Diseases
Infectious and Noninfectious
Conditions
Agenda: Infectious and
Noninfectious Conditions
 Introduction to Disease (infectious/noninfectious;
acute/chronic; sanita...
Introduction
 History of Diseases in the United States
 Comparison of U.S. Diseases with other
countries
 Evolution of ...
Immunity
 Define Immunity
 Acquired versus natural immunity
 Autoimmune diseases
 Compensatory mechanisms
Risk Factors for Disease
 If Disease is Contagious…what is the mode
of transmission (direct vs. indirect contact)?
 If D...
Assessing Your Disease Risks
 Risk Factors You Can’t Control
 Heredity
 Aging
 Environmental conditions
 Organism res...
Assessing Your Disease Risks
 Risk Factors You Can Control (continued)
 Stress
 Nutrition
 Physical activity
 Sleep
...
The Pathogens: Routes of
Transmission
 Transmission
 Direct contact
 Indirect contact
 Auto-inoculate yourself
 Airbo...
The Pathogens: Routes of
Transmission
 Bacteria
 Single-celled organisms
 Staphylococcal infections
 Streptococcal inf...
The Pathogens: Routes of
Transmission
 Viruses
 Smallest pathogens
 Protein structures
 Common cold
 Influenza
 Infe...
The Pathogens: Routes of
Transmission
 Other Pathogens
 Fungi
 Protozoa
 Parasitic worms
 Prions
Responsibilities with Disease
 Is the disease contagious? If it is - how do
we prevent the spread? Quarantine? Modify
lif...
Dept. of Health & Human
Services
 What you may not know and what you should
know.
 Your doctor can (and sometimes is req...
Prevention/Treatment of
Disease
 Infectious Conditions:
1. Identify pathogen
2. Identify mode of
transmission
3. Identify...
When is it time to see a
doctor?
 Annual check-up –
Routine visit to your
primary care physician
or specialist, dental vi...
Patient – Doctor Relationship
 What are your patient rights?
 Are you seeing a doctor on a consultation
basis or to rece...
Health Concerns Today
 Lifestyle Diseases (cardiovascular, cancer,
diabesity)
 Psychosocial Issues (depression, road rag...
Your Body’s Defenses:
Keeping You Well
 Physical and Chemical Defenses
 Skin
 Enzymes
 Body temperature
 Linings of t...
Your Body’s Defenses:
Keeping You Well
 The Immune System: Your Body Fights Back
 Immunity
 Antigens
 Antibodies
 Imm...
Your Body’s Defenses:
Keeping You Well
 Fever
 Rises in temperature can be harmful if extreme
 High temperatures can de...
Your Body’s Defenses:
Keeping You Well
 Pain
 Response to either direct or referred pain
 Most often accompanied by inf...
Emerging and Resurgent
Diseases
 Tiny Microbes: Lethal Threats
 Mad Cow Disease (Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis)
 Dengu...
Emerging and Resurgent
Diseases
 Tiny Microbes: Lethal Threats (continued)
 Hantavirus
 Bioterrorism: The New Global Th...
Noninfectious Diseases
 Chronic Lung Diseases
 Dyspnea
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases
(COPDs)
 Allergy-Induce...
Steps of an Allergy Response
Figure 14.4
Noninfectious Diseases Hay Fever
 Example of COPD
 Asthma
 Long-term chronic inflammatory disorder
 Blocked airflow t...
Noninfectious Diseases
 Emphysema
 Gradual destruction of alveoli
 Difficult to exhale
 Victim struggles to take in ai...
Noninfectious Diseases
 Bronchitis
 Inflammation of bronchial tubes
 Reduced air flow from the lungs
 Acute bronchitis...
Noninfectious Diseases
 Sleep Apnea
 Affects 5% of the general population
 Periodic episodes of breathing cessation for...
Neurological Disorders
 Headaches
 Tension headaches
 Migraine headaches
 Secondary headaches
Neurological Disorders
 Seizure Disorders
 Epilepsy
 1% of Americans are epileptic
 Types of seizures:
 Grand mal
 P...
Gender-Related Disorders
 Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
 Symptoms vary
 Plausible cause: hormones
Gender-Related Disorders
 Endometriosis
 Tends to effect women age 20-40
 Symptoms:
 Severe cramping
 Irregular perio...
Digestion-Related Disorders
 Diabetes
 Pancreas’ role
 Diabetes mellitus
 Hyperglycemia
 Type I
 Type II
 Gestation...
Digestion-Related Disorders
 Peptic Ulcers
 Lesion or wound in body tissue
 Chronic
 Occur in the stomach lining or du...
Musculoskeletal Diseases
 Arthritis
 Strikes 1 in 7
 Osteoarthritis
 Rheumatoid arthritis
 Fibromyalgia
 Chronic, pa...
Musculoskeletal Diseases
 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
 Immune system attacks the body
 Destroys or injures organ...
Musculoskeletal Diseases
 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)
 Feeling tired all the time
 Possible psychological roots
 Re...
Make your first date…
 A Kaiser date!
Keys to Reducing STIs
Education
Early diagnosis
and treatment
Prevention
Do we effectively teach
sexuality in K-12 schools?
 Explain the human body to children in an honest
and informative appro...
SEXUAL IDENTITY
 Sexual Identity
 Gonads
 Puberty
 Hypothalamus
 Pituitary Gland
 Secondary Sex
Characteristics
 Ge...
Secondary Sex Characteristics
 Males
 Low pitch voice, facial/body hair, muscular
development
 Females
 Increase breas...
Gonads
 The reproductive organs (sex organs) in a
male (testes) or a female (ovaries).
Developed at 8 weeks of fetal life.
Puberty
 The period of sexual maturation. Sequence
of events leading to the development of the
secondary sexual character...
Hypothalamus
 Control center of brain which signals pituitary
gland with GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing
hormone). Initiates...
Female Anatomy & Physiology
 External Genitalia
(aka: Vulva)
 Mons pubis, labia
minora, labia majora,
clitoris, urethral...
Male Anatomy & Physiology
 External Genitalia
 Penis and Scrotum
 Internal Genitalia
Testicles, epididymis (-
ides), va...
Signs or Symptoms of an STI
Figure 14.3
V. Sexual Orientation, Behaviors
and Dysfunctions
 Sexual Orientation
 Heterosexual, Homosexual, Bisexual
 Sexual Behav...
VI. Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 Agenda:
1) Incidence versus Prevalence
2) Type of Pathogen – bacteria, virus, parasi...
V. Sexually Transmitted Infections
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
Syphilis
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Genital warts
Genital herpes
H...
Trichomonas Vaginalis
(Trichomoniasis)
Candida (Yeast infection)
 75% of women get it
 Common causes: antibiotics,
menstruation, pregnancy,
diabetes, hygiene, ...
Chlamydia
 Pathogen: bacterial
 Prognosis: curable
 If not treated: infertility
 Scaring of the fallopian
tubes and po...
Gonorrhea
 Incidence rose 9% in
1998
 Milky-white discharge in
men, painful urination
 Men – 80% have s/s
 Women – 80%...
Primary Syphilis
 Pathogen:
 Bacteria (Spirochete)
 Distinct stages
 Any organ may be involved
 Primary syphilis –
ap...
Secondary Syphilis
 S/S:
 General malaise
 Anorexia nervosa
 Nausea/fever
 Headache/alopecia
 Bone and joint pain
 ...
Tertiary Syphilis
 Appearance of soft rubbery tumors called gummas that
ulcerate and heal by scaring
 Gummas may develop...
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
 Signs & Symptoms  Treatment/Prevention
Genital Warts
 HPV pathogen
 Pinkish-white lesions
 Raised clusters on
penis or scrotum or
labia, cervix or around
anus...
Herpes (simplex 1 & 2)
 Signs & Symptoms  Treatment/Prevention
AIDS / HIV
 Most devastating infectious disease in the past 80 years
 Since 1999 58.6% of reported cases have died
 Ann...
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Chronic disease that progressively damages
the body’s immune system
Asymptomatic period...
The Transmission of HIV
HIV lives within cells and body fluids (blood and blood
products, semen, vaginal and cervical secr...
Symptoms of HIV
Fever
Fatigue
Rashes
Headache and body aches
Swollen lymph nodes
Night sweats
Sore throat
Nausea and diarr...
Treatment and Prevention
No known cure for HIV infection
New drugs can extend life
nucleoside analogs
protease inhibitors
...
Unintended Pregnancy
First Year of Use
 Method – Typical use
 Norplant .05%
 Male sterilization .15%
 Depo-Provera .30...
Should a woman be able to obtain an abortion in the
following circumstances? Chapter 7, pg.179
1. Her life is endangered.
...
Should a woman be permitted to have an
abortion during the following stages of
pregnancy?
Chapter 7, pg.179
1. In the firs...
Views on Abortion
 Gallup Organization, 2003
 Should a pregnant woman be able
to obtain an abortion in the
following cir...
Views on Abortion
 Gallup Organization, 2003
 Should a woman be permitted to
have an abortion during the
following stage...
Abortion Risk
Chapter 7, pg.187
Risk of Death
1. Legal abortion
 Before 9 weeks 1 in 262,800
 9-12 weeks 1 in 100,000
 ...
VII. Relationships
 Sternberg’s Triangular Love Theory
Different Kinds of Love
 Liking (intimacy only)
 Infatuation (passion only)
 Romantic (intimacy and passion)
 Fatuous ...
Relationships
Chapter 4 – pg.103
1. Cohabitation – About 5% of all American households - 4
million heterosexual couples an...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 History
 Also called STDs, or venereal diseases
 20 known types of STIs
 16.2 million...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 Modes of Transmission
 Sexual intercourse
 Oral-genital
 Genital to hand
 Mouth to m...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections Chlamydia
 4 million infected annually
 Many display no symptoms
 Secondary damage can...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 Gonorrhea
 Most common STI
 $1.1 billion a year in health care costs
 Early treatment...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 Syphilis
 Caused by a bacterial organism
 Spirochete known as Treponema pallidum
 Sta...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 Genital HPV
 Genital warts
 Among most common STIs
 Two types: full-blown and flat wa...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 Candidiasis (Moniliasis)
 Yeast-like fungus caused by Candida albicans
 Symptoms: seve...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 General Urinary Tract Infections
 Sexual transmission
 Can also be caused by invading ...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 HIV/AIDS
 Global health problem
 Over 18 million have died of AIDS
 14 million strugg...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 Women and AIDS
 Women > risk with infected partner
 Women represented 43% of cases in ...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 Symptoms of HIV
 Incubation time varies greatly
 Infants and newborns at risk since im...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 Testing for HIV Antibodies
 Blood test known as ELISA
 Western blot – follows 2 positi...
Sexually Transmitted
Infections
 New Hope for Treatment
 New drugs slow progression of virus
 Medication is very expens...
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006
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Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases Spring 2006

  1. 1. Diseases Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions
  2. 2. Agenda: Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions  Introduction to Disease (infectious/noninfectious; acute/chronic; sanitation and medical care)  U.S. and Global Concerns (resources, poverty, education, economics, sanitation, medical care)  Acquired and Natural Immunity  Risk Factors and Responsibilities  Dept. of Health and Human Services  Prevention/Treatment  When should you see the doctor?  Patient Rights – Anonymous vs. Confidential  Concerns Today – Diabesity, Bioterriorism
  3. 3. Introduction  History of Diseases in the United States  Comparison of U.S. Diseases with other countries  Evolution of Epidemiology  Changes in Sanitation and Medical Care  Technological advances – our first hospital, testing procedure for Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, cholesterol, diabetes
  4. 4. Immunity  Define Immunity  Acquired versus natural immunity  Autoimmune diseases  Compensatory mechanisms
  5. 5. Risk Factors for Disease  If Disease is Contagious…what is the mode of transmission (direct vs. indirect contact)?  If Disease is Not Contagious…what are the risk factors (lifestyle, environment, genetics, individual characteristics)?  What has research discovered about disease?  Acute versus chronic disease
  6. 6. Assessing Your Disease Risks  Risk Factors You Can’t Control  Heredity  Aging  Environmental conditions  Organism resistance
  7. 7. Assessing Your Disease Risks  Risk Factors You Can Control (continued)  Stress  Nutrition  Physical activity  Sleep  Drug use  Personal hygiene
  8. 8. The Pathogens: Routes of Transmission  Transmission  Direct contact  Indirect contact  Auto-inoculate yourself  Airborne contacts  Food-borne pathogens  Animal-borne pathogens  Interspecies pathogens  Water-borne diseases
  9. 9. The Pathogens: Routes of Transmission  Bacteria  Single-celled organisms  Staphylococcal infections  Streptococcal infections  Pneumonia  Legionnaire’s disease  Tuberculosis  Periodontal disease
  10. 10. The Pathogens: Routes of Transmission  Viruses  Smallest pathogens  Protein structures  Common cold  Influenza  Infectious Mononucleosis  Hepatitis (HAV, HBV, HCV)  Measles
  11. 11. The Pathogens: Routes of Transmission  Other Pathogens  Fungi  Protozoa  Parasitic worms  Prions
  12. 12. Responsibilities with Disease  Is the disease contagious? If it is - how do we prevent the spread? Quarantine? Modify lifestyle or environment? Genetic testing? Therapeutic measures?  If the disease is not contagious – how does an individual control the disease with medication or food or other means?  Does this individual have any restrictions? Driving? Pregnancy? Sports? Travel?
  13. 13. Dept. of Health & Human Services  What you may not know and what you should know.  Your doctor can (and sometimes is required to by law) report your condition to the Dept. of Health and Human Services and the DMV  Federal, State and Local Laws vary
  14. 14. Prevention/Treatment of Disease  Infectious Conditions: 1. Identify pathogen 2. Identify mode of transmission 3. Identify behaviors responsible for the spread of the pathogen  Noninfectious Conditions: 1. Risk factors 2. Prevention 3. Treatment 4. Therapy (doctor visits, physical therapy, psychological care)
  15. 15. When is it time to see a doctor?  Annual check-up – Routine visit to your primary care physician or specialist, dental visit every 6 months for cleaning and check-up, eye doctor, prenatal or postnatal visits, dermatologist, cardiologist, oncologist  New condition – or an awareness of an existing condition (i.e. depression, alcoholism, yeast infection, changes in a mole, chronic or persistent pain or discomfort
  16. 16. Patient – Doctor Relationship  What are your patient rights?  Are you seeing a doctor on a consultation basis or to receive a prescription? This may change your rights.  Ask your doctor what he/she has to report to local, state and federal authorities
  17. 17. Health Concerns Today  Lifestyle Diseases (cardiovascular, cancer, diabesity)  Psychosocial Issues (depression, road rage, work place violence, domestic violence, discrimination towards ethnicity, homosexuality, right to choose)
  18. 18. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well  Physical and Chemical Defenses  Skin  Enzymes  Body temperature  Linings of the body
  19. 19. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well  The Immune System: Your Body Fights Back  Immunity  Antigens  Antibodies  Immunoglobulins  Humoral immune response  Cell-mediated immunity  Lymphocytes
  20. 20. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well  Fever  Rises in temperature can be harmful if extreme  High temperatures can destroy some disease causing organisms  Stimulates more white blood cell production  Why is it important to allow a fever to continue, if it isn’t extreme?
  21. 21. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well  Pain  Response to either direct or referred pain  Most often accompanied by inflammation  Vaccine  Vaccination and T- and B-cell memory  Acquired immunity  Natural immunity
  22. 22. Emerging and Resurgent Diseases  Tiny Microbes: Lethal Threats  Mad Cow Disease (Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis)  Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever  Ebola  Cryptosporidium  Escherichia coli 0157:H7  Cholera
  23. 23. Emerging and Resurgent Diseases  Tiny Microbes: Lethal Threats (continued)  Hantavirus  Bioterrorism: The New Global Threat  West Nile Virus  SARS  HIV/AIDS
  24. 24. Noninfectious Diseases  Chronic Lung Diseases  Dyspnea  Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs)  Allergy-Induced Respiratory Problems  Antigen or allergen  Production of antibodies  Hypersensitive reaction  Release of histamines
  25. 25. Steps of an Allergy Response Figure 14.4
  26. 26. Noninfectious Diseases Hay Fever  Example of COPD  Asthma  Long-term chronic inflammatory disorder  Blocked airflow to the lungs  Air pollutants, particulates, smoke can trigger an asthma attack  Most common chronic disease of childhood  #1 cause of hospitalization and absenteeism
  27. 27. Noninfectious Diseases  Emphysema  Gradual destruction of alveoli  Difficult to exhale  Victim struggles to take in air  Chest cavity expands over time (barrel-chest)
  28. 28. Noninfectious Diseases  Bronchitis  Inflammation of bronchial tubes  Reduced air flow from the lungs  Acute bronchitis – 95% of cases are viral  Chronic bronchitis has a mucous laden cough  Cigarette smoking is often the cause of chronic bronchitis
  29. 29. Noninfectious Diseases  Sleep Apnea  Affects 5% of the general population  Periodic episodes of breathing cessation for 10 seconds or longer  Causes restless sleep, high blood pressure, sleepiness during waking hours, CVD  Prevention: reduce alcohol use, change sleeping position, schedule, medicinal interventions
  30. 30. Neurological Disorders  Headaches  Tension headaches  Migraine headaches  Secondary headaches
  31. 31. Neurological Disorders  Seizure Disorders  Epilepsy  1% of Americans are epileptic  Types of seizures:  Grand mal  Petit mal  Psychomotor  Jacksonian
  32. 32. Gender-Related Disorders  Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)  Symptoms vary  Plausible cause: hormones
  33. 33. Gender-Related Disorders  Endometriosis  Tends to effect women age 20-40  Symptoms:  Severe cramping  Irregular periods  Fatigue  Painful intercourse  Characterized by abnormal growth and development of endometrial tissue
  34. 34. Digestion-Related Disorders  Diabetes  Pancreas’ role  Diabetes mellitus  Hyperglycemia  Type I  Type II  Gestational diabetes  Risk factors  Controlling diabetes
  35. 35. Digestion-Related Disorders  Peptic Ulcers  Lesion or wound in body tissue  Chronic  Occur in the stomach lining or duodenum  Helicobacter pylori
  36. 36. Musculoskeletal Diseases  Arthritis  Strikes 1 in 7  Osteoarthritis  Rheumatoid arthritis  Fibromyalgia  Chronic, painful  5-6% affected  Array of symptoms  Difficult to diagnose
  37. 37. Musculoskeletal Diseases  Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)  Immune system attacks the body  Destroys or injures organs  Low Back Pain (LBP)  80% will experience LBP
  38. 38. Musculoskeletal Diseases  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)  Feeling tired all the time  Possible psychological roots  Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSIs)  24% of work injuries  Carpal tunnel most common
  39. 39. Make your first date…  A Kaiser date!
  40. 40. Keys to Reducing STIs Education Early diagnosis and treatment Prevention
  41. 41. Do we effectively teach sexuality in K-12 schools?  Explain the human body to children in an honest and informative approach.  Explain the natural hormonal urges for sex, but also stress the risks and responsibilities.  Your children will undoubtedly observe your ideology towards sex, relationships, religion and any prejudice towards other groups (homophobic, ethnic discrimination, sexual orientation, etc.). We learn to love and appreciate from our parents. This is an awesome responsibility we far-reaching social
  42. 42. SEXUAL IDENTITY  Sexual Identity  Gonads  Puberty  Hypothalamus  Pituitary Gland  Secondary Sex Characteristics  Gender  Gender Roles  Gender Identity  Gender Role Stereotypes  Androgyny  Socialization
  43. 43. Secondary Sex Characteristics  Males  Low pitch voice, facial/body hair, muscular development  Females  Increase breast and hip size, body/pubic hair
  44. 44. Gonads  The reproductive organs (sex organs) in a male (testes) or a female (ovaries). Developed at 8 weeks of fetal life.
  45. 45. Puberty  The period of sexual maturation. Sequence of events leading to the development of the secondary sexual characteristics and fertility. Age of onset is 10-16 years old with the hypothalamus, pituitary glands and gonads.
  46. 46. Hypothalamus  Control center of brain which signals pituitary gland with GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone). Initiates our fertility capability.
  47. 47. Female Anatomy & Physiology  External Genitalia (aka: Vulva)  Mons pubis, labia minora, labia majora, clitoris, urethral opening, vaginal opening, hymen, perineum  Internal Genitalia  Vagina, cervix, uterus (womb), endometrium, ovaries, fallopian tubes, fimbria, ovarian follicles, ovum (egg)
  48. 48. Male Anatomy & Physiology  External Genitalia  Penis and Scrotum  Internal Genitalia Testicles, epididymis (- ides), vas deferens, accessory organs (seminal vesicles, prostate gland and Cowper’s Gland)
  49. 49. Signs or Symptoms of an STI Figure 14.3
  50. 50. V. Sexual Orientation, Behaviors and Dysfunctions  Sexual Orientation  Heterosexual, Homosexual, Bisexual  Sexual Behavior  Autoerotic behaviors, sexual fantasies, masturbation, erogenous zones, cunnilingus, fellatio, anal intercourse, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, variant sexual behavior, celibacy, homophobia, limerance  Sexual Dysfunctions  Inhibited sexual desire (ISD), sexual aversion disorder, erectile dysfunction (impotence), premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, preorgasmic, dyspareunia, vaginismus
  51. 51. VI. Sexually Transmitted Infections  Agenda: 1) Incidence versus Prevalence 2) Type of Pathogen – bacteria, virus, parasite, protozoa 3) Protective barriers
  52. 52. V. Sexually Transmitted Infections Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Pelvic inflammatory disease Genital warts Genital herpes Hepatitis B HIV/AIDS Trichomoniasis Candida
  53. 53. Trichomonas Vaginalis (Trichomoniasis)
  54. 54. Candida (Yeast infection)  75% of women get it  Common causes: antibiotics, menstruation, pregnancy, diabetes, hygiene, clothing
  55. 55. Chlamydia  Pathogen: bacterial  Prognosis: curable  If not treated: infertility  Scaring of the fallopian tubes and possibly pelvic inflammatory disease  Leading cause of infertility among couples  Women do not have any signs or symptoms most the time – Men generally do – so Men tend to get treated – Women in general contract infection easier than men do to surface area exposed.  Treatment/Prevention  The best type of prevention is not having sex – however when you are ready to have sex – communication is very important and a visit to the doctor’s office for STD testing
  56. 56. Gonorrhea  Incidence rose 9% in 1998  Milky-white discharge in men, painful urination  Men – 80% have s/s  Women – 80% don’t have s/s  Women – slimy yellow- green discharge from vagina or urethra  Oral sex – throat infection  Rectal sex  Incidence correlated with alcohol consumption  Dual therapy with Chlamydia  Eye infections
  57. 57. Primary Syphilis  Pathogen:  Bacteria (Spirochete)  Distinct stages  Any organ may be involved  Primary syphilis – appearance of small painless red pustule on skin or mucous membrane 10 – 90 days after exposure – lesion may appear anywhere on body where contact with pathogen occurred – most often the anogenital region  This painless red pustule quickly erodes forming a painless, bloodless ulcer, called a chancre, exuding fluid filled with spirochetes – heals spontaneously within 10-40 days.  The secondary stage – occurs 2 months later – spirochetes have increased in number and spread throughout the body
  58. 58. Secondary Syphilis  S/S:  General malaise  Anorexia nervosa  Nausea/fever  Headache/alopecia  Bone and joint pain  Rash that does not itch  Flat white sores in mouth and throat  Highly contagious at this stage – can be spread by kissing
  59. 59. Tertiary Syphilis  Appearance of soft rubbery tumors called gummas that ulcerate and heal by scaring  Gummas may develop anywhere on the body – eyes, lungs, liver, stomach, or reproductive organs  Tertiary syphilis may be painless or may be very painful  Tissues and structures of the body may be damaged – including the CNS, myocardium, valves of the heart may be damaged or destroyed  The culminating effects may be mental insanity and/or severe physical disability and premature death
  60. 60. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  Signs & Symptoms  Treatment/Prevention
  61. 61. Genital Warts  HPV pathogen  Pinkish-white lesions  Raised clusters on penis or scrotum or labia, cervix or around anus  In women this can cause precancerous changes on cervix  Treatment/Prevention  Gels, cryotherapy, surgical removal  Warts need not be present to infect partner
  62. 62. Herpes (simplex 1 & 2)  Signs & Symptoms  Treatment/Prevention
  63. 63. AIDS / HIV  Most devastating infectious disease in the past 80 years  Since 1999 58.6% of reported cases have died  Annual cost $20,000 per person  Annually by public & private $13 billion  AIDS is caused by a virus (HIV) that attacks the helper T cells of the immune system  People lose the ability to fight off infections  Opportunistic infections – Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Kaposi’s sarcoma, toxoplasmosis within the brain, wasting syndrome, cervical cancer, recurrent TB
  64. 64. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Chronic disease that progressively damages the body’s immune system Asymptomatic period ranges from 2 to 20 years virus can be passed on to others during this time AIDS is diagnosed when number of CD4 T cells (helper T cells) falls to certain level or marker conditions appear
  65. 65. The Transmission of HIV HIV lives within cells and body fluids (blood and blood products, semen, vaginal and cervical secretions, breast milk) Spread in three ways certain sexual activities direct contact with infected blood (via needle-sharing or transfusions) from infected mother to fetus or through breastfeeding
  66. 66. Symptoms of HIV Fever Fatigue Rashes Headache and body aches Swollen lymph nodes Night sweats Sore throat Nausea and diarrhea
  67. 67. Treatment and Prevention No known cure for HIV infection New drugs can extend life nucleoside analogs protease inhibitors Prevention making careful choices about sexual activity not sharing needles practicing abstinence or using condoms
  68. 68. Unintended Pregnancy First Year of Use  Method – Typical use  Norplant .05%  Male sterilization .15%  Depo-Provera .30%  Female sterilization .50%  Copper T IUD .8%  Progestasert IUD 2.0%  Oral contraceptives 5%  Oral – combination .1%(p)  Oral – progestin only .5%(p)  Spermicides 26% - 6%  Chance 85%  Method – Typical use  Male condom (latex) 14% - 3%  Withdrawal 19% - 4%  Diaphragm w/spermicide 20% - 6%  Sponge 20% - 9%  Cervical cap 20% - 9%  Female condom 21% - 5%  FAM 25%  Calendar alone 9%(p)  Combination of FAM 2%(p)
  69. 69. Should a woman be able to obtain an abortion in the following circumstances? Chapter 7, pg.179 1. Her life is endangered. 2. Her physical health is endangered. 3. The pregnancy was caused by rape or incest. 4. Her mental health is endangered. 5. The baby is physically or mentally impaired. 6. The woman or family cannot afford to raise the child.
  70. 70. Should a woman be permitted to have an abortion during the following stages of pregnancy? Chapter 7, pg.179 1. In the first three months 2. In the second three months 3. In the last three months
  71. 71. Views on Abortion  Gallup Organization, 2003  Should a pregnant woman be able to obtain an abortion in the following circumstances? YES 1. Her life is endangered. 85% 2. Her physical health is endangered. 77% 3. The pregnancy was caused by rape or incest. 76% 4. Her mental health is endangered. 63% 5. The baby is physically or mentally impaired. 56% 6. The woman or family cannot afford to raise the child 35%  Health 11 W,F 1pm  Spring 2005 YES NO N/C 1. 76% 18% 6% 2. 76% 18% 6% 3. 82% 12% 6% 4. 65% 29% 6% 5. 70% 24% 6% 6. 41% 53% 6%
  72. 72. Views on Abortion  Gallup Organization, 2003  Should a woman be permitted to have an abortion during the following stages of pregnancy? YES 1. In the first 3 months 66% 2. In the second 3 months 25% 3. In the third 3 months 10%  Health 11 wed. night 6:45pm class – YOUR responses:  YES NO N/C 1. 82% 12% 6% 2. 29% 59% 12% 3. 18% 76% 6%
  73. 73. Abortion Risk Chapter 7, pg.187 Risk of Death 1. Legal abortion  Before 9 weeks 1 in 262,800  9-12 weeks 1 in 100,000  13-15 weeks 1 in 34,400  After 15 weeks 1 in 10,200 2. Illegal abortion 1 in 3,000 3. Pregnancy and childbirth 1 in 10,000 Sources: Hatcher, R.A., et.al., 1998. Contraceptive Technology, 17th rev.ed. New York: Ardent Media; Carlson, K.J., S.A. Eisenstat, and T. Ziporyn. 1996. The Harvard Guide to Women’s Health. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  74. 74. VII. Relationships  Sternberg’s Triangular Love Theory
  75. 75. Different Kinds of Love  Liking (intimacy only)  Infatuation (passion only)  Romantic (intimacy and passion)  Fatuous (passion and commitment)  Empty (commitment only)  Companionate (intimacy and commitment)  Consummate (all three elements)
  76. 76. Relationships Chapter 4 – pg.103 1. Cohabitation – About 5% of all American households - 4 million heterosexual couples and 1.5 million gay/lesbian couples live together. By age 30, half of all men and women have cohabited. 2. Most Americans will marry sometime in their lives – 75% of men and women are married by age 30 and 95% by age 65 3. Marriage has been found to be beneficial for both sexes – lower mortality rates, higher sexual satisfaction and higher income. 4. More than half of couples who live together marry after 3 years and 75% after 5 years. 5. Cohabiting couples most likely to marry were: women over the age of 25, the woman had a religious affiliation, and the woman’s parents remained married during her childhood.
  77. 77. Sexually Transmitted Infections  History  Also called STDs, or venereal diseases  20 known types of STIs  16.2 million cases in 1999 (CDC)  Possible Causes: Why Me?  Moral stigma  Casual attitude toward sex  Ignorance about infections/symptoms
  78. 78. Sexually Transmitted Infections  Modes of Transmission  Sexual intercourse  Oral-genital  Genital to hand  Mouth to mouth
  79. 79. Sexually Transmitted Infections Chlamydia  4 million infected annually  Many display no symptoms  Secondary damage can lead to sterility  Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)  Describes a number of infections of the uterus/fallopian tubes/ovaries  Can result from untreated infections  Nonsexual causes: excessive douching, substance abuse, smoking
  80. 80. Sexually Transmitted Infections  Gonorrhea  Most common STI  $1.1 billion a year in health care costs  Early treatment: antibiotics
  81. 81. Sexually Transmitted Infections  Syphilis  Caused by a bacterial organism  Spirochete known as Treponema pallidum  Stages: primary, secondary, latent, late  Treatment: antibiotics (penicillin)  Pubic Lice  “Crabs”  Small parasites which deposit eggs in pubic hair
  82. 82. Sexually Transmitted Infections  Genital HPV  Genital warts  Among most common STIs  Two types: full-blown and flat warts  Tendency for dysplasia, changes in cells that can lead to precancerous conditions
  83. 83. Sexually Transmitted Infections  Candidiasis (Moniliasis)  Yeast-like fungus caused by Candida albicans  Symptoms: severe itching, burning, swelling  Trichomoniasis  Caused by a protozoan  Half of American men and women carry this organism  Many remain symptom-free
  84. 84. Sexually Transmitted Infections  General Urinary Tract Infections  Sexual transmission  Can also be caused by invading organisms in the genital area  Herpes  Family of infections  Sores and eruptions of the skin  Genital Herpes: herpes simplex virus  Preventing herpes
  85. 85. Sexually Transmitted Infections  HIV/AIDS  Global health problem  Over 18 million have died of AIDS  14 million struggle with the disease  A Shifting Epidemic  Newly found indicator of virus: drop in CD4s, the master immune cell  Improved reporting/accuracy
  86. 86. Sexually Transmitted Infections  Women and AIDS  Women > risk with infected partner  Women represented 43% of cases in 2000  Transmission of HIV  Fluid exchange  Engaging in high risk behaviors  Receiving a blood transfusion prior to 1985  Injecting drugs  Mother-to-infant transmission (perinatal)
  87. 87. Sexually Transmitted Infections  Symptoms of HIV  Incubation time varies greatly  Infants and newborns at risk since immune system not fully developed  For HIV positive adults, AIDS will develop in 8-10 years with no treatment
  88. 88. Sexually Transmitted Infections  Testing for HIV Antibodies  Blood test known as ELISA  Western blot – follows 2 positive ELISA  These tests detect antibodies  Even with antibodies, not all develop AIDS
  89. 89. Sexually Transmitted Infections  New Hope for Treatment  New drugs slow progression of virus  Medication is very expensive  Multi-drug treatment exceeds $20,000 per year  Preventing HIV Infection
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