Pat Aufderheide  Center for Social Media  American University  FAIR   USE   IN  TEACHING   &  LIBRARIES: THE   BEST   PRAC...
PREFACE <ul><li>Teachers, ibrarians and information technologists face questions about fair use of copyrighted material  <...
IT’S ABOUT… <ul><li>How related communities have collectively empowered themselves with best practices codes in fair use; ...
IT COMES FROM... <ul><li>The Fair Use Project </li></ul><ul><li>Five years of work with Washington College of Law  </li></...
OVERVIEW <ul><li>Copyright policy basics </li></ul><ul><li>Imbalance in copyright policy </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting fa...
THE   PURPOSE   OF   COPYRIGHT
ONE PURPOSE : TO   PROMOTE   THE  CREATION OF CULTURE
By: <ul><ul><li>Rewarding creators with  limited   monopoly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging new makers to use exist...
WHY BALANCE?  <ul><li>All  culture  created on existing culture (we used to know that) </li></ul><ul><li>The First Amendme...
BIGGEST BALANCING FEATURE: FAIR USE  legal, unauthorized use of  copyrighted material--under  some circumstances
THE RISE OF   TIGHT   COPYRIGHT
HOW WE FORGOT  BALANCE: <ul><li>Copyright term extension </li></ul><ul><li>Default copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Punishing p...
 
DECADES   OF  MISINFORMATION <ul><li>Guidelines end up as limiting rules </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate mis-education of user...
The   Escape   Hatch! FAIR USE:
GOOD NEWS… <ul><li>Judges love balancing features </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court upholds term extension because fair use ...
INTERPRETING FAIR USE
THE “FOUR FACTORS” <ul><li>Reason for the use  </li></ul><ul><li>Kind of work used  </li></ul><ul><li>Amount used  </li></...
PLUS… Custom and practice of individual creative  communities… ...especially when well-documented
AND, IN THE  LAST 15 YEARS… <ul><li>Transformation  </li></ul><ul><li>Amount related to transformative purpose </li></ul>J...
JUDGES ASK: <ul><li>Did you transform the use?  </li></ul><ul><li>Did you use the appropriate amount to satisfy the transf...
FEAR … <ul><li>Will I get it wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>Will I get sued?  </li></ul><ul><li>Will my boss/general counsel cli...
BEST PRACTICES
EDUCATION <ul><li>Knowledge of the law  </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of problem  </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation of consensu...
COMMUNITIES   INTERPRET   FAIR   USE: <ul><li>Documentary filmmakers  </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Media l...
STORIES UNTOLD:  Creative consequences  of the  rights clearance  culture for documentary filmmakers
DOCUMENTARY
RESULTS: <ul><li>TV programmers air films </li></ul><ul><li>New kinds of films </li></ul><ul><li>All insurers of errors an...
FILM SCHOLARS
MEDIA   LITERACY  TEACHERS
MEDIA LITERACY  CATEGORIES <ul><li>Teaching with copyrighted material </li></ul><ul><li>Using copyrighted material in curr...
ONLINE VIDEO
ONLINE VIDEO CODE <ul><li>Comment/critique </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration/example </li></ul><ul><li>Accidentally/incidenta...
DANCE COLLECTIONS
PRESERVATION Transferring holdings to new formats (fair use better than section 108)
EXHIBITION Using holdings in public displays/exhibits  Capturing copyrighted material in recorded presentations (e.g. podc...
RESEARCH For academic study, including “digital ILL”  (better than section 110) Allowing public access to digitized materi...
OPEN COURSEWARE
SITUATIONS <ul><li>Incidental use  </li></ul><ul><li>Critique and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration </li></ul><ul><l...
AND WHAT ABOUT  E-RESERVES? Links are better than digital reproduction BUT... non-text/hard-to-find material may justify f...
TEXACO DECISION (1992) OK to reproduce copies of articles received from a corporate service for Texaco employees?
NO, because… Not  transformative.
TRANSFORMATIVE  FUNCTIONS?  <ul><li>Assembling research for a project </li></ul><ul><li>Online research-discussion site </...
TAKING ACTION
USING   OTHER  PEOPLE'S   CODES <ul><li>Media literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Dance Collections  </li></ul><ul><li>OpenCourseWa...
MAKING   YOUR OWN <ul><li>Document the problem  </li></ul><ul><li>Define the opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Research the re...
AVOID PRE-EMPTION <ul><li>Many contracts with providers pre-empt fair use  </li></ul><ul><li>—  Scope of use </li></ul><ul...
FAIR USE: Practice  Makes  Practice
Please feel free to share this presentation   in   its   entirety. For excerpting, kindly employ the   principles   of   f...
THANK YOU! Prof. Peter Jaszi Educause MacArthur, Rockefeller, and Ford Foundations  Matthew Gordon
CONTACT INFO Pat Aufderheide  Center for Social Media School of Communication  American University  Washington, DC  [email...
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Fair Use and Higher Education; Aufderheide at Educause ELI 2010

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Fair Use and Higher Education; Aufderheide at Educause ELI 2010

  1. 1. Pat Aufderheide Center for Social Media American University FAIR USE IN TEACHING & LIBRARIES: THE BEST PRACTICES MODEL
  2. 2. PREFACE <ul><li>Teachers, ibrarians and information technologists face questions about fair use of copyrighted material </li></ul><ul><li>You have too many rules and dos and don’ts already; this presentation isn’t that </li></ul><ul><li>It’s also not about educational exemptions or Sec. 108 (library exemptions)—which are mired in the past </li></ul>
  3. 3. IT’S ABOUT… <ul><li>How related communities have collectively empowered themselves with best practices codes in fair use; </li></ul><ul><li>What you can borrow from them; </li></ul><ul><li>And how you might as well! </li></ul>
  4. 4. IT COMES FROM... <ul><li>The Fair Use Project </li></ul><ul><li>Five years of work with Washington College of Law </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by MacArthur, Rockefeller, and Ford Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Co-principal investigator: Prof. Peter Jaszi (pjaszi@wcl.american.edu) </li></ul>
  5. 5. OVERVIEW <ul><li>Copyright policy basics </li></ul><ul><li>Imbalance in copyright policy </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting fair use </li></ul><ul><li>Best practices codes </li></ul><ul><li>Borrowing from existing codes </li></ul><ul><li>You—a code of best practices? </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE PURPOSE OF COPYRIGHT
  7. 7. ONE PURPOSE : TO PROMOTE THE CREATION OF CULTURE
  8. 8. By: <ul><ul><li>Rewarding creators with limited monopoly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging new makers to use existing culture </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. WHY BALANCE? <ul><li>All culture created on existing culture (we used to know that) </li></ul><ul><li>The First Amendment (no censorship) </li></ul>
  10. 10. BIGGEST BALANCING FEATURE: FAIR USE legal, unauthorized use of copyrighted material--under some circumstances
  11. 11. THE RISE OF TIGHT COPYRIGHT
  12. 12. HOW WE FORGOT BALANCE: <ul><li>Copyright term extension </li></ul><ul><li>Default copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Punishing penalties (statutory damages) </li></ul><ul><li>Large content holders’ aggressive tactics </li></ul>
  13. 14. DECADES OF MISINFORMATION <ul><li>Guidelines end up as limiting rules </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate mis-education of users </li></ul><ul><li>Tyranny of self-appointed experts </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Escape Hatch! FAIR USE:
  15. 16. GOOD NEWS… <ul><li>Judges love balancing features </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court upholds term extension because fair use exists </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use judicial interpretation has greatly shifted in last 15 years </li></ul>
  16. 17. INTERPRETING FAIR USE
  17. 18. THE “FOUR FACTORS” <ul><li>Reason for the use </li></ul><ul><li>Kind of work used </li></ul><ul><li>Amount used </li></ul><ul><li>Effect on the market </li></ul>
  18. 19. PLUS… Custom and practice of individual creative communities… ...especially when well-documented
  19. 20. AND, IN THE LAST 15 YEARS… <ul><li>Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Amount related to transformative purpose </li></ul>Judges focus on
  20. 21. JUDGES ASK: <ul><li>Did you transform the use? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you use the appropriate amount to satisfy the transformative use? </li></ul>
  21. 22. FEAR … <ul><li>Will I get it wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>Will I get sued? </li></ul><ul><li>Will my boss/general counsel client get angry? </li></ul>
  22. 23. BEST PRACTICES
  23. 24. EDUCATION <ul><li>Knowledge of the law </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of problem </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation of consensus around fair use </li></ul>
  24. 25. COMMUNITIES INTERPRET FAIR USE: <ul><li>Documentary filmmakers </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Media literacy teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Online video </li></ul><ul><li>Dance collections </li></ul><ul><li>OpenCourseWare </li></ul>
  25. 26. STORIES UNTOLD: Creative consequences of the rights clearance culture for documentary filmmakers
  26. 27. DOCUMENTARY
  27. 28. RESULTS: <ul><li>TV programmers air films </li></ul><ul><li>New kinds of films </li></ul><ul><li>All insurers of errors and omissions insurance now accept fair use claims </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyers use the Statement to build their practices </li></ul>
  28. 29. FILM SCHOLARS
  29. 30. MEDIA LITERACY TEACHERS
  30. 31. MEDIA LITERACY CATEGORIES <ul><li>Teaching with copyrighted material </li></ul><ul><li>Using copyrighted material in curriculum materials </li></ul><ul><li>Circulating curriculum materials with copyrighted material in them </li></ul><ul><li>Student use of copyrighted materials in their work </li></ul><ul><li>Circulating student work </li></ul>
  31. 32. ONLINE VIDEO
  32. 33. ONLINE VIDEO CODE <ul><li>Comment/critique </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration/example </li></ul><ul><li>Accidentally/incidentally </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve/recall </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>Collage </li></ul>
  33. 34. DANCE COLLECTIONS
  34. 35. PRESERVATION Transferring holdings to new formats (fair use better than section 108)
  35. 36. EXHIBITION Using holdings in public displays/exhibits Capturing copyrighted material in recorded presentations (e.g. podcast of the event)
  36. 37. RESEARCH For academic study, including “digital ILL” (better than section 110) Allowing public access to digitized materials on a website
  37. 38. OPEN COURSEWARE
  38. 39. SITUATIONS <ul><li>Incidental use </li></ul><ul><li>Critique and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>(sound familiar?) </li></ul>
  39. 40. AND WHAT ABOUT E-RESERVES? Links are better than digital reproduction BUT... non-text/hard-to-find material may justify fair use.
  40. 41. TEXACO DECISION (1992) OK to reproduce copies of articles received from a corporate service for Texaco employees?
  41. 42. NO, because… Not transformative.
  42. 43. TRANSFORMATIVE FUNCTIONS? <ul><li>Assembling research for a project </li></ul><ul><li>Online research-discussion site </li></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul>
  43. 44. TAKING ACTION
  44. 45. USING OTHER PEOPLE'S CODES <ul><li>Media literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Dance Collections </li></ul><ul><li>OpenCourseWare </li></ul>
  45. 46. MAKING YOUR OWN <ul><li>Document the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Define the opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Research the reality </li></ul>
  46. 47. AVOID PRE-EMPTION <ul><li>Many contracts with providers pre-empt fair use </li></ul><ul><li>— Scope of use </li></ul><ul><li>— Exclusion of fair use </li></ul><ul><li>Often, contracts can be tailored </li></ul><ul><li>Read the fine print! </li></ul>
  47. 48. FAIR USE: Practice Makes Practice
  48. 49. Please feel free to share this presentation in its entirety. For excerpting, kindly employ the principles of fair use.
  49. 50. THANK YOU! Prof. Peter Jaszi Educause MacArthur, Rockefeller, and Ford Foundations Matthew Gordon
  50. 51. CONTACT INFO Pat Aufderheide Center for Social Media School of Communication American University Washington, DC [email_address] 202-885-2069

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