Making the Most of Fair Use: How Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts (VLA) Can Use Best Practices

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A description of how lawyers can serve their arts clients with codes of best practices in fair use.

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Making the Most of Fair Use: How Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts (VLA) Can Use Best Practices

  1. 1. FAIR USE AND COPYRIGHT: MAKING THE BEST USE OF BEST PRACTICESPat AufderheideCenter for Social MediaAmerican University
  2. 2. THIS COMES FROM• The Fair Use Project• Five years of work with Washington College of Law• Funded by MacArthur, Rockefeller, and Ford Foundations• Co-principal investigator: Prof. Peter Jaszi (pjaszi@wcl.american.edu)
  3. 3. OVERVIEW• Copyright policy basics• Imbalance in copyright policy• Interpreting fair use• Best practices codes• Implications for VLA
  4. 4. THE PURPOSE OFCOPYRIGHT
  5. 5. ONE PURPOSE :TO PROMOTE THECREATION OF CULTURE
  6. 6. By: • Rewarding creators with limited monopoly • Encouraging new makers to use existing culture
  7. 7. WHY BALANCE?• All culture created on existing culture (we used to know that)• The First Amendment (no censorship)
  8. 8. BIGGEST BALANCINGFEATURE: FAIR USE legal, unauthorized use of copyrighted material--under some circumstances
  9. 9. THE RISE OFTIGHTCOPYRIGHT
  10. 10. HOW WE GOTIMBALANCE • Copyright term extension • Default copyright • Punishing penalties (statutory damages) • DMCA • Treaties
  11. 11. FORCESIMBALANCINGTHE LAW • Post WWII media conglomeration (archives=assets) • The Feds’ free-trade push • Digitization + Internet
  12. 12. DARK DAYSOF FAIR USE • In ’80s, “fourth factor” balloons in importance •Law-and-economics •Koons decision 1992 • “Noncommerciality” (Betamax) an economic analysis
  13. 13. TURNING ONTHE LIGHT:JUDGE LEVAL • 1990 Harvard L.R.article • 1992 Texaco decision • 1994 Campbell v. Acuff Rose • And many many more, e.g. Bill Graham
  14. 14. FAIR USE MOVES TOTHE CENTER • Judges love balancing features • Supreme Court hangs term extension on fair use • Eldred • Golan
  15. 15. FAIR USE:A Core FirstAmendment Right
  16. 16. INTERPRETINGFAIR USE
  17. 17. THE “FOUR FACTORS” • Reason for the use • Kind of work used • Amount used • Effect on the market
  18. 18. AND, IN THELAST 15 YEARS…Judges focus on• Transformation• Amount related to transformative purpose
  19. 19. JUDGES ASK:• Did you transform the use?• Did you use the appropriate amount to satisfy the transformative use?
  20. 20. PLUS…Custom and practice ofindividual creativecommunities…...especially when well-documented* *thanx Michael Madison
  21. 21. FEAR…• Will I get it wrong?• Will I get sued?• Will my boss/general counsel client get angry?
  22. 22. RUNAWAY RISKASSESSMENTFirst Amendment rights allhave riskRisk assessments routineNo info? Assess at high risk
  23. 23. BEST PRACTICES
  24. 24. FROMPERMISSIONSTO AGENCY • The client makes the call • The lawyer enables good decisions
  25. 25. COMMUNITIESINTERPRET FAIR USE: • Documentary filmmakers • Scholars • Media literacy teachers • Online video • Dance collections • OpenCourseWare
  26. 26. PROCESS • Research current practices and problems • Expose community to consequences of confusion • Work with community’s organizations to build code
  27. 27. DOCUMENTARY
  28. 28. RESULTS • TV programmers air films • New kinds of films made • All insurers of errors and omission accept fair use claims • Every H’wood studio employs fair use openly • Lawyers use the Statement to build and grow their practices
  29. 29. MEDIA LITERACYTEACHERS
  30. 30. RESULTS • New curriculum in several states • School district import the code into standards • National video competitions use the Code • New media literacy publications
  31. 31. OPEN COURSEWARE
  32. 32. RESULTS • University GCs supportive • MIT: 31 new courses in one year •Previously rejected for OCW
  33. 33. NEW! • Association of Research Libraries’ Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries • Visual Resources Association’s Statement on the Fair Use of Images for Teaching, Research and Study
  34. 34. WHAT HASN’THAPPENED• No loss to lawyers’ business (rather, increase)• No legal challenges to Codes• No lawsuits • *(two injunctions summarilydismissed)
  35. 35. FAIR USE: Practice Makes Practice (not only judges)
  36. 36. MOREINFO, CHEAP
  37. 37. MORE INFO,FREE Centerforsocial media.org/fair- use Codes! FAQs! Videos!
  38. 38. Find this on Slideshare.Please feel free to share thispresentation in its entirety.For excerpting, kindly employthe principles of fair use.
  39. 39. THANK YOU! Peter Jaszi VLA MacArthur, Rockefeller, Ford, Mellon and McCormick Foundations
  40. 40. CONTACT INFO Pat Aufderheide Center for Social Media School of Communication American University Washington, DC paufder@american.edu 202-885-2069

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