• Tuberculosis (TB),
is a disease with chronic or acute
bacterial infection that primarily
attacks the lungs, but which may
also affect the
kidneys, bones, lymph nodes, and
• In 1993 the World Health
Organization (WHO) declared TB
to be a global emergency, the first
such designation ever made by
that organization. According to
WHO, someone becomes infected
with the bacteria that cause TB
• One-third of the world’s population is
infected with the bacteria, and as many as
one in ten of those infected will develop
active symptoms of tuberculosis at some
point in their lives. People living with HIV
are at much greater risk than others.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
• Tuberculosis may infect any part of the
body, but most commonly occurs in the lungs
(known as pulmonary tuberculosis).
Extrapulmonary TB occurs when tuberculosis
develops outside of the lungs, although
extrapulmonary TB may coexist with
pulmonary TB as well.
• General signs and symptoms include
fever, chills, night sweats, loss of
appetite, weight loss, and fatigue. Significant
finger clubbing may also occur.
• If a tuberculosis infection does become
active, it most commonly involves the lungs.
Symptoms may include chest pain and a
prolonged cough producing sputum. About
25% of people may not have any symptoms.
Occasionally, people may cough up blood in
small amounts, and in very rare cases, the
infection may erode into the pulmonary
artery, resulting in massive bleeding
• In 15–20% of active cases, the infection spreads
outside the lungs, causing other kinds of TB.
These are collectively denoted as "extrapulmonary
tuberculosis". Extrapulmonary TB occurs more
commonly in immunosuppressed persons and
young children. Notable extrapulmonary infection
sites include the pleura, the central nervous
system ,the lymphatic system, the genitourinary
system , and the bones and joints ,among others.
• Signs and symptoms of active TB
Unintentional weight loss
Loss of appetite
• What organs are affected?
Tuberculosis usually attacks your lungs. Signs and
symptoms of TB of the lungs include:
Coughing that lasts three or more weeks
Coughing up blood or sputum
Chest pain, or pain with breathing or coughing
Tuberculosis can also affect other parts of your
body, including your kidneys, spine or brain. When TB
occurs outside your lungs, signs and symptoms vary
according to the organs involved. For
example, tuberculosis of the spine may give you back
pain, and tuberculosis in your kidneys might cause
blood in your urine.
• The main cause of TB is
small, aerobic, nonmotile
bacillus. The high lipid
content of this pathogen
accounts for many of its
characteristics. It divides
every 16 to 20 hours, which
is an extremely slow rate
compared with other
bacteria, which usually divide
in less than an hour.
Mycobacteria have an outer
membrane lipid bilayer.
• When people with active
cough, sneeze, speak, sin
g, or spit, they expel
infectious aerosol droplets
0.5 to 5.0 µm in diameter.
A single sneeze can
release up to 40,000
droplets. Each one of
these droplets may
disease, since the
infectious dose of
tuberculosis is very low.
• People with prolonged, frequent, or close
contact with people with TB are at
particularly high risk of becoming
infected, with an estimated 22% infection
rate. A person with active but untreated
tuberculosis may infect 10–15 other
people per year. Transmission should only
occur from people with active TB - those
with latent infection are not thought to be
• Antibiotic Resistance and the
Importance of Finishing the TB
• People who do not take all the required
medicines can become sick again and
spread TB to others. Additionally, when
people do not take all the prescribed
medicines or skip times when they are
supposed to take them, the TB bacteria
evolve to outwit the TB antibiotics. Soon
those medicines no longer work against
the disease. If this happens, the person
now has drug-resistant TB.
Additionally, some people with TB do not
get better with treatment because their
disease is caused by a strain of the TB
bacterium that is already resistant to one
or more of the standard TB drugs.
Treatment for Drug Resistant TB
• Treatment for drug-resistant TB
often requires the use of special TB
drugs, all of which can produce
serious side effects. People with
MDR TB may have to take several
antibiotics, at least three to which
the bacteria still respond, every day
for up to two years. Even with this
treatment, however, between 4 and
6 out of 10 patients with MDR TB
will die, which is the same rate
seen with TB patients who are not
treated. Because XDR TB is
resistant to first-line and secondline drugs, patients are left with
limited treatment options that are
much less effective.
• Hospitals and clinics take
precautions to prevent the
spread of TB, which include
identifying patients with
suspected TB and using
ultraviolet light to sterilize the
air, special filters, and special
respirators and masks. By
having an infection control
plan in place, healthcare
settings can ensure the
prompt detection and
treatment of persons who
have suspected or confirmed
• Protect your family and friends
If you have active TB, keep your germs to yourself.
It generally takes a few weeks of treatment with TB
medications before you're not contagious anymore.
Follow these tips to help keep your friends and
family from getting sick:
• Stay home. Don't go to work or school or sleep in
a room with other people during the first few weeks
of treatment for active tuberculosis.
• Ventilate the room. Tuberculosis germs spread
more easily in small closed spaces where air
doesn't move. If it's not too cold outdoors, open the
windows and use a fan to blow indoor air outside.
• Cover your mouth. Use a tissue to cover your
mouth anytime you laugh, sneeze or cough. Put
the dirty tissue in a bag, seal it and throw it away.
• Wear a mask. Wearing a surgical mask when
you're around other people during the first three
weeks of treatment may help lessen the risk of
• Finish your entire course of medication
This is the most important step you can take to
protect yourself and others from tuberculosis.
When you stop treatment early or skip doses, TB
bacteria have a chance to develop mutations that
allow them to survive the most potent TB drugs.
The resulting drug-resistant strains are much more
deadly and difficult to treat.
• Garlic is a great remedy to prevent tuberculosis. You can
have raw garlic three times a day or have garlic capsule.
• Tuberculosis patients lack silica in their bone which is
one of the most important weapons to fight diseases. To
increase that resistance level you must have 1 tbsp of
horsetail juice three times, daily.
• Nettle juice taken raw is rich in calcium. You can use it in
soups and salads to add taste and health in your food.
Have nettle juice with carrot to make it more appetizing.
Have at least one tablespoon daily to find the right
changes in your body.
• An herbal tea made by using one part each of
mullein, bugleweed, knotgrass and
sage, including three parts each of chamomile
and horsetail which work immensely against the
coughing problem. For daily usage use 3 cups
of boiling water over one teaspoon of this herb
concoction and have 3-4 cups daily.
• Consume natural antibiotics by having
horseradish, watercress and nasturtium juice.
Have one tablespoon of these juices daily or
have them in your salad.