Males More likely to have never been married (41.0 vs. 33.9) Less likely to be currently married (48.5 vs. 52.4) Less likely to be separated, widowed or divorced (10.5 vs. 13.7) Females More likely to have never been married (33.3 vs. 27.3) Less likely to be currently married (46.6 vs. 48.4) Less likely to be separated, widowed or divorced (20.1 vs. 24.3)
Beliefs influenced by country of origin, educational attainment, level of acculturation, and sex
Gender Roles in Hispanic Families Familismo : Family life is of primary importance Well-defined, traditional roles Men and women viewed as fundamentally different -- complementary Man's realm = public, work and civic life outside home Woman's realm = private, in the home and church Strong connection between feminine gender and child bearing Idealized femininity: submissive, chaste, and dependent Idealized masculinity: dominant, virile, and independent Similar to Traditional Anglo American gender roles, but somewhat more conservative
Religion in Hispanic American Families
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A majority of Hispanic Americans are Catholic
Largest ethnic group within U.S. Catholicism
But: Protestantism on the rise among Latinos
Indigenous religious traditions + Catholicism of Spanish missionaries
Although dominant religion in Latin America, institutionally weak
More charismatic than Anglo Catholics
"Matriarchal core”: With the historic lack of indigenous Latino priests, Hispanic women have been consistently the primary transmitters of the faith and exercised autonomous authority in the devotional life of their people. (Matovina, 2001)
Growing trend of Hispanic conversion to Protestantism
Problems with Catholic Church Weak institutional ties Service needs not being met Attractiveness of Protestantism, especially Evangelical Charismatic Stronger sense of family and fellowship Greater number of native Spanish- speaking pastors More opportunity for independent lay participation More welcoming of different cultural style of worship Greater access to leadership roles within churches
Fiesta Spirit Moving the American Church
1990 to 2000: 57.9 percent increase in the numbers of Latinos residing in the U.S.
1990: total Latino population living in the U.S. = 22.4 million.
In 2000, this number jumped to 35.3 million.
In 2050, the population is estimated at 81 million, or roughly one quarter of the population
Attitudes toward Latinos
"Border Patrol" is a Flash-based game that lets players shoot at Mexican immigrants as they try to cross the border into the United States.
This is just an (extreme) example of racist, bigoted attitudes Latinos face
Many people make no distinction between nationalities or cultures
Latinos (and all marginalized individuals) in the U.S. are especially at risk for:
Internalization of stereotypes and bigotry
Feelings of frustration and ensuing anger,
Substance abuse issues
Problems frequently encountered when counseling Latino clients.
Latinos are half as likely to seek counseling than non-Latino whites
But they are twice as likely to wind up in a restrictive psychiatric institution
The care they do receive is often inadequate or fails to meet specific needs
Considerations for Counselors
Latino as an aggregate term for various subgroups
Commonalities across subgroups
Intersections within individuals Latino and … ? Systemic Considerations
Latinos range in color from “white to mestizo to mulatto to black.”
mestizo: A person of mixed racial ancestry, especially of mixed European and Native American ancestry
1: the first-generation offspring of a black person and a white person
2: a person of mixed white and black ancestry. Sometimes this word is considered derogatory, based on the etymology of the word
Implications for Mental Health
Personalismo: personal space
Familismo: Ties to family. The good and the bad. Latino vs. American structures
Platicando: Leisurely chatting which leads to rapport building
Other Counseling Considerations
Level of acculturation and mastery of English
Distinction between culture and pathology
The United States and DSMs
Misconceptions about why Latinos may not seek therapy: suffering as sacrifice and appearing strong
More likely reasons: money, mistrust, language barriers, time, legal status
Acknowledge oppression when appropriate
Expressing anger resulting from frustration
See your client as an individual first
Self-disclosure, trust, and rapport building
Use of dichos, or metaphor: “The person whose tooth is causing pain should pull it out”; “He who has never worn sandals is easily cut by the straps.”
Narrative Therapy: “human dilemmas are manufactured in social contexts and are not embedded in humans themselves”.
Stories of victimization are ideally transformed into heroic ones of survival.
Need for more counselors fluent in Spanish
Need for more empirically based outcome studies
Need for new tools and measurements
Video One Video Two
U.S. Census Bureau, "Hispanics in the United States”http://www.census.gov/population/www/ socdemo/hispanic/files/Internet_Hispanic_in_US_2006.pdf
Bedolla, L.G., Monforti, J.L.L., & Pantoja, A.D. (2007). A second look: Is there a latino/a gender gap? . Journal of Women, Politics and Policy, 28(3), 147-171.
Bernal,G. & Saez-Santiago, E. (2006). Culturally centered psychosocial interventions. Journal of Community Psychology 34 (2) 216-25.
Eisenman, R., & Dantzker, M.L. (2006). Gender and ethnic differences in sexual attitudes at a hispanic-serving university. The Journal of General Psychology, 133(2), 153-162.
Hunt, L.L. (2001). Religion, gender and the hispanic experience in the united states: Catholic/ protestant differences in religious involvement, social status, and gender-role attitudes. Review of Religious Research, 43(2), 139-160.
Laroche, M.J. (2002). Psychotherapeutic considerations in treating Latinos. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 10 (2), 344-53.
Matovina, T. (2001, September 14). Hispanic catholics: 'El futuro' is here. Commonweal, 19-21.
Organista, K. (2009). New practice model for Latinos in need of social work services. Social Work 59 (4), 297-305.
Peña, M., & Frehill, L.M. (1998). Latina religious practice: Analyzing cultural dimensions in measures of religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37(4), 620-635.
Raffaelli, M., & Ontai, L.L. (2004). Gender socialization in latino/a families: Results from two retrospective studies. Sex Roles, 50(5/6), 287-299.