Commercial preparations (cleansers, tar, nail polish, industrial by-products)
Public Health Campaign on Drugs
The “War on Drugs”, “Just Say No”, “Hugs Not Drugs”
“ DARE”, “Mothers Against Drunk Drivers”, “Drug Czar”
When you have politicians serving the public as “health educators” this is the result. The cost to benefit ratio is outrageous and We – the taxpayers – are paying for it. We spend 500 million each year for a “drug-free” America. It’s time to let everyone do their own jobs. Health educators should be educating the public and the politicians should be serving in the best interest of the public.
Physiological Factors – chemical effects based on type of drug – stimulants vs. depressants vs. hallucinogens– effects on central nervous system
Psychological Factors – environmental effects (Set vs. Setting)
Receptor Site Theory
The Receptor Site Theory answers the question as to how chemicals are utilized by the body. The cells in your body maintain your existence. Cells utilize nutrients, oxygen, hormones and neurotransmitters to provide for your energy and repair. Cells are also specialized – meaning that they have different functions, “job titles” in the body that they are responsible for completing. The receptor sites on the cells provide the “toll-booth” for cells. Thereby only allowing certain chemicals to enter the cell. Once these chemicals enter the cell they are metabolized and eventually the waste products of their metabolism is excreted. The analogy of putting together pieces of a puzzle or the “lock and key” example describes how receptors only allow certain nutrients, drugs, hormones, neurotransmitters, etc. to enter the cell.
Main Effects of Drug Use
Depending on your drug of choice : Stimulant, Depressant, Hallucinogenic (Your personality has a lot to do with this)
The “positive” effect that your are looking for from the drug (the high, the low, the gone, the flow, the here, the there, the happy, the sad).
Once you develop a tolerance , the body will need more for the same effect. This contributes to the escalating need for more drug , more often, more time spent using, more money and obviously more energy spent involved with this addicting habit.
An addiction takes time from your schedule . Addictions leave less time for work, school, travel, reading, learning, meeting new people, going to parties, conferences, leisure activities.
Side Effects of Drugs
Chronic diseases (CVD, Cancer, COPD)
Nausea, Vomiting, Coughing
More colds, flu, absent from work, school
Lower GPA in school
Family problems, divorce, violence, rape
Accelerates the aging process
Eventually will lose independent living
We do not use drugs for these reasons – but these are the consequences of our decisions.
Drugs are immediate! Everything else takes time. Such as exercise, relaxing to music, calming effects of candles, sex.
History of Alcohol in U.S.
1600’s – 1700’s – no alcohol problem
1700’s – 1800’s – alcohol problems begin – family violence on the rise
1800’s – 1900’s – Doctor’s begin to define alcoholism – see problems in society
There are approximately 295 million Americans in the U.S.
Who is at risk for becoming an alcoholic?
1 in 10 Americans
1 in 4 if one parent is an alcoholic
1 in 2 if dad or grandfather
Alcohol and All Other Drugs do Two Things:
They are agents of change.
They change the way you think (mental).
They change the way you feel (emotional).
By default – you will behave differently.
Are you at risk for any of the following behaviors?
Alcoholism or workaholism
Anorexia or Bulimia
Compulsive gambling or shopping
Suffering from stress due to trauma
Suffering from loss (life, home, health)
If your answer is YES…
Good! You are only human! As humans we are vulnerable. If you do not believe you are vulnerable – you may just be that person that learns the hard way. Perception of vulnerability and susceptibility is a means of self-preservation. This realization hopefully can keep you on the “look-out”. Primary prevention strategies puts this concept to use. We cannot possibly know our future but we can know ourselves. Awareness of our behaviors can help us predict and plan our future. Looking at our family and surroundings can also give us a sense of our strengths and weaknesses. Adapt, adapt, adapt to the many stages of your life. This is your “salvation”.
Successful Treatment for Drug Use, Abuse and Misuse
Do you send people to jail if they drink alcohol or if they smoke tobacco or use marijuana? Why do we put people in jail?
Reasons we have sent people to jail
Threat to others
Threat to themselves
Ethical or moral issue
Deviation from societal norms – behavior not accepted by society
Fears of the degradation of the western civilization
What is an addiction versus a habit?
An unhealthy continued involvement with a mood-altering object or activity that creates harmful consequences. Signs of an addiction are (1) obsession/compulsion (2) loss of control (3) negative consequences (4) denial (5) escalation (6) tolerance (7) withdrawal symptoms.
A healthy continued involvement with an object or activity that contributes to your growth in all six dimensions of wellness.
Risk Factors for Addiction
External focus of control
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Life events /oppression
Signs of Work Addiction
Need to control
Difficulty with relationships
Difficulty relaxing and having fun
Memory loss due to preoccupation with work
Alcohol Key Terms
History of Alcohol
Set and Setting
FAS, FAE, DT’S Tolerance
Perception of Alcohol Use & Abuse
Behavior – before prohibition
Substance – during prohibition
Person – after prohibition
History of Drug Control
Prohibit it – 18 th amendment (1919-1933)
Where’s the education?
1933 21 st amendment – repealed prohibition – Franklin D. Roosevelt trying to boost economy after the Depression 1929-1933.
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
1935 – AA formed by Dr. Bob and Bill W.
Dr. Jellinek defines alcoholism as a disease for the first time!
The “Abstract” Brain
1. Neocortex 2. Limbic system 3. Brain stem
We have 20 billion brain cells
Cells communicate electrically and chemically
What is one drink?
Beer – 12 oz. (4-6%)
Wine – 3-4 oz. (12-15%)
Distilled liquors – 1 oz. (50-75%)
Proof = twice the percentage
How Alcohol Passes through the Body
Mouth – Esophagus – Stomach – Duodenum – Blood stream – circulates through all the organs – brain, heart, pancreas, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, genitals, breast
The body can remove approximately 1 drink per hour.
Effects of Alcohol
Loss of inhibitions
High blood pressure
Long Term Effects
Loss of muscle tissue
Heart, lung, liver and brain disfunctions
How Drugs Are Scheduled
Schedule I – high potential for abuse and addiction, no accepted medical use (amphetamine, heroin, PCP, marijuana)
Schedule II – high potential for abuse and addiction, restricted medical use (cocaine, methadone, morphine, opium)
Schedule III – some potential for abuse and addiction, currently accepted medical use (prescription drugs and over the counter drugs)
Schedule IV – low potential for abuse and addiction, current medical use (anti-seizure meds, minor tranquilizers)
Schedule V – lowest potential for abuse and addiction, medical use (over-the counter drugs)
Prescription / OTC Drugs
Anti-inflammatory drugs - ibuprophen
When do prescription drugs become over-the-counter drugs:
Doctors feel they are safe without a prescription
The drug(s) have been on the market for at least 3 years and are on the safe and effective list (GRAS/GRAE)
There appears to be a high demand for drugs to be over-the-counter
The first 3 days presents the greatest risk for death
Physiological and psychological issues
Not as easy as saying “Just Say No”
In fact, with some drugs if you stop suddenly there may be severe side effects – even death. Careful when you try to give advise to others.
How do you feel?
Depressed Normal Bliss
Bottom line…We have needs!
We want to be happy
We want to feel good
We want to be successful
We want to be loved
We want to feel motivated
We want to have energy
We want friends
We want to be recognized
We want to be relaxed
We want to feel “high” – stimulated
We want to relieve depression
We want to be less inhibited
We want to try something new, take risks – be adventurous
We want to discover the meaning of life
If your needs are not being met… You will self-medicate!