Science
What is Science?
• The word science comes from the Latin
"scientia," meaning knowledge.
• Science is the systematic and or...
Scientific Discovery
• Science is always changing and advancing. Why?
• Because everyday scientists conduct new
experiment...
What is Technology?
• Technology is the application (use) of
knowledge learned through scientific inquiry.
• Examples:
– m...
Limits of Science
• Science cannot provide answers to every question.
• In order for science to solve a problem there must...
Scientific Disciplines
Life Science
• Biology
• Ecology*
• Biotechnology*
• Medicine
• Microbiology*
Earth Science
•Meteor...
Scientific Method
• The scientific method IS what makes scientific
inquiry systematic.
• It is a system or process of inqu...
Prepare
• Identify the question you’d like to answer.
• Research previous work done on the topic
making sure that you will...
Hypothesis
• A hypothesis is an educated guess (a prediction)
about the outcome of an experiment.
• It MUST be TESTABLE! M...
Plan
• Design an experiment to test the hypothesis.
• The independent variable (manipulated) is
what the experimenter is c...
Do
• Observe and record data that result
from running the experiment.
• Data tables keep the data
organized.
• Quantitativ...
Conclude and ApplyConclude and Apply
• Analyze results
– What caused the result?
• Draw conclusions
– What can we say abou...
Theories
• A theory is an explanation of commonly
observed natural phenomena based on
scientific facts.
• Theories must be...
Laws
• When the observed phenomenon NEVER FAILS
the test, it becomes a law.
• Unlike a theory, a law doesn’t attempt to ex...
Measurements
Why do we measure things?
•to duplicate results of an experiment
•to accurately make comparisons
Measurements...
Standardization
• Measurements have been used by humans nearly as long
as humans have been anatomically modern.
• Standard...
Common Measurements
The things we measure most are:
•Length
•Mass
•Volume
•Temperature
•Time
All measurements require 2 th...
The Metric System
• The metric system uses a system of prefixes to
describe numbers of various sizes.
• This helps with co...
Conversions
Sometimes in order to compare two
quantities you need to convert the units:
KING
HENRY
DIED
B
Y
DRINKING
CHOCO...
Mass
• Mass is the amount of matter (stuff) in an object.
• The base unit for measuring mass is the gram*.
• The measuring...
Length
• Length is the distance between 2 points.
• The base unit for measuring length is the meter*.
• The measuring devi...
Volume
• Volume is the amount of space the object
occupies.
• The base unit for measuring volume is the liter*.
• The meas...
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Scientific Methods & Measures

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Scientific Methods & Measures

  1. 1. Science
  2. 2. What is Science? • The word science comes from the Latin "scientia," meaning knowledge. • Science is the systematic and organized inquiry into the natural world and its phenomena. • Science seeks to gain a deeper and often useful understanding of our world. • Science is useful in solving problems, though sometimes the solution to one problem creates another.
  3. 3. Scientific Discovery • Science is always changing and advancing. Why? • Because everyday scientists conduct new experiments that discover things that had already existed but we had no knowledge of because we didn’t have the proper technology. • As long as technology advances science will advance.
  4. 4. What is Technology? • Technology is the application (use) of knowledge learned through scientific inquiry. • Examples: – microscopes – telescopes – computers - machines - cars - synthetic fibers (i.e. nylon) - genetic engineering - cloning - nuclear Energy
  5. 5. Limits of Science • Science cannot provide answers to every question. • In order for science to solve a problem there must be variables that can be observed, measured and tested. • Some questions do not have these measurable variables such as ethical/moral questions about what is good, bad, right or wrong. • Science is NOT religion though they sometimes seek to answer similar questions…the quest for the answer is obtained in a totally different way. • Another limit of science would be biases or personal opinions that could affect your observations. ● A researcher must always be objective when conducting an experiment. In other words they must be open to all outcomes and willing to test for all of these outcomes.
  6. 6. Scientific Disciplines Life Science • Biology • Ecology* • Biotechnology* • Medicine • Microbiology* Earth Science •Meteorology •Geology* •Oceanography* •Astronomy Physical Science •Chemistry* •Physics Social Science •Psychology •Sociology •Anthropology/Archaeology •Economics -ology = study of
  7. 7. Scientific Method • The scientific method IS what makes scientific inquiry systematic. • It is a system or process of inquiry that involves four primary stages: 1) Prepare 2) Plan 3) Do 4) Conclude and apply
  8. 8. Prepare • Identify the question you’d like to answer. • Research previous work done on the topic making sure that you will be able to make an educated guess at the outcome. • Your educated guess will be known as your hypothesis.
  9. 9. Hypothesis • A hypothesis is an educated guess (a prediction) about the outcome of an experiment. • It MUST be TESTABLE! Meaning that you must be able to measure both variables. • They are typically written as if/then statements: If [I change this variable], then [this variable will do this]. Ex: If I raise the temperature of a cup of water, then the amount of sugar that can be dissolved in it will be increased.
  10. 10. Plan • Design an experiment to test the hypothesis. • The independent variable (manipulated) is what the experimenter is changing. • The dependent variable (responding) is the variable that is responding to the change the experimenter has made. • A control group is maintained in which no variables are changed. This demonstrates that a change has in fact occurred as a result of the change to the independent variable. • All other factors in the experiment must be constant (the same) to insure that the response is due only to the change in the independent variable. Ex: All water should be from the same source in the experiment to prove the example hypothesis.
  11. 11. Do • Observe and record data that result from running the experiment. • Data tables keep the data organized. • Quantitative data is favored in science because it has a concrete (numerical) value. Ex: # of days, measurements • Qualitative data is more subjective, relative, and usually descriptive in nature. Ex: subject 1 has a stronger odor than subject 2
  12. 12. Conclude and ApplyConclude and Apply • Analyze results – What caused the result? • Draw conclusions – What can we say about our experiment? • Did it work? – Why? • Did it fail? – Why? – What can we do next time to make it work? • Experiments supply us with scientifically verified facts.
  13. 13. Theories • A theory is an explanation of commonly observed natural phenomena based on scientific facts. • Theories must be substantiated through multiple experiments. • Science is limited by the available body of knowledge; for this reason theories are not concrete and can be and are often updated and/or changed completely. • Examples: – Big Bang Theory – Theory of Evolution – Germ Theory of Disease
  14. 14. Laws • When the observed phenomenon NEVER FAILS the test, it becomes a law. • Unlike a theory, a law doesn’t attempt to explain how something works, it simply describes a phenomenon. • Laws are overwhelmingly substantiated and universally accepted as being true. • Examples: – Gravity – Newton’s Laws of Motion – The Doppler Effect – Keppler’s Laws of Planetary Motion
  15. 15. Measurements Why do we measure things? •to duplicate results of an experiment •to accurately make comparisons Measurements make our lives easier and we measure things all the time. Examples: •Shopping – What size shoe do you wear? •Cooking – Can you easily duplicate a meal w/o a recipe? •Construction •Deciding how warm to dress – Is 50̊F cold to you?
  16. 16. Standardization • Measurements have been used by humans nearly as long as humans have been anatomically modern. • Standardization is a hallmark of civilization and has been handled in many different ways in the past. • The use of a foot as a standard unit of measure is linked to the ancient Greeks. The only problem is… is everyone’s foot the same size? So is it truly standardized? • The English solved this problem by using specifically the king’s foot. • The French in 1790 took it a step further and created a decimal (or base 10) system (like you use in math class) to simplify things. • In 1960 scientists agreed to one International System of Units (abbreviated SI Units) which happens to be that creation of the French and which you know as the metric system.
  17. 17. Common Measurements The things we measure most are: •Length •Mass •Volume •Temperature •Time All measurements require 2 things: •A quantity •A unit of measure
  18. 18. The Metric System • The metric system uses a system of prefixes to describe numbers of various sizes. • This helps with comparisons which is one of our main reasons for measuring things to begin with. • Examples: – 1000 kilograms is A LOT (literally a ton) but 1000 grams is just 1 kilogram. – Aaron and Noah wanted to have a contest to see which of their paper airplanes could fly the longest distance. Aaron's plane flew four meters. Noah's plane only flew seventy-nine centimeters. How much further did Aaron's plane fly?
  19. 19. Conversions Sometimes in order to compare two quantities you need to convert the units: KING HENRY DIED B Y DRINKING CHOCOLAT E MILK
  20. 20. Mass • Mass is the amount of matter (stuff) in an object. • The base unit for measuring mass is the gram*. • The measuring device is a balance. • One gram divided by 10 is a decigram. • One gram divided by 100 is a centigram. • One gram divided by 1000 is a milligram*. • 10 grams is a Dekagram. • 100 grams is a Hectogram. • 1000 grams is a Kilogram*.
  21. 21. Length • Length is the distance between 2 points. • The base unit for measuring length is the meter*. • The measuring device is the meter stick or ruler. • One meter divided by 10 is a decimeter. • One meter divided by 100 is a centimeter*. • One meter divided by 1000 is a millimeter*. • 10 meters is a Dekameter. • 100 meters is a Hectometer. • 1000 meters is a Kilometer*.
  22. 22. Volume • Volume is the amount of space the object occupies. • The base unit for measuring volume is the liter*. • The measuring device is a graduated cylinder. • One liter divided by 10 is a deciliter. • One liter divided by 100 is a centiliter. • One liter divided by 1000 is a milliliter*. • 10 liters is a Dekaliter. • 100 liters is a Hectoliter.

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