Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries

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An overview of the Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries, published by the Association of Research Llibraries in 2012

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  • 12/17/09
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  • Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries

    1. 1. Brandon Butler Patricia Aufderheide FAIR USE AND RESEARCH LIBRARIANS February 16, 2012
    2. 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>Copyright and its problems </li></ul><ul><li>The Best Practices Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries and Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries </li></ul>
    3. 3. THE PURPOSE OF COPYRIGHT
    4. 4. ONE PURPOSE : TO PROMOTE THE CREATION OF CULTURE
    5. 5. BY: <ul><ul><li>Rewarding creators with limited monopoly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging new makers to use existing culture </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. BIGGEST BALANCING FEATURE: FAIR USE legal, unauthorized use of copyrighted material−under some circumstances
    7. 7. 09/30/09
    8. 8. “ FOUR FACTORS” <ul><li>Reason for the use </li></ul><ul><li>Kind of work used </li></ul><ul><li>Amount used </li></ul><ul><li>Effect on the market </li></ul>
    9. 9. GOOD NEWS… <ul><li>Judges love balancing features </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court: fair use protects free speech </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use judicial interpretation shifts greatly since 1990 </li></ul>
    10. 10. JUDGES ASK: <ul><li>Is your use “transformative”? (i.e., use for new purpose, context, audience, insight) </li></ul><ul><li>Did you use the appropriate amount to satisfy the transformative use? </li></ul>
    11. 11. “ TRANSFORM?” <ul><li>E.g., use of works for scholarly study </li></ul><ul><li>Use of works for teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Use for exhibits </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
    12. 12. PLUS… Custom and practice of individual creative communities… ...especially when well-documented
    13. 13. BEST PRACTICES CODES
    14. 14. COMMUNITIES INTERPRET FAIR USE: <ul><li>Documentary filmmakers </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Media literacy teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Online video </li></ul><ul><li>Dance collections </li></ul><ul><li>OpenCourseWare </li></ul>
    15. 15. DOCUMENTARY CODE
    16. 16. RESULTS: <ul><li>TV programmers air films </li></ul><ul><li>New kinds of films </li></ul><ul><li>All insurers of errors and omissions insurance now accept fair use claims </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyers use the Statement to build their practices </li></ul>
    17. 17. BEST PRACTICES, NOT GUIDELINES <ul><li>Principles, not rules </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations, not bans </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning, not rote </li></ul>
    18. 18. WHY FAIR USE MATTERS TO LIBRARIANS
    19. 19. FAIR USE ENABLES MISSION <ul><li>Mission to serve knowledge past, present, future </li></ul><ul><li>Need to access copyrighted work </li></ul><ul><li>Digital innovation/obsolescence </li></ul>
    20. 20. BUT… <ul><li>Insecurity and hesitation=staff costs, mission deformed </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use would help, but is under-used </li></ul><ul><li>Risk aversion substituted for fair use analysis </li></ul>
    21. 21. THE CODE OF BEST PRACTICES IN FAIR USE FOR ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH LIBRARIES
    22. 22. CREATED BY LIBRARIANS Deep deliberation by 90 librarians from 64 inst’ns in nine 4-hour discussions. Review by diverse panel of legal experts.
    23. 23. NEW INPUT FOR RISK MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Put legal risks into perspective, “mission risk” </li></ul><ul><li>Consider views of librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Grounding for solidarity </li></ul>
    24. 24. Fair Use Applies in 8 Common Situations
    25. 25. ONE: Digital access to teaching materials for students and profs -limitations ! -enhancements
    26. 26. 12/17/09
    27. 27. TWO: Exhibits, both physical & virtual … with limitations … and enhancements!
    28. 28. 12/17/09
    29. 29. THREE: Digitizing to preserve at-risk items … when you can’t buy it (plus more limitations & enhancements).
    30. 30. 12/17/09
    31. 31. NOTICING A TREND? Yup. All those limitations and enhancements mean you will need to read the Code with care.
    32. 32. FOUR: Digital collections of archives and special collections (+ limitations and enhancements)
    33. 33. 12/17/09
    34. 34. FIVE: Access to research and teaching materials for disabled users (+ limitations and enhancements)
    35. 35. 12/17/09
    36. 36. SIX: Institutional repositories, e.g., dissertations, multimedia research (+ limitations and enhancements)
    37. 37. 12/17/09
    38. 38. SEVEN: Create digital databases for “non-consumptive uses” (digitizing, indexing for search) (+ limitations and enhancements, of course)
    39. 39. 12/17/09
    40. 40. EIGHT: Making topically-based collections of Web-based material (+ limitations and enhancements)
    41. 41. 12/17/09
    42. 42. FAIR USE : Practice Makes Practice
    43. 43. MORE INFORMATION
    44. 44. The code and much more (videos! Presentations! FAQs!) <ul><li>www.arl.org/fairuse </li></ul><ul><li>Centerforsocialmedia.org/fair-use </li></ul>
    45. 46. Please feel free to share this presentation in its entirety. For excerpting, kindly employ the principles of fair use.
    46. 47. THANK YOU! The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Research librarians everywhere
    47. 48. CONTACT INFO Brandon Butler [email_address] Peter Jaszi [email_address] Patricia Aufderheide [email_address]

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