Sexuality Presentation 2009

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  • 1. Sexuality Lecture 2009
    • I. Sexual Identity
    • II. Reproductive System
    • III. Fertility and Birth Control
    • IV. Sexual Response Cycle
    • V. Sexual Orientation, Behaviors and Dysfunctions
    • VI. Sexually Transmitted Infections
    • VII. Relationships
  • 2. Make your first date… A Kaiser date!
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. SEXUAL IDENTITY
    • Sexual Identity
    • Gonads
    • Puberty
    • Hypothalamus
    • Pituitary Gland
    • Secondary Sex Characteristics
    • Gender
    • Gender Roles
    • Gender Identity
    • Gender Role Stereotypes
    • Androgyny
    • Socialization
  • 6. I. Sexual Identity A composite of gender, gender roles, sexual preference, body image and sexual script.
  • 7. Gender Identity Your sense of masculinity or femininity (defined by the society in which you live). Expression of maleness or femaleness.
  • 8. Androgyny Combination of traditional masculine and feminine traits in a single person.
  • 9.  
  • 10. Secondary Sex Characteristics Males Low pitch voice, facial/body hair, muscular development Females Increase breast and hip size, body/pubic hair
  • 11. Gonads The reproductive organs (sex organs) in a male (testes) or a female (ovaries). Developed at 8 weeks of fetal life.
  • 12. Puberty The period of sexual maturation. Sequence of events leading to the development of the secondary sexual characteristics and fertility. Age of onset is 10-16 years old with the hypothalamus, pituitary glands and gonads.
  • 13. Hypothalamus Control center of brain which signals pituitary gland with GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone). Initiates our fertility capability.
  • 14. Pituitary Gland In response to the hypothalamus message (GnRH) the pituitary gland releases gonadotropins (FSH and LH). These gonadotropins are responsible for stimulating the gonads to release sex hormones. For females these sex hormones are estrogen/progesterone and for males, testosterone.
  • 15. II. Reproductive System The male and female gonads, associated ducts and glands, and external genitalia that function in the procreation of offspring. In women these include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva. In men they include the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct, prostate and penis.
  • 16.  
  • 17. Female Anatomy & Physiology
    • External Genitalia (aka: Vulva)
    • Mons pubis, labia minora, labia majora, clitoris, urethral opening, vaginal opening, hymen, perineum
    • Internal Genitalia
    • Vagina, cervix, uterus (womb), endometrium, ovaries, fallopian tubes, fimbria, ovarian follicles, ovum (egg)
    What controls these structures?
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20. Male Anatomy & Physiology
    • External Genitalia
    • Penis and Scrotum
    • Internal Genitalia
    • Testicles, epididymis (-ides), vas deferens, accessory organs (seminal vesicles, prostate gland and Cowper’s Gland)
    What controls these structures?
  • 21.  
  • 22. III. Fertility and Birth Control The ability to reproduce. vs. The ability to control reproduction (birth control).
  • 23. Three Conditions Necessary for Conception
    • Viable egg
    • Viable sperm
    • Access to egg
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27. IV. Sexual Response Cycle
    • The 4-5 phases of biological sexual response :
    • Excitement/Arousal phase
    • Plateau phase
    • Orgasmic phase
    • Resolution phase
    • Refractory phase
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. V. Sexual Orientation, Behaviors and Dysfunctions Sexual Orientation Heterosexual, Homosexual, Bisexual Sexual Behavior Autoerotic behaviors, sexual fantasies, masturbation, erogenous zones, cunnilingus, fellatio, anal intercourse, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, variant sexual behavior, celibacy, homophobia, limerance Sexual Dysfunctions Inhibited sexual desire (ISD), sexual aversion disorder, erectile dysfunction (impotence), premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, preorgasmic, dyspareunia, vaginismus
  • 31.  
  • 32. VI. Sexually Transmitted Infections
    • Agenda:
    • Incidence versus Prevalence
    • Type of Pathogen – bacteria, virus, parasite, protozoa
    • Protective barriers
  • 33. V. Sexually Transmitted Infections Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Pelvic inflammatory disease Genital warts Genital herpes Hepatitis B HIV/AIDS Trichomoniasis Candida
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37. Keys to Reducing STIs Education Early diagnosis and treatment Prevention
  • 38. Trichomonas Vaginalis (Trichomoniasis)
  • 39. Candida (Yeast infection)
    • 75% of women get it
    • Common causes: antibiotics, menstruation, pregnancy, diabetes, hygiene, clothing
  • 40. Chlamydia
    • Pathogen: bacterial
    • Prognosis: curable
    • If not treated: infertility
    • Scaring of the fallopian tubes and possibly pelvic inflammatory disease
    • Leading cause of infertility among couples
    • Women do not have any signs or symptoms most the time – Men generally do – so Men tend to get treated – Women in general contract infection easier than men do to surface area exposed.
    • Treatment/Prevention
    • The best type of prevention is not having sex – however when you are ready to have sex – communication is very important and a visit to the doctor’s office for STD testing
  • 41. Gonorrhea
    • Incidence rose 9% in 1998
    • Milky-white discharge in men, painful urination
    • Men – 80% have s/s
    • Women – 80% don’t have s/s
    • Women – slimy yellow-green discharge from vagina or urethra
    • Oral sex – throat infection
    • Rectal sex
    • Incidence correlated with alcohol consumption
    • Dual therapy with Chlamydia
    • Eye infections
  • 42. Primary Syphilis
    • Pathogen:
    • Bacteria (Spirochete)
    • Distinct stages
    • Any organ may be involved
    • Primary syphilis – appearance of small painless red pustule on skin or mucous membrane 10 – 90 days after exposure – lesion may appear anywhere on body where contact with pathogen occurred – most often the anogenital region
    • This painless red pustule quickly erodes forming a painless, bloodless ulcer, called a chancre, exuding fluid filled with spirochetes – heals spontaneously within 10-40 days.
    • The secondary stage – occurs 2 months later – spirochetes have increased in number and spread throughout the body
  • 43. Secondary Syphilis
    • S/S:
    • General malaise
    • Anorexia nervosa
    • Nausea/fever
    • Headache/alopecia
    • Bone and joint pain
    • Rash that does not itch
    • Flat white sores in mouth and throat
    • Highly contagious at this stage – can be spread by kissing
  • 44. Tertiary Syphilis
    • Appearance of soft rubbery tumors called gummas that ulcerate and heal by scaring
    • Gummas may develop anywhere on the body – eyes, lungs, liver, stomach, or reproductive organs
    • Tertiary syphilis may be painless or may be very painful
    • Tissues and structures of the body may be damaged – including the CNS, myocardium, valves of the heart may be damaged or destroyed
    • The culminating effects may be mental insanity and/or severe physical disability and premature death
  • 45. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
    • Signs & Symptoms
    • Treatment/Prevention
  • 46.  
  • 47. Genital Warts
    • HPV pathogen
    • Pinkish-white lesions
    • Raised clusters on penis or scrotum or labia, cervix or around anus
    • In women this can cause precancerous changes on cervix
    • Treatment/Prevention
    • Gels, cryotherapy, surgical removal
    • Warts need not be present to infect partner
  • 48. Herpes (simplex 1 & 2)
    • Signs & Symptoms
    • Treatment/Prevention
  • 49.  
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52. AIDS / HIV
    • Most devastating infectious disease in the past 80 years
    • Since 1999 58.6% of reported cases have died
    • Annual cost $20,000 per person
    • Annually by public & private $13 billion
    • AIDS is caused by a virus (HIV) that attacks the helper T cells of the immune system
    • People lose the ability to fight off infections
    • Opportunistic infections – Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Kaposi’s sarcoma, toxoplasmosis within the brain, wasting syndrome, cervical cancer, recurrent TB
  • 53. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    • Chronic disease that progressively damages the body’s immune system
    • Asymptomatic period ranges from 2 to 20 years
      • virus can be passed on to others during this time
    • AIDS is diagnosed when number of CD4 T cells (helper T cells) falls to certain level or marker conditions appear
  • 54.  
  • 55. The Transmission of HIV
    • HIV lives within cells and body fluids (blood and blood products, semen, vaginal and cervical secretions, breast milk)
    • Spread in three ways
      • certain sexual activities
      • direct contact with infected blood (via needle-sharing or transfusions)
      • from infected mother to fetus or through breastfeeding
  • 56. Symptoms of HIV Fever Fatigue Rashes Headache and body aches Swollen lymph nodes Night sweats Sore throat Nausea and diarrhea
  • 57. Treatment and Prevention
    • No known cure for HIV infection
    • New drugs can extend life
      • nucleoside analogs
      • protease inhibitors
    • Prevention
      • making careful choices about sexual activity
      • not sharing needles
      • practicing abstinence or using condoms
  • 58.  
  • 59.  
  • 60.  
  • 61. Unintended Pregnancy First Year of Use
    • Method – Typical use
    • Norplant .05%
    • Male sterilization .15%
    • Depo-Provera .30%
    • Female sterilization .50%
    • Copper T IUD .8%
    • Progestasert IUD 2.0%
    • Oral contraceptives 5%
    • Oral – combination .1%(p)
    • Oral – progestin only .5%(p)
    • Spermicides 26% - 6%
    • Chance 85%
    • Method – Typical use
    • Male condom (latex) 14% - 3%
    • Withdrawal 19% - 4%
    • Diaphragm w/spermicide 20% - 6%
    • Sponge 20% - 9%
    • Cervical cap 20% - 9%
    • Female condom 21% - 5%
    • FAM 25%
    • Calendar alone 9%(p)
    • Combination of FAM 2%(p)
  • 62.  
  • 63.  
  • 64.  
  • 65.  
  • 66.  
  • 67.  
  • 68.  
  • 69.  
  • 70.  
  • 71.  
  • 72.  
  • 73.  
  • 74.  
  • 75.  
  • 76.  
  • 77. Should a woman be able to obtain an abortion in the following circumstances?
    • Her life is endangered.
    • Her physical health is endangered.
    • The pregnancy was caused by rape or incest.
    • Her mental health is endangered.
    • The baby is physically or mentally impaired.
    • The woman or family cannot afford to raise the child.
  • 78. Should a woman be permitted to have an abortion during the following stages of pregnancy?
    • In the first three months
    • In the second three months
    • In the last three months
  • 79. Views on Abortion
    • Gallup Organization, 2003
    • Should a pregnant woman be able to obtain an abortion in the following circumstances?
    • YES
    • Her life is endangered. 85%
    • Her physical health is endangered. 77%
    • The pregnancy was caused by rape or incest. 76%
    • Her mental health is endangered. 63%
    • The baby is physically or mentally impaired. 56%
    • The woman or family cannot afford to raise the child 35%
    • Health 11 W,F 1pm
    • Spring 2005
    • YES NO N/C
    • 1. 76% 18% 6%
    • 2. 76% 18% 6%
    • 3. 82% 12% 6%
    • 4. 65% 29% 6%
    • 5. 70% 24% 6%
    • 6. 41% 53% 6%
  • 80. Views on Abortion
    • Gallup Organization, 2003
    • Should a woman be permitted to have an abortion during the following stages of pregnancy?
    • YES
    • In the first 3 months 66%
    • In the second 3 months 25%
    • In the third 3 months 10%
    • Health 11 wed. night 6:45pm class – YOUR responses:
    • YES NO N/C
    • 82% 12% 6%
    • 29% 59% 12%
    • 18% 76% 6%
  • 81. Abortion Risk Chapter 7, pg.187
    • Risk of Death
    • Legal abortion
      • Before 9 weeks 1 in 262,800
      • 9-12 weeks 1 in 100,000
      • 13-15 weeks 1 in 34,400
      • After 15 weeks 1 in 10,200
    • Illegal abortion 1 in 3,000
    • Pregnancy and childbirth 1 in 10,000
    • Sources: Hatcher, R.A., et.al., 1998. Contraceptive Technology, 17 th rev.ed. New York: Ardent Media; Carlson, K.J., S.A. Eisenstat, and T. Ziporyn. 1996. The Harvard Guide to Women’s Health. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  • 82.
    • Relationships
    Sternberg’s Triangular Love Theory Intimacy Passion Commitment
  • 83. Different Kinds of Love
    • Liking (intimacy only)
    • Infatuation (passion only)
    • Romantic (intimacy and passion)
    • Fatuous (passion and commitment)
    • Empty (commitment only)
    • Companionate (intimacy and commitment)
    • Consummate (all three elements)
  • 84. Relationships
    • Cohabitation – About 5% of all American households - 4 million heterosexual couples and 1.5 million gay/lesbian couples live together. By age 30, half of all men and women have cohabited.
    • Most Americans will marry sometime in their lives – 75% of men and women are married by age 30 and 95% by age 65
    • Marriage has been found to be beneficial for both sexes – lower mortality rates, higher sexual satisfaction and higher income.
    • More than half of couples who live together marry after 3 years and 75% after 5 years.
    • Cohabiting couples most likely to marry were: women over the age of 25, the woman had a religious affiliation, and the woman’s parents remained married during her childhood.