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Arl code usc
 

Arl code usc

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A tutorial on the fair use doctrine and its ap

A tutorial on the fair use doctrine and its ap

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  • 12/17/09
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Arl code usc Arl code usc Presentation Transcript

  • FREE SPEECHAND FAIR USE INTHE ACADEMICENVIRONMENTPat Aufderheide
  • OVERVIEW• Copyright and Fair Use• The Best Practices Approach• Academics and Fair Use• Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries
  • THE PURPOSEOF COPYRIGHT
  • ONE PURPOSE :TO PROMOTE THECREATION OF CULTURE
  • BY: • Rewarding creators with limited monopoly • Encouraging new makers to use existing culture
  • BIGGEST BALANCINGFEATURE: FAIR USE legal, unauthorized use of copyrighted material−under some circumstances
  • 09/30/09
  • “FOUR FACTORS”• Reason for the use• Kind of work used• Amount used• Effect on the market
  • GOOD NEWS… • Judges love balancing features • Supreme Court: fair use protects free speech • Fair use judicial interpretation shifts greatly since 1990
  • JUDGES ASK:• Is your use “transformative”? (i.e., use for new purpose, context, audience, insight)• Did you use the appropriate amount to satisfy the transformative use?
  • “TRANSFORM?”• E.g., use of works for scholarly study• Use of works for teaching• Use for exhibits• Etc.
  • PLUS…Custom and practice ofindividual creativecommunities…...especially when well-documented
  • BESTPRACTICESCODES
  • COMMUNITIESINTERPRET FAIR USE: • Documentary filmmakers • Scholars • Media literacy teachers • Online video • Dance collections • OpenCourseWare
  • DOCUMENTARY CODE
  • RESULTS:• TV programmers air films• New kinds of films• All insurers of errors and omissions insurance now accept fair use claims• Lawyers use the Statement to build their practices
  • BEST PRACTICES,NOT GUIDELINES• Principles, not rules• Limitations, not bans• Reasoning, not rote
  • WHYFAIR USEMATTERS TOLIBRARIANS
  • FAIR USE ENABLESMISSION• Mission to serve knowledge past, present, future• Need to access copyrighted work• Digital innovation/obsolescence
  • BUT…• Insecurity and hesitation=staff costs, mission deformed• Fair use would help, but is under-used• Risk aversion substituted for fair use analysis
  • THE CODE OFBEST PRACTICESIN FAIR USEFOR ACADEMICAND RESEARCHLIBRARIES
  • CREATED BYLIBRARIANSDeep deliberation by 90librarians from 64 inst’ns innine 4-hour discussions.Review by diverse panel oflegal experts.
  • NEW INPUT FORRISK MANAGEMENT• Put legal risks into perspective, “mission risk”• Consider views of librarians• Grounding for solidarity
  • Fair Use Appliesin 8 CommonSituations
  • ONE:Digital access to teachingmaterials for students andprofs-limitations!-enhancements
  • TWO: Exhibits, both physical & virtual …with limitations …and enhancements!
  • THREE:Digitizing to preserveat-risk items…when you can’t buy it(plus more limitations &enhancements).
  • 12/17/09
  • FOUR:Digital collections ofarchives and specialcollections(+ limitations andenhancements)
  • FIVE:Access to research andteaching materials fordisabled users(+ limitations andenhancements)
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  • SIX: Institutional repositories, e.g., dissertations, multimedia research (+ limitations and enhancements)
  • SEVEN:Create digital databases for“non-consumptive uses”(digitizing, indexing forsearch)(+ limitations andenhancements, of course)
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  • EIGHT:Making topically-basedcollections of Web-basedmaterial(+ limitations andenhancements)
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  • FAIR USE: Practice Makes Practice
  • MOREINFORMATION
  • The code and much more (videos!Presentations! FAQs!)• www.arl.org/fairuse• Centerforsocialmedia.org/fair- use
  • Please feel free to share thispresentation in its entirety.For excerpting, kindlyemploythe principles of fair use.
  • THANK YOU!The Andrew W. MellonFoundationResearch librarianseverywhere
  • CONTACT INFO Brandon Butler brandon@arl.org Peter Jaszi pjaszi@wcl.american.edu