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Pe 722 Fitness Lecture Fall 2007

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  • 1. FITNESS, NUTRITION AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENT: THE POWER OF LIFESTYLE AND BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT Los Angeles Valley College PE 722 Group Fitness Instructor Fall 2007
  • 2.  
  • 3. RESOURCES IDEA Fitness Journal ACSM Health & Fitness Journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise Sports Medicine Bulletin NSCA Strength & Conditioning Journal
  • 4. Dimensions of Wellness
    • Physical Health – ADL’s
    • Mental Health
    • Social Health
    • Emotional Health
    • Spiritual Health
    • Environmental Health
  • 5. Health Promotion/Prevention
    • Primary prevention
    • Secondary prevention
    • Tertiary prevention
  • 6. U.S. Leading Causes of Death
    • Cardiovascular Disease
    • Stroke
    • Cancer
    • Diabetes
    • Accidents
    • Flu/pneumonia
  • 7. Cardiovascular Disease (part 1 of 2)
    • In 1993, 954,138 people in the U.S. died from heart disease
    • Forty two percent of all deaths are related to CVD
    • One-sixth of CVD deaths are people younger than 65 years
    • More than 60 million (1 out of every 4) Americans have some form of CVD: hypertension (50 million), coronary heart disease (13.5 million), congestive heart failure (4.7 million), or stroke (3.8 million) (American Heart Association, 1995)
  • 8. Cardiovascular Disease (part 2 of 2)
    • Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounts for more deaths than any other disease annually (489,000+ deaths)
    • CHD deaths greater among Blacks than Whites (Hispanics have a lower prevalence than Whites) (Public Health Service 1988)
    • CHD is caused by lack of blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) resulting in myocardial ischimia
    • CHD begins with a degenerative, progressive plaque build-up within the lining of the arteries known as atherosclerosis (Endothelial Damage Theory)
  • 9. ACSM GUIDELINES 2000 Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors
    • Positive Risk Factors
    • Family history
    • Cigarette smoking
    • Hypertension
    • Hypercholesterolemia
    • Impaired fasting glucose
    • Obesity
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • Negative Risk Factor
    • High serum HDL cholesterol > 60mg/dL (1.6mmol/L)
  • 10. What is Fitness?
    • The ability of the body to adapt to the demands of physical effort
    • If the STRESS placed on the body is not enough there will not be the need to adapt
    • If the STRESS is too much the body may become injured
  • 11. Being Physically Active vs. Adaptations thru Exercise
    • Physical activity : any movement of the body that is carried out by the muscles and requires energy
    • Exercise : a planned, structured, repetitive movement designed specifically to improve or maintain physical fitness
  • 12. Recommendations of the U.S. Surgeon General
    • Moderate activity:
      • on most, preferably all, days of the week
      • a goal of 150 kcals/day (1000 kcals/week)
    • Examples of one day’s moderate activity:
      • 30 minutes of brisk walking or 15 minutes of running
      • 30 minutes of raking leaves or 15 minutes of shoveling snow
      • two 10-minute bicycle rides or two brisk 15- minute walks
  • 13. Five Health-Related Components of Fitness
    • Cardiorespiratory Endurance
    • The ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high intensity levels.
    • Muscular Strength
    • The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.
    • Muscular Endurance
    • The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly for a long period of time.
    • Flexibility
    • The range of motion in a joint or group of joints; flexibility is related to muscle length.
    • Body Composition
    • The relative proportion of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) and fat in the body
  • 14. Table 11.1
  • 15. The Cardiorespiratory System
    • Cardio:
      • heart and blood vessels
      • transports oxygen, nutrients, and wastes among vital organs and tissues
    • Respiratory:
      • lungs, air passages, and breathing muscles
      • supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
  • 16. Cardiovascular Endurance
    • The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity
    • Key health-related component of fitness
  • 17. 1. CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE
    • RUNNING, SPEED WALKING, HIKING
    • BIKING, DANCING, SKATING
    • SWIMMING, CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING
    • STAIR CLIMBING, TREADMILL
    • ARM AND LEG ERGOMETRY
    • ROPE SKIPPING, OR ENDURANCE GAME ACTIVITIES
  • 18. Your Target Heart Rate Zone 1. Estimate maximum heart rate (MHR) by subtracting age from 220 2. Multiply MHR by 60% and 90% to find target heart rate zone 3. Start at 60% or below if you have been sedentary
  • 19. Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise
    • Improved cardiorespiratory functioning:
    • Reduces risk of CVD
    • Glycogen-sparing effect
    • Increases ventilatory capacity
    • Increases cardiac output
    • Reduces risk of dying prematurely
    • Reduces risk of developing osteoporosis
    • Maintenance of body weight
    • Reduces risk of developing diabetes
  • 20. Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise
    • Improved cellular metabolism:
      • increases capillaries in the muscles
      • trains muscles to work more efficiently may prevent damage to cells
    Mitochondria
  • 21. More Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise
    • Reduced risk of chronic disease:
      • cardiovascular disease
      • cancer
      • diabetes
      • osteoporosis
    Image source: http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/index.htm
  • 22. More Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise
    • Better control of body fat
    • Improved immune function
    • Improved psychological and emotional well-being
  • 23. 2. MUSCULAR STRENGTH ACSM GUIDELINES
    • 1. MAKE SURE YOU BREATH (avoid valsalva manuver- high blood pressure)
    • 2. SLOW-CONTROLLED MOVEMENTS – Avoid momentum taking over the movement
    • 3. FIND APPROPRIATE WEIGHT FOR 10-15 REPS
    • 4. ONE SET – FULL ROM (range of motion)
    • 5. 8 TO 10 DIFFERENT EXERCISES – utilizing different major muscle groups of the body
    • 6. Work to fatigue - NOT PAIN!
  • 24. Muscles, Bones, and Tendons Figure 11.2
  • 25. The Overload Principle Figure 11.4 The Overload Principle
  • 26. Major Muscle Groups
    • Upper Body – pectoralis major, deltoids, biceps, triceps, latissimus dorsi, rhomboids, trapezius, flexors & extensors
    • Mid-Section – rectus abdominus, external & internal obliques
    • Lower Body – quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, hip flexors & extensors
  • 27. Types of Muscle Contractions
    • Isometric contraction
    • Isotonic contraction
    • Isokinetic contraction
  • 28. 3. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE
    • Biking (lower body)
    • Running, Hiking, Walking (lower body)
    • Swimming, Arm Ergometer (upper body)
    • Cross-Country Skiing (upper & lower body)
    • Stair Climbing (lower body)
  • 29. Table 11.2
  • 30. 4. FLEXIBILITY
    • STATIC VS. BOUNCING (JERKY) STRETCHING
  • 31. Stretching Exercises to Improve Flexibility Figure 11.3
  • 32. 5. BODY COMPOSITION
    • PERCENT OF BODY FAT:
    • WOMEN (20-25% BODY FAT)
    • MEN (15-20% BODY FAT)
  • 33. Principles of Physical Training
    • The F.I.T. Principle
    • The Overload Principle
    • Specificity
    • Reversibility
    • Individual differences
  • 34. Your Goal Exercise Program Should Include:
    • The F.I.T. principle:
    • Frequency
      • 3-5 days per week for cardiovascular
      • 2-3 days per week for strength/flexibility
    • Intensity
      • Reach target heart rate zone
      • Lift sufficient weight to improve strength
    • Duration
      • ACSM and U.S. Surgeon General tell us: Minimum of 30 minutes per day
      • Institute of Medicine tells us:
      • Sixty minutes per day
  • 35. ACSM Guidelines for Aerobic Activity Figure 11.1
  • 36. TRAINING “systematic and regular participation in exercise for the purpose of enhancing sports performance.”
  • 37. Tips on Training
    • Listen to your body
    • Train with a partner
    • Train your mind
    • Keep your exercise program in perspective
    • Train the way you want your body to change
    • Train regularly
    • Get in shape gradually
    • Warm up and cool down
  • 38. ACUTE PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSES
    • 1) Marked reduction in muscle glycogen
    • 2) Elevated body temperature
    • 3) Decreased body weight - water loss
    • 4) Muscle and joint fatigue
    • 5) Lactate increase in blood
    • 6) Respiratory distress
  • 39. TRAINING ADAPTATION
    • 1) Decrease resting HR
    • 2) Increase stroke volume & cardiac output
    • 3) Increase VO2 max
    • 4) Increase lactate threshold
    • 5) Decrease body fat
  • 40. Fitness Injuries
    • Causes
      • Overuse injuries
      • Traumatic injuries
    • Preventing Fitness-Related Injuries
      • Appropriate footwear
      • Appropriate equipment
  • 41. Fitness Injuries
    • Common Overuse Injuries
      • Plantar fasciitis
      • Shin splints
      • Runner’s knee
    • Treating Fitness-Related Injuries
      • RICE: rest, ice, compression, and elevation
    • What kinds of sports injuries have you incurred?
  • 42. Fitness Injuries
    • Exercising in the Heat
      • Acclimatization
      • Avoid dehydration
      • Three heat stress illnesses:
        • Heat cramps
        • Heat exhaustion
        • Heat stroke
    • Can anyone describe the differences between these three illnesses?
  • 43. Fitness Injuries
    • Exercising in the Cold
      • Hypothermia concerns
      • Prevention:
        • Consider the weather
        • Wear layers
        • Hydrate
    • Did you know that drinking alcohol can cause hypothermia to occur more quickly?
  • 44. HANDOUTS
    • PAR-Q/INFORMED CONSENT
    • HEART RATE CARD
    • FITNESS ASSESSMENT CARD
    • STRENGTH TRAINING CARD
    • EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION CARDS
    • FITNESS/NUTRITION LOGS
    • EXERCISE DEMO HANDOUTS
  • 45. Nutrition
    • Hunger, Appetite, Satiety
    • Define Nutrition – Science of food and repair of the body
    • Six essential nutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water
    • Complex CHO vs. Simple sugars, Complete vs. incomplete proteins
    • Food Guide Pyramid, Portion Sizes, Reading Food Labels, Conversion of calories and grams
    • Carbohydrates (55%), Proteins (15%), Fats (less than 30%)
  • 46. Weight Management
    • Caloric balance, 1600, 2200, 2800 calorie diet based on the Food Guide Pyramid
    • Body Fat, BMI, Ht./Wt.table, Adaptive Thermogenesis
    • BMR (basal metabolic rate) 50-60%, RMR (resting metabolic rate) = BMR + daily act. 90%, EMR (exercise metabolic rate) = RMR + exercise) 100-110%
    • Caloric restriction, substitution, choose nutrient dense foods, 1 lb. = 3500 calories
    • Successful weight loss programs are based on sound, scientific, long-term approaches, individualized to fit YOUR tastes. You should not lose more than 1-2 lbs./week. Anorexia (less than 800 calories/day).
    • Body Image Distortions (Anorexia, Bulimia, Binge eating)