OriginsHave been ruled bythe Roman Empire,Byzantine Empire,Ottoman Empire, andthe USSR
RhetoricAll of the cultures that Bulgaria has been ruled by throughout the last1500 years have been influenced by Aristotle, with the exception ofthe USSR.Its rhetoric hasn’t had much opportunity to develop independently inthe last 1500 years.Bulgaria is a small nation and is not as defined as other nations.
Aspects of Bulgarian RhetoricUse of first person pronounsCommitment and DetachmentFacial expressions
Use of first person PronounsBulgarian discourse is argumentative innatureThe usage of the pronoun I is trulyBulgarianThey have adopted and embraced the usageof we in its place
ExamplesOld Bulgarian: “I believe that Bulgaria isthe friendliest country in Eastern Europe”New Bulgarian: “We Bulgarians believe weare the friendliest country in EasternEurope”
Commitment and DetachmentNoticeable in written discourseIn terms of Bulgarian, English written byBulgarians, and English there is a sizabledifferenceCommitment and detachment measuredthrough the use of hedges and boosters
Examples of Hedging and BoostingHedging` the various factors that might account for any differences in comprehensibility(Williams, 1992, p. 397)``Therefore one could question the usefulness of emphasizing (OConnor, 1991, p.393).Boosting``However, it certainly does not make much sense to say that (Kabak ﾏ ciev, 1993, p.41)``The native speakers are indisputably rated by both groups as morecomprehensible and (Williams, 1992, p. 705)
Facial ExpressionsBulgarians have been known to shake theirheads in affirmations and nod in negationLikely influenced by Ottoman and Romanculture
Works CitedWorks CitedShaw, P., and I. Vassileva. "Co-evolving Academic Rhetoric across Culture; Britain, Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany in the 20th Century." Journal of Pragmatics 41.2 (2008): 290-305. Science Direct. Web. 28 Jan. 2011.Vassileva, Irena. "Commitment and Detachment in English and Bulgarian Academic Writing." English for Specific Purposes. Pergamon, 2001. Web. 28 Jan. 2011.Vassileva, Irena. "Some Aspects of the Rhetorical Structure of Specialized Written Discourse in English, Bulgarian and Russian." International Journal of Applied Linguistics 5.2 (1995): 173-86. Wiley Online Library. Web. 28 Jan. 2008.Jakobson, Roman. “Motor signs for ‘yes’ and ‘no’ ”. Language in Society, 1, (1972) 91– 96.McClave, Evelyn, Helen Kim, Rita Tamer, and Milo Mileff. “Head movements in the Context of speech in Arabic, Bulgarian, Korean, and African-AmericanVernacular English”Gestures 7.3 (2007): 343-390 Web. 22 March 2011
Williams, J. (1992). Planning, discourse marking, and the comprehensibility ofinternational teaching assistants. TESOL Quarterly, 26(4), 693-711.OConnor, N. (1991). Incorporating native speaker norms in secondlanguage materials. Applied Linguistics, 12/4, 383-396.Kabakc ﾏ iev, K. (1993). On the semantic basis of aspect (with specialreference to nominal aspect).Contrastive Linguistics, 1, 38-45.