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Nutrition: Eating For Optimum Health 9
Assessing Eating Behavior <ul><li>Appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Personal preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Habit </li></ul><ul><l...
Assessing Eating Behavior <ul><li>Eating for Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans consume more calories per person than ...
Food Guide Pyramid: A Guide to Daily Food Choices Figure 9.1
Assessing Eating Behaviors <ul><li>Researchers at Harvard have suggested a new pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>The new pyramid w...
Proposed New Food Guide Pyramid Figure 9.2
The Digestive Process <ul><li>Body must break food down </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva has some enzyme...
The Digestive Process <ul><li>Enzymes from liver and pancreas help </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients absorbed into bloodstream <...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 glasses a day (8 ounces) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major component of every cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Protein (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids link together to form </li></u...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best fuel – they provide energy </li></ul></ul><...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Complex carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibe...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Carbohydrates and Athletes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar may be counterproductive </li...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Fiber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bulk” or “roughage” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indiges...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain healthy skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulate...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Fats (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5% as substances like cholesterol </li></ul><...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potent, essential, organic compounds </li></ul></ul><...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People in the U.S. are rarely deficient </li></ul></u...
Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 9.2 in book for a guide to minerals </li></...
The Medicinal Value of Food <ul><li>Compelling evidence that diet may be as effective as drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dieta...
The Medicinal Value of Food <ul><li>Folate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of vitamin B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folate forti...
Gender and Nutrition <ul><li>Men and women have different needs </li></ul><ul><li>Women have cyclical changes </li></ul><u...
Gender and Nutrition <ul><li>Reasons to change the “Meat and Potatoes Man” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men who eat red meat as a...
Determining Nutritional Needs <ul><li>Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate Intake </li></ul><u...
Reading a Food Label Figure 9.3
Vegetarianism: Eating for Health <ul><li>Types of vegetarian diets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Vegetarianism: Eating for Health <ul><li>Reasons why 5-15% of the population is vegetarian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic...
Improved Eating for the College Student <ul><li>Eating on the run </li></ul><ul><li>Funds may be short </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Food-Borne Illness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects millions of people each year </li>...
Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Key Factors why Food-Borne Illness has Increased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalizatio...
Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Practice Responsible Food Handling at Home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t keep foods o...
Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Food Irradiation: How Safe Is It? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>February 2000 the USDA appr...
Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Food Additives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce food-borne illness </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Indirect Food Additives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substances that inadvertently get int...
Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Food Allergies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in 5% of children and 10% of adults </li...
Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Food Allergies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphylactic reaction requires a shot of epine...
Label for Certified Organic Foods Figure 9.4
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Sexuality Presentation 2009

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Transcript of "Sexuality Presentation 2009"

  1. 1. Nutrition: Eating For Optimum Health 9
  2. 2. Assessing Eating Behavior <ul><li>Appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Personal preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Habit </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Body image </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul>
  3. 3. Assessing Eating Behavior <ul><li>Eating for Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans consume more calories per person than any other group of people in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calorie – a unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy we obtain from a food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans eat more fat (38%) than recommended by nutritionists (no more than 30%) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Food Guide Pyramid: A Guide to Daily Food Choices Figure 9.1
  5. 5. Assessing Eating Behaviors <ul><li>Researchers at Harvard have suggested a new pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>The new pyramid would place meat at the top with refined sweets </li></ul>
  6. 6. Proposed New Food Guide Pyramid Figure 9.2
  7. 7. The Digestive Process <ul><li>Body must break food down </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva has some enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Esophagus moves food to stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach has acid and more enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Small intestine furthers digestion (20-foot tube) </li></ul><ul><li>Duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>Jejunum </li></ul><ul><li>Ileum </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Digestive Process <ul><li>Enzymes from liver and pancreas help </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients absorbed into bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>Liver is the organ that determines fate of most nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Process takes approximately 24 hours </li></ul>
  9. 9. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 glasses a day (8 ounces) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50-60% of body is water </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major component of every cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role in developing/repairing bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key element in antibodies </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Protein (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids link together to form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fad diet controversy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can you give examples of complete proteins? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best fuel – they provide energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose (monosaccharide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose (monosaccharide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sucrose (disaccharide) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Complex carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored in the body as glycogen </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Carbohydrates and Athletes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar may be counterproductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate loading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myth of Sugar and Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not related in long-term studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not increase violence </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Fiber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bulk” or “roughage” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigestible portion of plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insoluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers many health protections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most American eat far less than recommended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average is 12 grams and 20-30 grams are recommended </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain healthy skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulate body organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote healthy cell function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are a concentrated form of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>95% as triglycerides in the body </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Fats (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5% as substances like cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plaque is buildup on artery walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of cholesterol HDL/LDL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-fatty acids (margarine or butter debate) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potent, essential, organic compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water soluble – dissolve in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat soluble – absorb through intestinal tract with fat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do you think so many people take vitamin supplements? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People in the U.S. are rarely deficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypervitaminosis may be a problem </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Obtaining Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 9.2 in book for a guide to minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic, indestructible elements that aid the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrominerals are needed in large amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trace minerals are needed in small amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your text highlights sodium, calcium, and iron </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Medicinal Value of Food <ul><li>Compelling evidence that diet may be as effective as drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary Intervention Study (DIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antioxidants </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Medicinal Value of Food <ul><li>Folate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of vitamin B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folate fortification 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural tube defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Gender and Nutrition <ul><li>Men and women have different needs </li></ul><ul><li>Women have cyclical changes </li></ul><ul><li>Men have more lean tissue (burn more) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Gender and Nutrition <ul><li>Reasons to change the “Meat and Potatoes Man” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men who eat red meat as a main dish 5 times a week have 4 times the risk of colon cancer over those eating red meat once a month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More prostate cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits and vegetables reduce stroke </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Determining Nutritional Needs <ul><li>Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate Intake </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Values </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Daily Intakes (DRIs) </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Reference Values (DRV) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading food labels can help determine needs </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reading a Food Label Figure 9.3
  27. 27. Vegetarianism: Eating for Health <ul><li>Types of vegetarian diets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacto-vegetarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovo-vegetarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacto-ovo-vegetarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesco-vegetarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semivegetarians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetarian food guide pyramids are available </li></ul>
  28. 28. Vegetarianism: Eating for Health <ul><li>Reasons why 5-15% of the population is vegetarian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Improved Eating for the College Student <ul><li>Eating on the run </li></ul><ul><li>Funds may be short </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the things you buy to eat? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you found ways to eat healthy? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Food-Borne Illness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects millions of people each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for 9,000 deaths a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cramping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Key Factors why Food-Borne Illness has Increased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization of food supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadvertent introduction of pathogens to new geographic regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to unfamiliar food-borne hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in microbial populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases susceptibility of varying populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient education about food safety </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Practice Responsible Food Handling at Home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t keep foods out of the refrigerator for long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t keep fresh meats more than one or two days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat leftovers within three days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash hands, cutting boards, and knives well </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Food Irradiation: How Safe Is It? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>February 2000 the USDA approved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use gamma irradiation from radioactive cobalt, cesium, or other X-ray sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks chemical bonds in the DNA of bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rays essentially pass through the food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts seem to support use despite concerns raised by some groups </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Food Additives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce food-borne illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional Food Additives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antimicrobial agents: salt, sugar, nitrates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antioxidants: preserve color and flavor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial color </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient additives (Vitamin D and folate) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Indirect Food Additives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substances that inadvertently get into food products from packaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dioxins: found in coffee filters, milk containers, and frozen foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methylene chloride: found in decaffeinated coffee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones: bovine growth hormone found in animals </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Food Allergies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in 5% of children and 10% of adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when the body treats a food, usually protein, as an invader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial signs include rapid breathing or wheezing, hives, rash, eczema, or runny nose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More dramatic symptoms: facial swelling or respiratory problems (anaphylactic reaction) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Food Safety: A Growing Concern <ul><li>Food Allergies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphylactic reaction requires a shot of epinephrine, a hormone that stimulates the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be mistaken for food intolerance or reactions to food additives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction may also occur in response to food substances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticide and chemical-free </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Label for Certified Organic Foods Figure 9.4
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