and leverage knowledge capacities. Systems Services Information Management Services Administrative Services Human Resources Services EX Action Learning Group Comptrollership & Financial Management Services Service Canada Regional Offices Communication Services Management Services Integration & Transformation Teams External Networks of Experts, Partners & Stakeholders External Networks of Experts, Partners & Stakeholders A networked approach will enable us to reach out at all levels, and to link, share, and learn from specialists and all functional areas of the department as well as from external experts. It will also enable staff to shape change, and take ownership in the development of a new organizational knowledge culture. HRSDC
Bank of Canada Knowledge Program Framework Technology infrastructure that enables easy “in-process” content capture and access, effective collaboration and transparent management Effective sharing and exchange of knowledge and information, both within and beyond the organization Knowledge Exchange Knowledge Access Easy and effective access to quality information and data, as well as people with “know-how”, when and where it is needed Strategic Outcome: Enhanced organizational capacity to capture, access, and exchange knowledge “ Knowledge Conscious” Management / Leadership CONTENT COLLABORATION
Mandate and Objectives of The National Crime Prevention Centre, Public Safety
The NCPC uses a crime prevention through social development approach, which aims to tackle crime by addressing its root causes.
Increase sustainable community action in support of CPSD
Develop and share knowledge of effective crime prevention strategies
Coordinate multi-level support for crime prevention efforts