Cardiovascular Disease Dec 2008

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Cardiovascular Disease Dec 2008

  1. 1. Understanding the Cardiovascular System (CVS) Patty Melody, M.A. Los Angeles Valley College Physical Education Department
  2. 2. Agenda 1. Define the Cardiovascular System (CVS) 2. Why do we need to know about the CVS? 3. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) 4. Different types of CVD 5. Reversing Atherosclerosis 6. Benefits of Cardiovascular Endurance Conditioning
  3. 3. The Cardiorespiratory System  Cardio:  heart and blood vessels  transports oxygen, nutrients, and wastes among vital organs and tissues  Respiratory:  lungs, air passages, and breathing muscles  supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
  4. 4. Agenda 1. Define the Cardiovascular System (CVS) 2. Why do we need to know about the CVS? 3. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) 4. Different types of CVD 5. Reversing Atherosclerosis 6. Benefits of Cardiovascular Endurance Conditioning
  5. 5. Top 10 Killers in U.S. 1997  1. Heart Disease 31.4%  2. Cancer 23.2%  3. Stroke 6.9%  4. COPD 4.7%  5. Accidents 4.1%  6. Pneumonia/Influenza 3.7%  7. Diabetes 2.7%  8. Suicide 1.3%  9. Kidney Disease 1.1%  10. Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis 1.1%
  6. 6. CVD in Perspective  CVD – 953,110 deaths/year  Cancer – 540,000 deaths/year  Accidents – 96,000 deaths/year  HIV/AIDS – 17,000 deaths/year  CVD cause of 41.2% of all deaths/year  1 out of every 2.4 deaths, 2,600 deaths/day, 1 death every 33 seconds  CVD claims more lives each year than the next seven leading causes of death combined
  7. 7. Cardiovascular Disease Statistics – Part 1  Between 1987-1997 CVD death rates declined 19.1%  In 1997, 953,110 people in the U.S. died from heart disease  Forty two percent of all deaths are related to CVD  One-sixth of CVD deaths are people younger than 65 years  More than 60 million (1 out of every 4) Americans have some form of CVD: hypertension (50 million), coronary heart disease (12.2 million), congestive heart failure (4.6 million), or stroke (4.4 million) (American Heart Association, 1997)
  8. 8. Cardiovascular Disease Statistics – Part 2  Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounts for more deaths than any other disease annually (489,000+ deaths)  CHD deaths greater among Blacks than Whites (Hispanics have a lower prevalence than Whites) (Public Health Service 1988)  CHD is caused by lack of blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) resulting in myocardial ischemia  CHD begins with a degenerative, progressive plaque build- up within the lining of the arteries known as atherosclerosis (Endothelial Damage Theory)
  9. 9. Types of CVD*  Hypertension  Coronary heart disease  Stroke  Rheumatic heart disease  Congenital heart disease  Congestive heart failure * CVD is the acronym for Cardiovascular Disease.
  10. 10. Myocardial Infarction  Necrosis of a part of cardiac muscle caused by obstruction in a coronary artery through either atherosclerosis or a thrombus or a spasm. The onset of an MI is characterized by a crushing, viselike chest pain that may radiate to the left arm, neck, or epigastrium and sometimes stimulates the sensation of acute indigestion or a gallbladder attack.
  11. 11. Atherosclerosis  Principle cause of coronary artery disease. Defined as the thickening, narrowing and hardening of the blood vessels in the body. The etiology of this chronic disease stems from long-term injury and plaque build-up within the inner lining (endothelial lining) of the arteries. This narrowing of the diameter of the vessels (lumen) leads to various forms of occlusion which can result in an MI (myocardial infarction). Coronary arteries are only as wide as a pencil lead.
  12. 12. Common Blood Vessel Disorders  Thrombus – clot  Embolus – moving clot  Hemorrhage – sudden burst of blood vessel  Aneurysm – blood vessel balloons, weakens and can rupture
  13. 13. Heart Attack Signals  Pale, clammy, SOB  Faint, anxious, feeling that death is imminent  Tachycardia, thready pulse, low BP  Chest pain > 2 min.  Radiating pain, pressure, discomfort in arm, jaw and back  EKG might detect elevation of ST segment and Q wave  ALOC – altered level of consciousness measured using Glasgow Coma Scale  Nausea/Vomiting  Gastrointestinal Distress  Activate E.M.S. as soon as possible. Forty percent of people die within the first hour of a heart attack.
  14. 14. Heart Attack Trivia  70% of heart attacks take place at home  30% of heart attacks outside of home  Most heart attacks occur Monday mornings  Men and post-menopausal women are at highest risk  Men deny they are having a heart attack  Women are treated for gastric or gynecology problems – treatment delayed because women present different s/s for heart attacks – Women’s Health Initiative 1991
  15. 15. ACSM GUIDELINES 2005 Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Positive Risk Factors  Family history  Cigarette smoking  Hypertension  Dyslipidemia  Impaired fasting glucose  Obesity  Sedentary lifestyle Negative Risk Factor  High serum HDL cholesterol > 60mg/dL (1.6mmol/L)
  16. 16. Recommendations of the U.S. Surgeon General  Moderate activity:  on most, preferably all, days of the week  a goal of 150 kcals/day (1000 kcals/week)  Examples of one day’s moderate activity:  30 minutes of brisk walking or 15 minutes of running  30 minutes of raking leaves or 15 minutes of shoveling snow  two 10-minute bicycle rides or two brisk 15- minute walks
  17. 17. Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise  Improved cardiorespiratory functioning:  Reduces risk of CVD  Glycogen-sparing effect  Increases ventilatory capacity  Increases cardiac output  Reduces risk of dying prematurely  Reduces risk of developing osteoporosis  Maintenance of body weight  Reduces risk of developing diabetes
  18. 18. More Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise  Reduced risk of chronic disease:  cardiovascular disease  cancer  diabetes  osteoporosis Image source: http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/index.htm
  19. 19. More Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise  Better control of body fat  Improved immune function  Improved psychological and emotional well- being
  20. 20. Five Health-Related Components of Fitness  Cardiorespiratory Endurance  The ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high intensity levels.  Muscular Strength  The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.  Muscular Endurance  The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly for a long period of time.  Flexibility  The range of motion in a joint or group of joints; flexibility is related to muscle length.  Body Composition  The relative proportion of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) and fat in the body
  21. 21. Cardiovascular Endurance  The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large- muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity  Key health-related component of fitness

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