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Explicit knowledge: knowledge that is articulated in formal language and which can be easily transmitted among individuals. It can be expressed in scientific formulae, codified procedures or a variety of other forms. It includes codified information, data, facts, records and documents, text, etc and is held in many different types of media.
Tacit knowledge: knowledge that is embedded in individual experience such as perspective and inferential knowledge. Tacit knowledge includes insights, hunches, intuitions, and skills that are highly personal and hard to formalize, making them difficult to communicate or share with others. It can be ‘learned’ from someone often only by close association with them for a period of time. It represents the cognitive abilities of people.
Its about the Creation and Flow of Knowledge (Nonaka and Takeuchi)
Knowledge Management, or the management of an environment to facilitate the creation and use of knowledge for increased innovation and value , is a multi-disciplinary field that draws from theories in economics, sociology, philosophy, and psychology. It also engages the applied fields of information technology, information and library science, and business. This matrix gives KM dimensions that other management approaches lack and thus can provide comprehensive and practical management solutions.
Knowledge management refers to the processes of creating, capturing, transferring and using knowledge to enhance organizational performance . Knowledge management is most frequently associated with two particular types of activities:
- those activities that attempt to document and appropriate knowledge that individuals have (sometimes called the codification of knowledge) and activities to disseminate that knowledge throughout the organization, and
- those activities that facilitate human exchanges in which knowledge that is not codified (tacit knowledge) can be shared.
“ Employee development is the responsibility of both the individual and the institution, but it serves a single purpose: to improve effectiveness and productivity in current and future jobs. This requires going beyond coursework and classroom learning. The task is to consciously create learning environments where knowledge management is done well and where employees have ready access to the information they need to do their jobs …
To renew the workplace, we must put greater emphasis on collaboration, technology, innovation, back office systems and knowledge management . We must also improve our ability to make choices and set priorities as we carry out our work.”
Clerk of the Privy Council’s Seventeenth Annual Report, 2010
“ Loss of vital knowledge and experience is taking its toll on Canada’s cherished institutions – the Public Service of Canada in particular. Veteran employees are retiring in unprecedented numbers. Continual change and organizational churn are now the norm. New technologies allow us to store vast amounts of information, but also to misplace vast amounts of information. We, as an institution, are forgetting important lessons from the past…
Preserving knowledge is a core responsibility of every manager…
There are no longer any excuses for doing nothing. ”
François Guimont, Chair, CSPS Action-Research Roundtable on Organizational Memory
(from Lost & Found A Smart-Practice Guide to Managing Organizational Memory , April, 2007)
The Interdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum (IKMF) creates an exploratory environment that stimulates Knowledge Management (KM) practice in the public sector. As a community of practice, the IKMF creates a safe environment for reflection, discovery, dialogue and innovation through the sharing of experiences, practices and insights between practitioners and those interested in KM.
The objectives of the Forum are:
to encourage dialogue and collaboration between colleagues from knowledge-intensive communities to focus on and share experiences in the implementation of knowledge management in the public sector
to be a centre of excellence and expertise in the development and use of knowledge management in the public sector
Mobility across the system at ALL levels, esp. senior managers
Myths and misconceptions
Costs – hard costs vs soft costs
Lack of business focus
KM Approach* Defence Research and Development CRTI Tacit Explicit Tacit Explicit Socialization Combination : Externalization Internalization : *Nonaka, I. and H. Takeuchi. The Knowledge Creating Company. New York: Oxford, 1995 . Tacit
Knowledge Management NRCan Canadian Forestry Service Capacity Building Organizational Context Resources Infra - structure Co n tent Gover-nance Culture Learning Funds People Time Technology Systems Management Acquisition Production Dissemination Vision Direction Commitment Change Sharing Controlling Education Skills Experience
Natural Resources Canada infrastructure & systems to capture, store, share content Content Tools Organization People
Learning, motivation, rewards, incentives
Processes roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources lessons learned, best practices, work routines forestry data, information & knowledge
Natural Resources Canada: What is Knowledge management?
What is KM? Knowledge Base & Relationships People Organization
Supporting innovation, creativity, involvement, and participation among people.
Assistive and accessible technologies & tools.
Venues (conferences, forums,
seminars, discussion groups, etc.) to
promote creating, preserving, sharing, and using
Developing an organizational culture
that values knowledge.
Champion practices that create,
store, preserve, share, and use knowledge.
Quality standards; governance processes.
Performance monitoring and reporting.
Building our knowledge base and relationships.
Storing, preserving and accessing our stock of knowledge, identifying gaps, and creating new knowledge.
Engaging, and partnering, with stakeholders to learn from experiences and maximize investments.
Sharing, exchanging, and disseminating knowledge internally and externally.
Using knowledge for policy/program development, service delivery, and supporting decision-making.
KM: A Key Corporate Strategy Involving Everyone HRSD Knowledge Management Initiative Core KM Team Dedicated, full-time team championing and developing KM. HRSD KM Working Group Branch representatives that work to mutually support DM priorities on KM. Share & exchange with Core KM Team and leverage knowledge capacities. Systems Services Information Management Services Administrative Services Human Resources Services EX Action Learning Group Comptrollership & Financial Management Services Service Canada Regional Offices Communication Services Management Services Integration & Transformation Teams External Networks of Experts, Partners & Stakeholders External Networks of Experts, Partners & Stakeholders A networked approach will enable us to reach out at all levels, and to link, share, and learn from specialists and all functional areas of the department as well as from external experts. It will also enable staff to shape change, and take ownership in the development of a new organizational knowledge culture. HRSDC
Bank of Canada Knowledge Program Framework Technology infrastructure that enables easy “in-process” content capture and access, effective collaboration and transparent management Effective sharing and exchange of knowledge and information, both within and beyond the organization Knowledge Exchange Knowledge Access Easy and effective access to quality information and data, as well as people with “know-how”, when and where it is needed Strategic Outcome: Enhanced organizational capacity to capture, access, and exchange knowledge “ Knowledge Conscious” Management / Leadership CONTENT COLLABORATION
Mandate and Objectives of The National Crime Prevention Centre, Public Safety
The NCPC uses a crime prevention through social development approach, which aims to tackle crime by addressing its root causes.
Increase sustainable community action in support of CPSD
Develop and share knowledge of effective crime prevention strategies
Coordinate multi-level support for crime prevention efforts