Psychosocial Wellness Fall 2005
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  • 1. Psychosocial Wellness Psychosocial wellness tries to explain the way we think, feel, communicate, behave and how we find purpose in life. What are our driving forces to think and feel? Are we driven chemically, genetically, environmentally or by our cumulative experiences growing up? How can our psychosocial wellness help us or hurt us?
  • 2. Agenda
    • Define psychosocial wellness
    • What are the statistics?
    • Healthy People 2010
    • Self-Awareness – Understanding Your Needs
    • Psychologically Hardy
    • Psychological Disorders
    • Treatment & Prevention
  • 3. Psychosocial Wellness
    • Emotional wellness
    • Intellectual wellness
    • Spiritual wellness
    • Interpersonal and social wellness
  • 4. Psychological Disorders
    • “In one year 44 million American Adults are limited in their ability to participate fully in life because of diagnosed mental disorders”
    • Nearly a fourth of American adults are affected by mental disorders each year.
    • Now 20 % of American children are afflicted – what will happen to them as adults?
    • We will briefly look at some of the more common conditions we see in the United States each year.
  • 5. Risk Factors for Psychosocial Disorders (i.e. Addictions: Drug Use, Violence, Eating Disorders, Sexual Crimes)
    • Your Personality
    • Low self-esteem
    • External focus of control
    • Passivity
    • Post-traumatic stress disorder
    • Your Environment
    • Access
    • Abusive home
    • Peer norms
    • Life events /oppression
    • Your Biology
    • Early exposure
    • ADD/Learning disabilities
    • Neurotransmitter imbalance
    • Genetic predisposition
  • 6. Creating a Healthy Psychosocial Dimension
    • 1. The Individual – 5 levels
    • Mental, Physical, Emotional, Social, Moral
    • 2. The Environment (Society)
    • Hetero-, Homo-, Politics, Economics, Religion, Culture
    • 3. Genetics – enzymes, genes
  • 7. Characteristics of Psychological Wellness
    • Realism – knowing what you can change and what you can’t – adapting to the world around you and adopting new ideas as evidence presents itself
    • Acceptance – having a positive self-concept (self-image) and high self-esteem
    • Creativity – people who seem to see more and open to new experiences, not fearing the unknown, minimize the fear of failure or the fear of success
    • Autonomy – being inner-directed, expressing yourself with your own genuine feelings, being spontaneous, real, authentic, regardless of disapproval or rejection by your peers
    • Intimacy – exposing feelings and thoughts to others – accepting the risks and satisfaction of being open to others in a caring, sensitive way
  • 8. Meeting Life’s Challenges
    • Developing an adult identity
    • Developing intimacy
    • Developing values and purpose
    • Developing a positive self-concept
    • Meeting challenges to self-esteem
    • Being less defensive – try to be proactive instead of reactive
    • Being optimistic
    • Maintaining honest communication
    • Dealing with loneliness
    • Dealing with your anger and anger in others (Cognitive distortion – pattern of thinking that makes events seem worse than they are)
  • 9. How do you feel?
    • Depressed Normal Bliss
    • Unhappy Euphoric
  • 10. Bottom line…We have needs!
    • We want to be happy
    • We want to feel good
    • We want to be successful
    • We want to be loved
    • We want to feel motivated
    • We want to have energy
    • We want friends
    • We want to be recognized
    • We want to be relaxed
    • We want to feel “high” – stimulated
    • We want to relieve depression
    • We want to be less inhibited
    • We want to try something new, take risks – be adventurous
    • We want to discover the meaning of life
  • 11. What are your options?
    • Positive Behaviors:
    • Exercise
    • Eat right
    • Plan a vacation
    • Visit friends
    • Go to the movies/theatre
    • Take a bubble bath
    • Go to school
    • Travel the world
    • Visit the Spas in Chile
    • Change your profession
    • Change your environment
    • Negative Behaviors:
    • Smoking
    • Getting drunk
    • Having sex w/ anyone
    • Violence
    • Being isolated
    • Excessive risks
    • Compulsive Gambling
    • Compulsive Shopping
    • Starving (anorexia)
    • Binge eating
    • Workaholic
    • Compulsive exerciser
  • 12. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Abraham Maslow’s 1960’s Hierarchy of Needs – listed here in order of decreasing urgency
    • Physiological needs
    • Safety and security
    • Love and belongingness
    • Self-esteem
    • Self-actualization
    • When you have reached self-actualization is when you have achieved your true potential
  • 13. If your needs are not being met… You will self-medicate!
  • 14. Drugs are immediate! Everything else takes time. Such as exercise, relaxing to music, calming effects of candles, sex.
  • 15. There are approximately 280 million Americans in the U.S.
    • Who is at risk for becoming an alcoholic?
    • 1 in 10 Americans
    • 1 in 4 if one parent is an alcoholic
    • 1 in 2 if dad or grandfather
  • 16. Addictions: Drugs, Violence, Eating Disorders, Obsessive Behaviors (gambling, shopping, cleaning)
    • They are agents of change.
    • They change the way you think (mental).
    • They change the way you feel (emotional).
    • By default – you will behave differently.
  • 17. Are you at risk for any of the following behaviors?
    • Drug use
    • Alcoholism or workaholism
    • Anorexia or Bulimia
    • Compulsive gambling or shopping
    • Being Violent/Hostile/Vindictive
    • Suffering from stress due to trauma
    • Suffering from loss (life, home, health)
  • 18. If your answer is YES…
    • Good! You are only human! As humans we are vulnerable. If you do not believe you are vulnerable – you may just be that person that learns the hard way. Perception of vulnerability and susceptibility is a means of self-preservation. This realization hopefully can keep you on the “look-out”. Primary prevention strategies puts this concept to use. We cannot possibly know our future but we can know ourselves. Awareness of our behaviors can help us predict and plan our future. Looking at our family and surroundings can also give us a sense of our strengths and weaknesses. Adapt, adapt, adapt to the many stages of your life. This is your “salvation”.
  • 19. Successful Treatment for Drug Use, Abuse and Misuse
    • 1. The Individual – 5 levels
    • Mental, Physical, Emotional, Social, Moral
    • 2. The Environment (Society)
    • Hetero-, Homo-, Politics, Economics, Religion, Culture
    • 3. Genetics – enzymes, genes
  • 20. Do you send people to jail if they drink alcohol or if they smoke tobacco or use marijuana? Why do we put people in jail?
  • 21. Reasons we have sent people to jail
    • Threat to others
    • Threat to themselves
    • Violent behaviors
    • Theft
    • Economic loss
    • Unhealthy behavior
    • Ethical or moral issue
    • Cultural/ethnic concerns
    • State or Federal offense
    • Deviation from societal norms – behavior not accepted by society
    • Safety concerns
    • Fears of the degradation of the western civilization
    • Religious concerns
  • 22. What is an addiction versus a habit?
    • Addiction
    • An unhealthy continued involvement with a mood-altering object or activity that creates harmful consequences. Signs of an addiction are (1) obsession/compulsion (2) loss of control (3) negative consequences (4) denial (5) escalation (6) tolerance (7) withdrawal symptoms.
    • Habit
    • A healthy continued involvement with an object or activity that contributes to your growth in all six dimensions of wellness.
  • 23. Signs of Work Addiction
    • Time urgency
    • Need to control
    • Perfectionism
    • Difficulty with relationships
    • Work binges
    • Difficulty relaxing and having fun
    • Irritability
    • Memory loss due to preoccupation with work
    • Low self-esteem
    • Health problems
  • 24. Receptor Site Theory
    • The Receptor Site Theory answers the question as to how chemicals are utilized by the body. The cells in your body maintain your existence. Cells utilize nutrients, oxygen, hormones and neurotransmitters to provide for your life sustaining functions (i.e. energy, repair, communication). The analogy of the “lock and key” describes how receptors only allow certain nutrients, drugs, hormones, neurotransmitters, etc. to enter the cell.
  • 25. Main Effects of Drug Use
    • Depending on your drug of choice : Stimulant, Depressant, Hallucinogenic (Your personality has a lot to do with this)
    • The “positive” effect that your are looking for from the drug (the high, the low, the gone, the flow, the here, the there, the happy, the sad).
    • Once you develop a tolerance , the body will need more for the same effect. This contributes to the escalating need for more drug , more often, more time spent using, more money and obviously more energy spent involved with this addicting habit.
    • An addiction takes time from your schedule . Addictions leave less time for work, school, travel, reading, learning, meeting new people, going to parties, conferences, leisure activities.
  • 26. Side Effects of Drugs
    • Chronic diseases (CVD, Cancer, COPD)
    • Mood instability
    • Nausea, Vomiting, Coughing
    • More colds, flu, absent from work, school
    • Lower GPA in school
    • Family problems, divorce, violence, rape
    • Accelerates the aging process
    • Eventually will lose independent living
    • We do not use drugs for these reasons – but these can be consequences for some people
  • 27. Categories of Drugs
    • Prescription Drugs
    • Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs
    • Recreational Drugs
    • Illicit (illegal) drugs
    • Herbal preparation
    • Commercial preparations
  • 28. Anxiety Disorders
    • Fear that is out of proportion – anxiety is another word for fear – especially when there is no definite threat
    • Simple phobia or specific phobia – fear of heights
    • Social phobia – fear of humiliation or embarrassment
    • Panic disorder
    • Generalized anxiety disorder
    • Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder
    • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
  • 29. Panic Disorders (Panic Attack) Excessive flow of excitatory signals reaching the surface (cortex) of the brain. Signs/symptoms similar to heart attack. Rapid heart rate, breathing, chest tightness, feeling of impending doom, hot flashes.
  • 30. Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD) People with GAD often seem restless, unable to concentrate, and fatigued from lack of sleep. Anxiety refers to unfocused worry or excessive concern. People with GAD express this anxiety or concern more consistently and intensely than in most people.
  • 31. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Classified as an anxiety disorder. OCD appears to arise from a genetic predisposition (neurotransmitter – serotonin). Obsessive – intrusive, recurrent, inappropriate thoughts, impulses, or images Compulsive – repetitive behavior, such as counting, checking doors or handwashing in response to obsessive thoughts – behaviors that are unreasonable
  • 32. Mood Disorders
    • Emotional disturbances that are intense and persistent enough to affect normal functioning
    • Depression
    • Suicide
  • 33. Signs/Symptoms of Depression
    • Sadness/hopelessness
    • Loss of pleasure
    • Poor appetite/weight loss
    • Insomnia/disturbed sleep
    • Restless or fatigue
    • Feelings of worthlessness and guilt
    • Trouble concentrating/making decisions
    • Thoughts of death or suicide
    • Or s/s can be opposite of these listed
  • 34. Depression (bipolar, unipolar, seasonal)
    • Bipolar – manic depression – periods of mania (highly excited, easily distracted, and very confident) followed by periods of depression (lack motivation, withdraw from interpersonal involvement, harbor negative feelings of self-worth, and may even consider suicide)
    • Unipolar disorder – far more common – two main forms – exogenous, secondary or reactive depression and endogenous or primary depression
    • When exogenous and endogenous occur together an individual can be incapacitating enough to be classified as major depression
    • Seasonal affective disorder – seasonal depression with lack of sunlight
  • 35. Suicide Death becomes a solution for a suicidal person who is dealing with despair, depression, inability to cope, overwhelmed with a range of destructive emotions, including anxiety, anger, loss of self-esteem, hopelessness and loneliness.
  • 36. Schizophrenia Problem with the reticular formation of the brain. Personality deterioration – disabling illness – delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, immobility, negativism, dysfunction in work, social, self-care
  • 37. Techniques for Managing Psychosocial Disorders
    • Talk therapy (psychologist, psychiatrist, counselor)
    • Medications
    • Social support
    • Healthy Lifestyle (exercise, good nutrition, rest, stress management, time management)
    • Cognitive techniques
    • Relaxation techniques
  • 38. Is a pill dissolving in your stomach more effective than a healing thought dissolving in your mind?
  • 39. De-stress Have fun