Fitness, Nutrition And Weight Management 2004


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Fitness, Nutrition And Weight Management 2004

  1. 1. FITNESS, NUTRITION AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENT: THE POWER OF LIFESTYLE AND BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT (Ch.9-11) Los Angeles Valley College Representing 1 of 9 colleges in the Los Angeles Community College District
  2. 3. RESOURCES IDEA Fitness Journal ACSM Health & Fitness Journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise Sports Medicine Bulletin NSCA Strength & Conditioning Journal
  3. 4. Dimensions of Wellness <ul><li>Physical Health – ADL’s </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Health </li></ul><ul><li>Social Health </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Health </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual Health </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Health </li></ul>
  4. 5. Health Promotion/Prevention <ul><li>Primary prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary prevention </li></ul>
  5. 6. U.S. Leading Causes of Death <ul><li>Cardiovascular Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Flu/pneumonia </li></ul>
  6. 7. Cardiovascular Disease (part 1 of 2) <ul><li>In 1993, 954,138 people in the U.S. died from heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Forty two percent of all deaths are related to CVD </li></ul><ul><li>One-sixth of CVD deaths are people younger than 65 years </li></ul><ul><li>More than 60 million (1 out of every 4) Americans have some form of CVD: hypertension (50 million), coronary heart disease (13.5 million), congestive heart failure (4.7 million), or stroke (3.8 million) (American Heart Association, 1995) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Cardiovascular Disease (part 2 of 2) <ul><li>Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounts for more deaths than any other disease annually (489,000+ deaths) </li></ul><ul><li>CHD deaths greater among Blacks than Whites (Hispanics have a lower prevalence than Whites) (Public Health Service 1988) </li></ul><ul><li>CHD is caused by lack of blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) resulting in myocardial ischimia </li></ul><ul><li>CHD begins with a degenerative, progressive plaque build-up within the lining of the arteries known as atherosclerosis (Endothelial Damage Theory) </li></ul>
  8. 9. ACSM GUIDELINES 2000 Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors <ul><li>Positive Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Family history </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercholesterolemia </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired fasting glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Risk Factor </li></ul><ul><li>High serum HDL cholesterol > 60mg/dL (1.6mmol/L) </li></ul>
  9. 10. What is Fitness? <ul><li>The ability of the body to adapt to the demands of physical effort </li></ul><ul><li>If the STRESS placed on the body is not enough there will not be the need to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>If the STRESS is too much the body may become injured </li></ul>
  10. 11. Being Physically Active vs. Adaptations thru Exercise <ul><li>Physical activity : any movement of the body that is carried out by the muscles and requires energy </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise : a planned, structured, repetitive movement designed specifically to improve or maintain physical fitness </li></ul>
  11. 12. Recommendations of the U.S. Surgeon General <ul><li>Moderate activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on most, preferably all, days of the week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a goal of 150 kcals/day (1000 kcals/week) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples of one day’s moderate activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 minutes of brisk walking or 15 minutes of running </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 minutes of raking leaves or 15 minutes of shoveling snow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two 10-minute bicycle rides or two brisk 15- minute walks </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Five Health-Related Components of Fitness <ul><li>Cardiorespiratory Endurance </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high intensity levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular Strength </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular Endurance </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly for a long period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>The range of motion in a joint or group of joints; flexibility is related to muscle length. </li></ul><ul><li>Body Composition </li></ul><ul><li>The relative proportion of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) and fat in the body </li></ul>
  13. 14. Table 11.1
  14. 15. The Cardiorespiratory System <ul><li>Cardio: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heart and blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transports oxygen, nutrients, and wastes among vital organs and tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respiratory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lungs, air passages, and breathing muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Cardiovascular Endurance <ul><li>The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Key health-related component of fitness </li></ul>
  17. 18. Your Target Heart Rate Zone 1. Estimate maximum heart rate (MHR) by subtracting age from 220 2. Multiply MHR by 60% and 90% to find target heart rate zone 3. Start at 60% or below if you have been sedentary
  18. 19. Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise <ul><li>Improved cardiorespiratory functioning: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of CVD </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen-sparing effect </li></ul><ul><li>Increases ventilatory capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Increases cardiac output </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of dying prematurely </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of developing osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of developing diabetes </li></ul>
  19. 20. Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise <ul><li>Improved cellular metabolism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increases capillaries in the muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trains muscles to work more efficiently may prevent damage to cells </li></ul></ul>Mitochondria
  20. 21. More Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise <ul><li>Reduced risk of chronic disease: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>osteoporosis </li></ul></ul>Image source:
  21. 22. More Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise <ul><li>Better control of body fat </li></ul><ul><li>Improved immune function </li></ul><ul><li>Improved psychological and emotional well-being </li></ul>
  22. 23. 2. MUSCULAR STRENGTH ACSM GUIDELINES <ul><li>1. MAKE SURE YOU BREATH (avoid valsalva manuver- high blood pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>2. SLOW-CONTROLLED MOVEMENTS – Avoid momentum taking over the movement </li></ul><ul><li>3. FIND APPROPRIATE WEIGHT FOR 10-15 REPS </li></ul><ul><li>4. ONE SET – FULL ROM (range of motion) </li></ul><ul><li>5. 8 TO 10 DIFFERENT EXERCISES – utilizing different major muscle groups of the body </li></ul><ul><li>6. Work to fatigue - NOT PAIN! </li></ul>
  23. 24. Muscles, Bones, and Tendons Figure 11.2
  24. 25. The Overload Principle Figure 11.4 The Overload Principle
  25. 26. Major Muscle Groups <ul><li>Upper Body – pectoralis major, deltoids, biceps, triceps, latissimus dorsi, rhomboids, trapezius, flexors & extensors </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-Section – rectus abdominus, external & internal obliques </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Body – quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, hip flexors & extensors </li></ul>
  26. 27. Types of Muscle Contractions <ul><li>Isometric contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Isotonic contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Isokinetic contraction </li></ul>
  27. 28. 3. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE <ul><li>Biking (lower body) </li></ul><ul><li>Running, Hiking, Walking (lower body) </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming, Arm Ergometer (upper body) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Country Skiing (upper & lower body) </li></ul><ul><li>Stair Climbing (lower body) </li></ul>
  28. 29. Table 11.2
  30. 31. Stretching Exercises to Improve Flexibility Figure 11.3
  31. 32. 5. BODY COMPOSITION <ul><li>PERCENT OF BODY FAT: </li></ul><ul><li>WOMEN (20-25% BODY FAT) </li></ul><ul><li>MEN (15-20% BODY FAT) </li></ul>
  32. 33. Principles of Physical Training <ul><li>The F.I.T. Principle </li></ul><ul><li>The Overload Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity </li></ul><ul><li>Reversibility </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul>
  33. 34. Your Goal Exercise Program Should Include: <ul><li>The F.I.T. principle: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-5 days per week for cardiovascular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 days per week for strength/flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reach target heart rate zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lift sufficient weight to improve strength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACSM and U.S. Surgeon General tell us: Minimum of 30 minutes per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Medicine tells us: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sixty minutes per day </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. ACSM Guidelines for Aerobic Activity Figure 11.1
  35. 36. TRAINING “systematic and regular participation in exercise for the purpose of enhancing sports performance.”
  36. 37. Tips on Training <ul><li>Listen to your body </li></ul><ul><li>Train with a partner </li></ul><ul><li>Train your mind </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your exercise program in perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Train the way you want your body to change </li></ul><ul><li>Train regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Get in shape gradually </li></ul><ul><li>Warm up and cool down </li></ul>
  37. 38. ACUTE PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSES <ul><li>1) Marked reduction in muscle glycogen </li></ul><ul><li>2) Elevated body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>3) Decreased body weight - water loss </li></ul><ul><li>4) Muscle and joint fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>5) Lactate increase in blood </li></ul><ul><li>6) Respiratory distress </li></ul>
  38. 39. TRAINING ADAPTATION <ul><li>1) Decrease resting HR </li></ul><ul><li>2) Increase stroke volume & cardiac output </li></ul><ul><li>3) Increase VO2 max </li></ul><ul><li>4) Increase lactate threshold </li></ul><ul><li>5) Decrease body fat </li></ul>
  39. 40. Fitness Injuries <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overuse injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traumatic injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventing Fitness-Related Injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate footwear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate equipment </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Fitness Injuries <ul><li>Common Overuse Injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantar fasciitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shin splints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runner’s knee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treating Fitness-Related Injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RICE: rest, ice, compression, and elevation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What kinds of sports injuries have you incurred? </li></ul>
  41. 42. Fitness Injuries <ul><li>Exercising in the Heat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acclimatization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three heat stress illnesses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat cramps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat exhaustion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat stroke </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Can anyone describe the differences between these three illnesses? </li></ul>
  42. 43. Fitness Injuries <ul><li>Exercising in the Cold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothermia concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the weather </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wear layers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Did you know that drinking alcohol can cause hypothermia to occur more quickly? </li></ul>
  43. 44. HANDOUTS <ul><li>PAR-Q/INFORMED CONSENT </li></ul><ul><li>HEART RATE CARD </li></ul><ul><li>FITNESS ASSESSMENT CARD </li></ul><ul><li>STRENGTH TRAINING CARD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION CARDS </li></ul><ul><li>FITNESS/NUTRITION LOGS </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE DEMO HANDOUTS </li></ul>
  44. 45. Nutrition <ul><li>Hunger, Appetite, Satiety </li></ul><ul><li>Define Nutrition – Science of food and repair of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Six essential nutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water </li></ul><ul><li>Complex CHO vs. Simple sugars, Complete vs. incomplete proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Food Guide Pyramid, Portion Sizes, Reading Food Labels, Conversion of calories and grams </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates (55%), Proteins (15%), Fats (less than 30%) </li></ul>
  45. 46. Weight Management <ul><li>Caloric balance, 1600, 2200, 2800 calorie diet based on the Food Guide Pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>Body Fat, BMI, Ht./Wt.table, Adaptive Thermogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>BMR (basal metabolic rate) 50-60%, RMR (resting metabolic rate) = BMR + daily act. 90%, EMR (exercise metabolic rate) = RMR + exercise) 100-110% </li></ul><ul><li>Caloric restriction, substitution, choose nutrient dense foods, 1 lb. = 3500 calories </li></ul><ul><li>Successful weight loss programs are based on sound, scientific, long-term approaches, individualized to fit YOUR tastes. You should not lose more than 1-2 lbs./week. Anorexia (less than 800 calories/day). </li></ul><ul><li>Body Image Distortions (Anorexia, Bulimia, Binge eating) </li></ul>