Ecology
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Ecology

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Common Core Science Support Standards Addressed (8th grade): ...

Common Core Science Support Standards Addressed (8th grade):
8.L.5.1 - Summarize how food provides the energy and the molecules required for building materials, growth and survival of all organisms (to include plants).
8.L.3.1 – Explain how factors such as food, water, shelter and space affect populations in an ecosystem.
8.L.3.2 - Summarize the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers including the positive and negative
consequences of such interactions including:
• Coexistence and cooperation
• Competition (predator/prey)
• Parasitism
• Mutualism
8.L.3.3 - Explain how the flow of energy within food webs is interconnected with the cycling of matter (including water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen).

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Ecology Ecology Presentation Transcript

  • ECOLOGY
  • Ecological Organization
  • FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION SIZE • Abiotic factor: Non-living things in an ecosystem that affect the life of the organism. – Sunlight – Air Biogeochemical Cycling – Water – Temperature • Biotic factor: All living things in an ecosystem. – Animals – Plants – Bacteria – Fungi
  • Competition • When 2 or more species live in the same area and eat the same organisms they are said to be in competition for those resources. • Examples: – Cheetas and lions have the same prey on the savannah in Africa – Grass and weeds in your yard
  • Coexistence/Cooperation • When individuals of different species work together to meet their needs they are said to be coexisting or cooperating. • There are several strategies that species use to cooperate: – Mutualism – Parasitism – Commensalism
  • Mutualism • An interspecies relationship in which both species benefit from the interaction. • Species 1 (+) • Species 2 (+) • Examples: – A bee pollinating a flower – Fungus on plant roots – Clown fish and sea anemone
  • Parasitism • An interspecies relationship in which one species benefits to the detriment (harm) of another. • Host - Species 1 (-) • Parasite - Species 2 (+) • Examples: – Fleas/ticks on a dog – Tape worm – Head lice
  • Commensalism • An interspecies relationship in which one species benefits and the other is unaffected. • Species 1 (+) • Species 2 (0) • Examples: – Barnacles on a whale – Cattle egrets and livestock – Orchids on a tree
  • PRODUCERS Energy mostly enters to the world as sunlight and producers capture it to turn it into food molecules in a process called photosynthesis. Producers are the source of all the food in an ecosystem A producer can make its own food They are: plants, algaes and bacteria.
  • CONSUMERS • Consumers cannot make their own food. • Consumers obtain energy by feeding on (consuming) other organisms. • They are classified by what they eat: – Herbivores – Carnivores – Omnivores
  • Herbivores Do they eat “ Potatoes ” ? ? ? ?
  • PRIMARY CONSUMERS • Also known as HERBIVORES • Ex: mice, deer, cows, and elephants • Herbivores eat ONLY PLANTS
  • SECONDARY CONSUMERS • Are CARNIVORES or OMNIVORES • If the animal must be killed before it is eaten, the secondary consumer is known as a predator.
  • Scavengers Feed on the bodies of dead organisms
  • DECOMPOSERS Break down wastes and dead organisms, and so complete the cycle by: - returning nutrients to the soil & water - returning CO2 to the air & water
  • Food Chain A food chain shows how each living thing gets food, and how nutrients and energy are passed from creature to creature. 
  • Food Webs A food web consists of all the food chains in a single ecosystem.
  • Trophic Levels An organism’s position in the food chain is often referred to as its trophic level.
  • Energy Pyramids • 90% of energy at each level is used by the organism for its day to day existence. • So only 10% transfers to the next level
  • There are as many as 25 elements found in ALL living organisms and just like energy they are cycled through the biosphere. Far and away the most abundant are CHNOPS.
  • Carbon Cycle
  • Plants capture energy from sunlight for Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts in plant cells
  • Cellular Respiration O2 is converted to CO2 in the mitochondria of animal cells. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O+ Energy ( infrared )
  • Combustion Any chemical reaction in which one of the reactants is OXYGEN (aka fire) is a combustion reaction.
  • COMBUSTION OF CARBON • A combustion reaction in which one of the reactants is CARBON always yields CO2 as a product. • Burning Methane CH4 + O2  CO2 + 2H2O • Burning Propane: C3H8+5O23CO2+4H2O • Examples: – – – – Incinerating trash, yard waste Forest fires Combustion engines in cars Burning coal to generate electricity
  • Just like tree rings can tell us about how old the tree is and whether it was a wet/dry or cold/hot year…
  • So can Ice Core Samples tell us about the paleoclimate… Paleo =
  • The Ice Core Drill
  • Layers of Ice Like the growth rings on a tree…each layer represents a year (or in this case, season) of ice accumulation.
  • Volcanic Ash Layer
  • Cutting the Ice
  • Gases Dissolved in the Ice
  • Ice Core Storage Room
  • Climate Change • CO2 is a greenhouse gas, meaning that it holds heat IN the atmosphere. • Atmospheric carbon has increased dramatically since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in 1850.
  • Effects of Climate Change • • • • • • • Melting Polar Sea Ice Change in ocean salinity Ocean Acidification Rising global temperatures Rising sea levels Receding glaciers ALL ecosystems are affected!
  • Melting Polar Sea Ice
  • Ocean Acidification • Ocean acidification is a reduction in surface ocean pH levels due to the increasing absorption of carbon dioxide. • When CO2 dissolves in water, carbonic acid is formed. • The saturation of carbonic acid decreases the ability of many marine organisms to build and maintain their shells and skeletal structures.
  • Ocean Acidification Results in habitat loss & breakdown of the marine food web 
  • Mendenhall Glacier
  • The Meade Glacier is located:
  • Here he is from space (zoomed)
  • Here he is on approach when we helicoptered out to visit him last summer:
  • Receding Glaciers
  • Water Cycle • ALL living organisms MUST have water to survive! • The availability of water is determined by the water cycle and weather patterns driven by it. • Water is a reactant in photosynthesis and a product in cellular respiration!
  • The Nitrogen Cycle • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria – “Fix” nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form that is ingestible by living organisms. • Nitrogen moves through the food chain (trophic layers) in the same manner energy does. • Denitrifying bacteria – break down decomposing organic material and release the nitrogen back into the atmosphere restarting the cycle.
  • PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
  • FOOD You are what you eat!
  • Digestion The digestive process breaks down consumed food into molecules/nutrients which are needed to carry out all of the body’s essential processes such as: • Carbohydrates • Fat • Proteins • Vitamins & Minerals • Water
  • Why Do We Eat? A healthy diet satisfies three needs: • fuel to power all of the bodies activities • raw materials needed to build the bodies own molecules • essential nutrients that the animal can't make for itself
  • Calories • A calorie is the unit of measure of the amount of energy a food source contains. • Every consumer needs a given amount of energy simply to exist from day to day and as a consumer that energy must come from the sun through consuming/eating another organism. • The more active the organism, the more energy (in the form of calories from food) it requires.
  • Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates are a major source of energy in the form of sugar. • A type of sugar called glucose is needed for cellular respiration. • Carbohydrates are either simple or complex.
  • • Simple carbohydrates are either already in the desired form (glucose) or they can easily and quickly be processed into the glucose form. • They provide an instant energy boost.
  • • Complex carbohydrates require a lot of processing to get it into the glucose form. • They provide longer lasting (sustained) energy than their simpler counterparts.
  • Fiber • Fiber is a complex carbohydrate found in plants that cannot be made into sugar by the body for fuel. • It is still an important component of the diet because it helps move food through the digestive process. • Fiber passes through the digestive system and is eliminated.
  • Amino Acids • DNA codes for one of about 20 amino acids. Your body can make about half of those amino acids but the rest MUST come from your food! • Collections of amino acids code for specific proteins. • Collections of proteins become tissue. • Collections of tissues become organs. • Collections of organs become BODIES!
  • • Meat food sources contain “complete proteins” meaning all 20 amino acids are present. • Not every vegetable has all 20, and are therefore considered to contain “incomplete proteins.” • Vegetarians must eat a variety of plants to get all 20 amino acids. • The average American consumes DOUBLE the recommended daily amount of protein the long-term effects of which are not fully understood.
  • Fat Fat is needed: • For energy • As a building and insulating material in various parts of the body. • Saturated fat (from animal sources) is less desirable and can clog up arteries. • Unsaturated fat (from plant sources) is the more desirable and can actually help blood flow by “scrubbing” the undesirable fat and bringing it back to the liver where it can be properly disposed of.
  • Healthy Eating A healthy diet is: • Low in fat • Low in sugar (especially refined, simple carbs) • High in fiber • Variety of vitamins & minerals • Caloric intake should not exceed energy output! Extra calories will be stored as fat deposits!
  • Exercise At least 20 minutes of exercise per day improves: • • • • • • Weight Digestion Respiration Blood flow Energy level Overall health!
  • Diabetes • Insulin (produced by the pancreas) is a hormone needed to convert sugar into a usable form for cellular respiration. • Diabetes is a disease in which insulin either cannot be produced or not properly utilized by the body. • Some are born with diabetes (type 1); Type 2 is caused by a poor diet (i.e. high in sugar & fat and low in fiber) and lack of exercise. • Overweight individuals are more likely to develop diabetes.
  • • 17 million Americans have diabetes already, 5.9 million don't even know they have it. • It is the 5th leading cause of death in the United States. • Diabetes is often linked to heart disease which is THE leading cause of death in the US. • Diabetes diagnosis is up 49% from 1990 to 2000. Similar increases are expected.
  • Field Study: Wild Horses of Shackleford Banks
  • This is my tent. It is upside down. The wind did it. What does that tell you about the wind on the island?
  • This young fella is standing in freshwater.