Participatory Video - Training of trainers
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Participatory Video - Training of trainers

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This slide show was produced for the PV workshop we organized in Wageningen with Otherwise in May 2011. We worked with representatives of local NGOs and the results were publicly screened.

This slide show was produced for the PV workshop we organized in Wageningen with Otherwise in May 2011. We worked with representatives of local NGOs and the results were publicly screened.
We:
Patricia Santos
Margriet Goris
Tessa Steenbergen
Geke Kieft

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  • Introduction to the process of facilitating a participatory video (PV) project !
  • Introduction to the process of facilitating a participatory video (PV) project !
  • Introduction to the process of facilitating a participatory video (PV) project !
  • Process over product – facilitating workshops, plenary meetings, PV processes is mainly about stepping out
  • Shot on location– isolated communities, Have voice, Multi-level, horizontal and vertical – Power of moving images to engage – Share view, sometimes conflicting views - portability
  • temptive typologies
  • RICE project + Visual problem appraisal…where videos of interviews with community is brought to policy makers, for e.g.
  • FOGO PROCESS n the late 1960s, a pioneering participatory communication pilot project using video was conducted on Fogo Island, Newfoundland - an isolated and underdeveloped fishing community cut off from most communitcation and with a fragmented and underserved population.  This pioneering project, known as the Fogo Process, was supported by the Canadian Film Board's 'Challenge for Change' program which hoped to harness the potential of newly developed portable video camera and playback technologies (1/2 inch video 'portapaks') as a tool to promote social change by engaging isolated communities in a participatory process.  The Fogo Project is a very interesting collection of videos produced by the National Film Board of Canada and Memorial University - Extension Services which capture the social, cultural and economic aspects of life on Fogo Island, Newfoundland and Labrador in the 1960s.
  • two-way communication between learners and tutors – ask about their experience in working with groups
  • – it can reveal something of their cognition and values that may be inhibited, not observable, or not analyzable when investigation is totally dependent on verbal exchange – expecially when it must be done in the language of the investigator. – it can happen that they don't choose to film within their own community. In case of the Navajo the y show close relatives and own live stock.
  • – it can reveal something of their cognition and values that may be inhibited, not observable, or not analyzable when investigation is totally dependent on verbal exchange – expecially when it must be done in the language of the investigator. – it can happen that they don't choose to film within their own community. In case of the Navajo the y show close relatives and own live stock.
  • “ As the Navajo were making the films and telling us about them, they repeatedly said: “ My mother, or my brother, goes looking for …, then she goes to get..., then she goes..., then my brother goes... ” We didn't notice this repeated emphasis of the verb “ to go ” at the time of the interviews; in a sense, we screened it out, paying attention to what was important to us . It wasn't until we saw the edited film that we realized that walking was an event of itself , not just a way of getting somewhere. We expected the filmmakers to cut out most the walking – but they didn't. This was the least discarded footage. In questioning them, it became clear that although they didn't verbalize it directly, walking was necessary to tell a story about something Navajo. ”
  • One speculation as to the reasons for this is that the Navajo generally avoid eye-to-eye contact. Staring at someone, or looking him “ straight in the eye ” is a form of insult, unless done for clearly humorous purposes. This relates to values of privacy in Navajo culture, where close living and modesty taboos must be reconciled by some form of perceptual avoidance behaviour. It seems possible to conclude that this has been carried over into film discourse. This show also the extra value of participative video as people make their film according to their values.
  • There are numerous examples in their films of people suddenly appaering on the screen. When asked why he said “ Oh, nothing happens when he's behind the tree so I cut it out. ” Susie's film edited, finished when her mother holds up the finished rug. We haven't been shown muchof her mother weaving the rug; it has been a film of coming and going. Also in Johnny film you hardly see the fabrication of the jewelry. The walking provides a means of depicting eventing, (the searching for and finding of the mine, the rock for casting, the dyes for weaving, and so on.)
  • -The film I made to finish with my study Etnovideography was about Transgender Continuum or Gender Identity from very male to very female. Watching back the footage the main charater reacted for example “ O, these trousers really doesn't make me a man ” which made clear the matter of clothing to transgender people.
  • – Graffiti reveals the empowering effect of participative video. At first instance they thought the could never have an interview with police or someone from the municipality. Discovering it isn't that difficult at all, it opened their way to new initiatives and hope to achieve something with their film. By now the plan for a legal graffiti wall is presented to inhabitants of Wageningen. And two of the teenagers, no more than twelve years old participate in the youth council. -Small gestures, Big Effects reveals the unique representation of an image of a so called marginalized group when presenting themselves.
  • Introduce tripod
  • Zooming: instead of zooming it is better to stop camera – move – start camera 180 degree rule: don ’t cross line
  • The rule of thirds says that you must place the important parts of your composition along the edges of your nine parts or even at the intersection of those edges.
  • Leave on sreen

Participatory Video - Training of trainers Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Participatory Video Workshop7th May 2011, Wageningen, DOCU FILM FEST
  • 2. Program of the workshopMORNING Introduction to Participatory Video (PV) PV Workshop Playback and Wrap-upAFTERNOON Meeting the Organisations PV Process
  • 3. Ice-breaking with video
  • 4. Introduction to Participatory Video ⌐ What is PV? ⌐ Why use PV? ⌐ From/to Whom? – Typologies ⌐ Examples of PV Methods ⌐ How to facilitate PV? ⌐ Research options - Ethnovideography ⌐ Video Examples
  • 5. And also⌐ Coffee break⌐ Wrap up – Shooting tips⌐ Lunch⌐ Welcome back - Editing tips⌐ Dinner ⌐ Closing reflections
  • 6. What is PV?⌐ Or, what is not! PV is not making movies - it aims for community empowerment⌐ You, as a PV facilitator will not be taking the shots - the participants have full ownership of the process and the product
  • 7. Why use PV?⌐ Creates a safe place⌐ Literacy barriers⌐ Geographical barriers⌐ Exercise democratic right⌐ Technology and knowledge transfer⌐ Experiential action learning⌐ Multi-stakeholder interaction⌐ Attracts curiosity⌐ Fits oral traditions⌐ Low cost for outreach potential⌐ …
  • 8. From/to Whom? – Typologies (1) 1. FOR ADVOCACY & AWARENESS RISING From Community to researchers/ NGOs/ policy makers From Marginalized/ isolated groups to wider community Community to community Policy makers to community Multi-stakeholder workshops
  • 9. From/to Whom? - Typologies (2) 2. FOR CAPACITY BUILDING Tool for sharing information and technologies, e.g. for agricultural extension and introduction of new practices 3. FOR STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT & REPORTING Used from project planning, M&E, consultation of isolated communities, conflict situations, etc.
  • 10. Examples of PV MethodsThe Fogo ProcessNational Film Board of Canada, 1960’sParticipatory Video ApproachLunch and Lunch, 2006Zooming in zooming outVan Mele, 2006 and 2008Visual Problem AppraisalWitteveen and Enserink, 2007
  • 11. How to facilitate PV? The facilitator is a person who is substantively neutral , who has nosubstantive decision-making authority and intervenes to help a group to explore, solve problems and make decisions . Schwarz, 2002 ENGAGE AND ENABLE PEOPLE TO TAKE ACTION
  • 12. Ethics and challengesEthics•Attitudes and behavior•Hand over control•Be aware of power•Ownership•Honor commitmentsEthics of editingChallenges
  • 13. Research optionsResearch⌐ Six Navajos made films about anything they want.
  • 14. Research optionsStarting point: people use motion pictures in a patterned, rather than a random fashion, and the particular patterns used would reflect their culture and their cognition.
  • 15. Research optionsAnalyze⌐ The narrative “Style” of the films, related to mythic forms and symbols of the culture.
  • 16. Research optionsAnalyze⌐ The cultural, perceptual, and cognitive taboos influencing semantic or syntactic organization and structure of an utterance.
  • 17. Research optionsAnalyze⌐ The syntactic organization and sequencing of events and units of eventing – we shall be dealing with way pieces or units of films were used/edited.
  • 18. Research optionsMethod⌐ Film when you look back with the filmmakers.⌐
  • 19. Video ExamplesTeenagers in WageningenGraffitiStudents in Groningen, NetherlandsSmall Gestures Big EffectsParticipatory 3D Mapping, EthiopiaParticipatory Video with Students
  • 20. Example of PV Method http://vimeo.com/21449246
  • 21. Example of PV Method10-steps method 1. Sit in circle 2. camera basics, handling precautions, on/off, framing - One teaches the next 3. Again, using the microphone – The name game 4. Watch footage, promoting reflection and comments 5. Introduce the tripod – Let them handle the equipment 6. Help making out what story they want to tell – Storyboard 7. Go, make it! - Let participants experiment 8. Participatory editing 9. Help organise a community screening 10.Reflect on the process and ask for consent for dissemination
  • 22. PV Workshop
  • 23. Wrap Up
  • 24. Shooting tipsBefore you start⌐ Study the camera manual⌐ Know basic camera functions⌐ Charge batteries⌐ Check memory space / empty tapes⌐ Try to get a tripod
  • 25. Make a plan⌐ What do you want to tell / achieve?⌐ Who will watch?⌐ Where will it be shown? ⌐ Internet: short (around 3min)⌐ Option: make a story board
  • 26. Storyboard
  • 27. Framing
  • 28. Camera anglesBird’s-eye view Frog perspective Canted shotHigh angle Low angle Over the shoulderEye-level Point of view Cut away
  • 29. Camera movements⌐ Panning from left to right⌐ Tilting up and down⌐ Dolly moving with subject⌐ Zooming⌐ Slow movements⌐ 180 degree rule
  • 30. Composition (1)⌐ Rule of thirds
  • 31. Composition (2)⌐ Empty space in the direction the subject is talking/looking/going
  • 32. Interview⌐ Position yourself next to camera⌐ Use tripod for interview⌐ Ask interviewee to maintain eye contact with you⌐ Avoid leading questions
  • 33. Location and light⌐ Find location that illustrates the story⌐ Avoid moving backgrounds⌐ Enough light. Preferably outside in natural light⌐ Avoid backlight (into the sun)
  • 34. Sound⌐ Position of build-in microphone⌐ Get close to person for better sound⌐ Find quiet place (or film source of noise)⌐ Don’t touch the sound cables⌐ Use external (clip) microphone to improve sound (if possible)
  • 35. Shooting⌐ Count till 10⌐ Shoot fat: start before action and keep shooting after⌐ Diversify your shots: different angles, frames, movements⌐ Include objects/environments that illustrate the story
  • 36. NJ OY E !Meeting the Organisations & PV Process
  • 37. Welcome back! how was your afternoon?Before we start editing… A refreshment !
  • 38. EditingAccess your Clips and Video effects and Transitions Preview screen Insert and edit clips in the Timeline (video and sound)
  • 39. Editing process1. Preview, name and classify clips2. Review storyboard3. Import selected clips to video editing software4. Make rough edit, placing clips in order in the timeline5. Choose tittles and soundtrack6. Refine editing7. Export to movie format
  • 40. Closing Reflection
  • 41. Thank youScreening of today’s VideosMonday, 8pm, @ Movie W
  • 42. The teamMargriet GorisPatricia SantosTessa SteenbergenGeke Kieft