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Health And Fitness Lecture 2002

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  • 1. Promoting Health and Fitness Patty Melody, M.A. Los Angeles Valley College Representing 1 of 9 colleges in the Los Angeles Community College District
  • 2. Dimensions of Wellness
    • Physical Health – ADL’s
    • Mental Health
    • Social Health
    • Emotional Health
    • Spiritual Health
    • Environmental Health
  • 3. Health Promotion/Prevention
    • Primary prevention
    • Secondary prevention
    • Tertiary prevention
  • 4. Incidence vs. Prevalence
  • 5. U.S. Leading Causes of Death
    • Cardiovascular Disease
    • Stroke
    • Cancer
    • Diabetes
    • Accidents
    • Flu/pneumonia
  • 6. Cardiovascular Disease #1 Killer in the U.S.
    • In 1993, 954,138 people in the U.S. died from heart disease
    • Forty two percent of all deaths are related to CVD
    • One-sixth of CVD deaths are people younger than 65 years
    • More than 60 million (1 out of every 4) Americans have some form of CVD: hypertension (50 million), coronary heart disease (13.5 million), congestive heart failure (4.7 million), or stroke (3.8 million) (American Heart Association, 1995)
  • 7. ACSM GUIDELINES 2000 Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors
    • Positive Risk Factors
    • Family history
    • Cigarette smoking
    • Hypertension
    • Hypercholesterolemia
    • Impaired fasting glucose
    • Obesity
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • Negative Risk Factor
    • High serum HDL cholesterol > 60mg/dL (1.6mmol/L)
  • 8. What is Fitness?
    • The ability of the body to adapt to the demands of physical effort
    • If the STRESS placed on the body is not enough there will not be the need to adapt
    • If the STRESS is too much the body may become injured
  • 9. Being Physically Active vs. Exercise
    • Physical activity : any movement of the body that is carried out by the muscles and requires energy
    • Exercise : a planned, structured, repetitive movement designed specifically to improve or maintain physical fitness
  • 10. Recommendations of the U.S. Surgeon General
    • Moderate activity:
      • on most, preferably all, days of the week
      • a goal of 150 kcals/day (1000 kcals/week)
    • Examples of one day’s moderate activity:
      • 30 minutes of brisk walking or 15 minutes of running
      • 30 minutes of raking leaves or 15 minutes of shoveling snow
      • two 10-minute bicycle rides or two brisk 15- minute walks
  • 11. Five Health-Related Components of Fitness
    • 1. Cardiorespiratory Endurance
    • 2. Muscular Strength
    • 3. Muscular Endurance
    • 4. Flexibility
    • 5. Body Composition
  • 12. The Cardiorespiratory System
    • Cardio:
      • heart and blood vessels
      • transports oxygen, nutrients, and wastes among vital organs and tissues
    • Respiratory:
      • lungs, air passages, and breathing muscles
      • supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
  • 13. Cardiovascular Endurance
    • The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity
    • Key health-related component of fitness
  • 14. Examples of Cardiovascular Endurance Exercise
    • RUNNING, SPEED WALKING, HIKING
    • BIKING, DANCING, SKATING
    • SWIMMING, CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING
    • STAIR CLIMBING, TREADMILL
    • ARM AND LEG ERGOMETRY
    • ROPE SKIPPING, OR ENDURANCE GAME ACTIVITIES
  • 15. Metabolism
    • Aerobic
    • 60-90% max hr
    • Fuel production with oxygen
    • Slow movements
    • Slow twitch muscle fibers
    • Anaerobic
    • 90-110% max hr
    • Fuel production without oxygen
    • Fast movements
    • Fast twitch muscle fibers
    Why is this important?
  • 16. Your Target Heart Rate Zone (Karvonen Method)
    • Estimate your maximum heart rate by subtracting your age from 220
    • Subtract RHR from maximum HR
    • This is your HRR (heart rate reserve)
    • Multiply HHR by 55-70%, then add RHR back to this formula.
    • Start at 55% or below if you have been sedentary
  • 17. Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise
    • Improved cardiorespiratory functioning:
    • Reduces risk of CVD
    • Glycogen-sparing effect
    • Increases ventilatory capacity
    • Increases cardiac output
    • Reduces risk of dying prematurely
    • Reduces risk of developing osteoporosis
    • Maintenance of body weight
    • Reduces risk of developing diabetes
  • 18. Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise
    • Improved cellular metabolism:
      • increases capillaries in the muscles
      • trains muscles to work more efficiently may prevent damage to cells
    Mitochondria
  • 19. More Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise
    • Reduced risk of chronic disease:
      • cardiovascular disease
      • cancer
      • diabetes
      • osteoporosis
    Image source: http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/index.htm
  • 20. More Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise
    • Better control of body fat
    • Improved immune function
    • Improved psychological and emotional well-being
  • 21. 2. MUSCULAR STRENGTH ACSM GUIDELINES
    • 1. MAKE SURE YOU BREATH (avoid valsalva manuver- high blood pressure)
    • 2. SLOW-CONTROLLED MOVEMENTS – Avoid momentum taking over the movement
    • 3. FIND APPROPRIATE WEIGHT FOR 10-15 REPS
    • 4. ONE SET – FULL ROM (range of motion)
    • 5. 8 TO 10 DIFFERENT EXERCISES – utilizing different major muscle groups of the body
    • 6. Work to fatigue - NOT PAIN!
  • 22. Major Muscle Groups
    • Upper Body – pectoralis major, deltoids, biceps, triceps, latissimus dorsi, rhomboids, trapezius, flexors & extensors
    • Mid-Section – rectus abdominus, external & internal obliques
    • Lower Body – quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, hip flexors & extensors
  • 23. 3. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE
    • Biking (lower body)
    • Running, Hiking, Walking (lower body)
    • Swimming, Arm Ergometer (upper body)
    • Cross-Country Skiing (upper & lower body)
    • Stair Climbing (lower body)
  • 24. 4. FLEXIBILITY
    • STATIC VS. BOUNCING (JERKY) STRETCHING
  • 25. 5. BODY COMPOSITION
    • PERCENT OF BODY FAT:
    • WOMEN (8% - 25% BODY FAT)
    • MEN (3% - 20% BODY FAT)
  • 26. Principles of Physical Training
    • The F.I.T. Principle
    • The Overload Principle
    • Specificity
    • Reversibility
    • Individual differences
  • 27. Your Goal Exercise Program Should Include:
    • The F.I.T. principle:
    • Frequency
      • 3-5 days per week for cardiovascular
      • 2-3 days per week for strength/flexibility
    • Intensity
      • Reach target heart rate zone
      • Lift sufficient weight to improve strength
    • Duration
      • ACSM and U.S. Surgeon General tell us: Minimum of 30 minutes per day
      • Institute of Medicine tells us:
      • Sixty minutes per day
  • 28. Tips on Training
    • Be consistent
    • Have Fun
    • Make exercise convenient
    • Make exercise affordable
    • Listen to your body
    • Use the Buddy System
    • Train your mind by reinforcing the benefits
    • Try new activities – Discovery is half the fun
    • Get plenty of rest
    • Pack your gym bag the night before
    • Carry an emergency food supply
    • Train for health as well as looks
    • Drink plenty of water
    • Follow the Food Guide Pyramid
    • Give your program time to see results
    • Love yourself NOW
    • Incorporate rest in your program
    • Don’t forget to cross-train
    • Have a back-up plan
    • Warm up and cool down
  • 29. Thank you and Good Luck on your road to a healthier YOU! If you would like copies of this presentation please leave me your name and address Or Contact: Patty Melody at LAVC You can reach me at (818) 947-2907 or by email at pattymelody@aol.com