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Explicit knowledge: knowledge that is articulated in formal language and which can be easily transmitted among individuals. It can be expressed in scientific formulae, codified procedures or a variety of other forms. It includes codified information, data, facts, records and documents, text, etc and is held in many different types of media.
Tacit knowledge: knowledge that is embedded in individual experience such as perspective and inferential knowledge. Tacit knowledge includes insights, hunches, intuitions, and skills that are highly personal and hard to formalize, making them difficult to communicate or share with others. It can be ‘learned’ from someone often only by close association with them for a period of time. It represents the cognitive abilities of people.
Its about the Creation and Flow of Knowledge (Nonaka and Takeuchi)
Expertise Research Henley Business School (UK), R. McDermott
Expertise is the intuitive ability to improvise within a domain
Expertise includes different types of knowledge
- Specific, analytic, know-how, skill
To “retain” expertise, shift from retaining to learning .
Tools are scaffolding to aid thinking, not descriptions.
Create opportunities for deliberate practice to get knowledge to settle into embodied habits.
Developing expertise is not just acquiring knowledge, it is to learn how experts know and see through their eyes .
Expertise Research Henley Business School (UK), R. McDermott Training Learning from experience Expertise Specific knowledge Analytic knowledge Personal know how Skill attention cues Technical/ scientific awareness operational organizational patterns options processes frameworks guidelines
The Outcomes are Effectiveness and Innovation Effectiveness and Innovation Knowledge and Learning Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Individual level Organizational level Outcomes level
Knowledge Management, or the management of an environment to facilitate the creation and use of knowledge for increased innovation and value , is a multi-disciplinary field that draws from theories in economics, sociology, philosophy, and psychology. It also engages the applied fields of information technology, information and library science, and business. This matrix gives KM dimensions that other management approaches lack and thus can provide comprehensive and practical management solutions.
Knowledge management refers to the processes of creating, capturing, transferring and using knowledge to enhance organizational performance. Knowledge management is most frequently associated with two particular types of activities:
- those activities that attempt to document and appropriate knowledge that individuals have (sometimes called the codification of knowledge) and activities to disseminate that knowledge throughout the organization, and
- those activities that facilitate human exchanges in which knowledge that is not codified (tacit knowledge) can be shared.
“ We don’t make widgets, we manage knowledge , that’s what government people, public sector people do and when you are managing knowledge your number one tool is learning. “
Clerk of the Privy Council’s Sixth Annual Report, 1998
“ Traditional organizations built around activities and inputs are getting in the way of results and outcomes. A results-based organization requires a new management model. People and Knowledge Management are two essential cornerstones of a new public sector management model ”
COSO Learning and Development Committee Progress Report, July 2002
“ Loss of vital knowledge and experience is taking its toll on Canada’s cherished institutions – the Public Service of Canada in particular. Veteran employees are retiring in unprecedented numbers. Continual change and organizational churn are now the norm. New technologies allow us to store vast amounts of information, but also to misplace vast amounts of information. We, as an institution, are forgetting important lessons from the past…
Preserving knowledge is a core responsibility of every manager…
There are no longer any excuses for doing nothing. ”
François Guimont, Chair, CSPS Action-Research Roundtable on Organizational Memory
(from Lost & Found A Smart-Practice Guide to Managing Organizational Memory , April, 2007)
ADMs who can retire with non-reduced pensions: 28.5%
10% of public servants have more than 30 yrs service
8% of public servants have 35 yrs service or more
20% of public servants will leave by 2009-2010
Knowledge-based workers comprise 58% of core public service population, a 17% increase since the mid-1990s
Management Accountability Framework “ The department manages through continuous innovation and transformation, promotes organizational learning, values corporate knowledge, and learns from its performance”
The Interdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum (IKMF) creates an exploratory environment that stimulates Knowledge Management (KM) practice in the public sector. As a community of practice, the IKMF creates a safe environment for reflection, discovery, dialogue and innovation through the sharing of experiences, practices and insights between practitioners and those interested in KM.
The objectives of the Forum are:
to encourage dialogue and collaboration between colleagues from knowledge-intensive communities to focus on and share experiences in the implementation of knowledge management in the public sector
to be a centre of excellence and expertise in the development and use of knowledge management in the public sector
KM Approach* Defence Research and Development CRTI Tacit Explicit Tacit Explicit Socialization Combination : Externalization Internalization : *Nonaka, I. and H. Takeuchi. The Knowledge Creating Company. New York: Oxford, 1995 . Tacit
We want people to get to the knowledge and tools needed to do the work as quickly and intuitively as possible
People Work Done Knowledge tools Gather/share Decide/act Contribute experience
Knowledge Management NRCan Canadian Forestry Service Capacity Building Organizational Context Resources Infra - structure Co n tent Gover-nance Culture Learning Funds People Time Technology Systems Management Acquisition Production Dissemination Vision Direction Commitment Change Sharing Controlling Education Skills Experience
Natural Resources Canada infrastructure & systems to capture, store, share content Content Tools Organization People
Learning, motivation, rewards, incentives
Processes roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources lessons learned, best practices, work routines forestry data, information & knowledge
Natural Resources Canada: What is Knowledge management?
Knowledge Services The Raison D’être for Science in Government Albert Simard Problem : There are no generally-accepted definitions or understanding of knowledge services Solution : Describe science-related programs in Natural Resources Canada in the context of Government of Canada service transformation. See also: http://www.slideshare.net/Al.Simard/slideshows
Natural Resources Canada Northstar (strategy) and Knowledge Management http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =9vm77Ge2Kxs to integrate our knowledge
KM: A Key Corporate Strategy Involving Everyone HRSD Knowledge Management Initiative Core KM Team Dedicated, full-time team championing and developing KM. HRSD KM Working Group Branch representatives that work to mutually support DM priorities on KM. Share & exchange with Core KM Team and leverage knowledge capacities. Systems Services Information Management Services Administrative Services Human Resources Services EX Action Learning Group Comptrollership & Financial Management Services Service Canada Regional Offices Communication Services Management Services Integration & Transformation Teams External Networks of Experts, Partners & Stakeholders External Networks of Experts, Partners & Stakeholders A networked approach will enable us to reach out at all levels, and to link, share, and learn from specialists and all functional areas of the department as well as from external experts. It will also enable staff to shape change, and take ownership in the development of a new organizational knowledge culture. HRSDC
Trust and collaboration at all levels of our organization are fundamental to our success.
Our people , their knowledge and their collective wisdom, are essential resources that support the services we provide to individuals, families, businesses, employers, governments, and communities.
Knowledge, experience and learning are assets to be shared internally and externally in all of our relationships .
Active engagement of, and dialogue with, citizens, partners and stakeholders are key to ensuring our policies, programs and services respond to the needs of Canadians and serve the public good.
Our work environment is one that attracts and nurtures people, fosters teamwork, and exemplifies a culture where knowledge is valued, supported and rewarded.
HRSDC Vision and Guiding Principles Vision To position HRSD as Canada’s leader in the creation, management, preservation, exchange, and use of knowledge on human resources and social development issues.
What is KM? Knowledge Base & Relationships People Organization
Supporting innovation, creativity, involvement, and participation among people.
Assistive and accessible technologies & tools.
Venues (conferences, forums,
seminars, discussion groups, etc.) to
promote creating, preserving, sharing, and using
Developing an organizational culture
that values knowledge.
Champion practices that create,
store, preserve, share, and use knowledge.
Quality standards; governance processes.
Performance monitoring and reporting.
Building our knowledge base and relationships.
Storing, preserving and accessing our stock of knowledge, identifying gaps, and creating new knowledge.
Engaging, and partnering, with stakeholders to learn from experiences and maximize investments.
Sharing, exchanging, and disseminating knowledge internally and externally.
Using knowledge for policy/program development, service delivery, and supporting decision-making.
Bank of Canada Knowledge Program Framework Technology infrastructure that enables easy “in-process” content capture and access, effective collaboration and transparent management Effective sharing and exchange of knowledge and information, both within and beyond the organization Knowledge Exchange Knowledge Access Easy and effective access to quality information and data, as well as people with “know-how”, when and where it is needed Strategic Outcome: Enhanced organizational capacity to capture, access, and exchange knowledge “ Knowledge Conscious” Management / Leadership CONTENT COLLABORATION
Desired End-State Information management policies, roles and responsibilities that are clear and understood by everyone Standard tools to support effective knowledge access and exchange are in place, and everyone knows how to use them A collaborative work environment with practices and processes that support productive and purposeful knowledge sharing Bank of Canada Knowledge Program Framework
Desired End-State for the Medium Term Information management policies, roles and responsibilities are clear and understood by everyone Existing tools are leveraged to support good information management practices and staff are using them A clear vision and strategy for the next Medium Term exists Managers and staff have the techniques and support needed to ensure critical knowledge is not lost Program Governance is effectively supporting the Knowledge Program Tools Policy Support Content and Collaboration Strategy Bank of Canada Knowledge Program Framework
Mandate and Objectives of the National Crime Prevention Centre – Public Safety
The NCPC uses a crime prevention through social development approach, which aims to tackle crime by addressing its root causes.
Increase sustainable community action in support of CPSD
Develop and share knowledge of effective crime prevention strategies
Coordinate multi-level support for crime prevention efforts
“ a group of people who share a concern, a set of problems or a passion about a topic and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in this area by interacting on an ongoing basis”
Wenger, McDermott and Snyder
A group of people that shares knowledge, learns together and develops common / improved practices.
They have committed themselves to the exploration and advancement of the ‘practice’ of the community .
They recognize the value in what each other knows and they need to stay current on the topic.
The sense of ‘community’ enables a learning environment to exist where practitioners of varying knowledge, skill, or experience levels can openly share and build on each others’ knowledge and ideas in a climate of trust and respect .
Communities of Practice How are they different from Teams? Source: KM Review
“ Web 2.0 describes the changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aim to enhance creativity , communications, secure information sharing, collaboration and functionality of the web. Web 2.0 concepts have led to the development and evolution of web culture communities and hosted services , such as social-networking sites , video sharing sites , wikis , blogs , and folksonomies .” (Wikipedia)
wiki’s social networks instant messaging e-mail mail groups calendars blogs aggregators bookmarks search engines Surveys & poles slides sharing video sharing audio sharing photo sharing presences Clusty Net vibes
The most effective way to capture, retain, and transfer valuable knowledge is to embed that process into the work flow.
The study partners rely on communities of practice to embed and transfer organizational knowledge. Partners remarked that tacit knowledge-the most valuable and difficult knowledge to distil in any organization-is best retained through communities of practice and networks.
Cultural changes require understanding the impact of formal evaluation and performance, creating rewards and awards for teamwork, understanding the need for knowledge expositions and fairs (the creation of an innovation marketplace), and sharing stories that emphasize the desired knowledge-sharing behavior.
Most organizations use common basic tools, such as collaborative applications, data repositories, e-mail, and videoconferencing for knowledge retention.
Best-practice organizations typically have three critical elements in their knowledge management and retention support structures: senior management support, a central knowledge management support group, and the involvement of different business units or functions in the initiative.
The reported costs for knowledge retention initiatives are less than knowledge management initiatives in APQC's prior studies, apparently due to the fact that best-practice organizations build on knowledge management tools and skills already in place and often build retention activities into the existing work flow.
The knowledge management groups at study partners often work closely with human resources teams to design and implement knowledge retention strategies, including hiring employees who will work effectively in a knowledge-sharing environment..
Partners and sponsors reported that the most effective methods to measure the success of knowledge transfer are conducting user surveys, tracking the number of knowledge objects accessed and used, tracking knowledge transfer activities, and capturing KM success meaningful stories.
Best-practice organizations demonstrate a link between knowledge management and organizational learning.