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  • 1. Hispanic American Families Gender Roles Religion
  • 2. Demographics
    • Median Age:
      • Male Hispanics = 27.0 (Total = 35.2)
      • Female Hispanics = 27.6 (Total = 37.8)
    • Median Age at First Marriage:
      • Male Hispanics = 27.1 (Total = 27.5)
      • Female Hispanics = 24.7 (Total = 25.9)
  • 3. Marital Status
    • Hispanics vs. Total Population
    • Males More likely to have never been married (41.0 vs. 33.9) Less likely to be currently married (48.5 vs. 52.4) Less likely to be separated, widowed or divorced (10.5 vs. 13.7) Females More likely to have never been married (33.3 vs. 27.3) Less likely to be currently married (46.6 vs. 48.4) Less likely to be separated, widowed or divorced (20.1 vs. 24.3)
    • Compare & Contrast Hispanic Males & Hispanic Females
  • 4. Gender Roles
    • Disclaimer
    • Sweeping Generalizations misleading
    • Beliefs influenced by country of origin, educational attainment, level of acculturation, and sex
    • Individual differences
  • 5. Gender Roles in Hispanic Families Familismo : Family life is of primary importance Well-defined, traditional roles Men and women viewed as fundamentally different -- complementary Man's realm = public, work and civic life outside home Woman's realm = private, in the home and church Strong connection between feminine gender and child bearing  Idealized femininity: submissive, chaste, and dependent Idealized masculinity: dominant, virile, and independent Similar to Traditional Anglo American gender roles, but somewhat more conservative
  • 6. Religion in Hispanic American Families
    • Remember the Disclaimer!
    • A majority of Hispanic Americans are Catholic
    • Largest ethnic group within U.S. Catholicism
    • But: Protestantism on the rise among Latinos
  • 7. Hispanic Catholicism
    • Indigenous religious traditions + Catholicism of Spanish missionaries
    • Although dominant religion in Latin America, institutionally weak
    • More charismatic than Anglo Catholics
    • "Matriarchal core”: With the historic lack of indigenous Latino priests, Hispanic women have been consistently the primary transmitters of the faith and exercised autonomous authority in the devotional life of their people. (Matovina, 2001)
  • 8. Hispanic Protestantism
    • Growing trend of Hispanic conversion to Protestantism
    • Problems with Catholic Church Weak institutional ties Service needs not being met Attractiveness of Protestantism, especially Evangelical Charismatic Stronger sense of family and fellowship Greater number of native Spanish- speaking pastors More opportunity for independent lay participation More welcoming of different cultural style of worship Greater access to leadership roles within churches
  • 9. Fiesta Spirit Moving the American Church
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sccIFC8joUs
  • 10. Latino Population
    • 1990 to 2000: 57.9 percent increase in the numbers of Latinos residing in the U.S.
    • 1990: total Latino population living in the U.S. = 22.4 million.
    • In 2000, this number jumped to 35.3 million.
    • In 2050, the population is estimated at 81 million, or roughly one quarter of the population
  • 11. Attitudes toward Latinos
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IqKvSxmUoVQ
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.
    • "Border Patrol" is a Flash-based game that lets players shoot at Mexican immigrants as they try to cross the border into the United States.
    • This is just an (extreme) example of racist, bigoted attitudes Latinos face
    • Many people make no distinction between nationalities or cultures
  • 15. Latinos (and all marginalized individuals) in the U.S. are especially at risk for:
    • Faulty thinking
    • Internalization of stereotypes and bigotry
    • Feelings of frustration and ensuing anger,
    • Substance abuse issues
  • 16. Problems frequently encountered when counseling Latino clients.
    • Latinos are half as likely to seek counseling than non-Latino whites
    • But they are twice as likely to wind up in a restrictive psychiatric institution
    • The care they do receive is often inadequate or fails to meet specific needs
  • 17. Considerations for Counselors
  • 18. Understanding Terminology
    • Latino as an aggregate term for various subgroups
    • Commonalities across subgroups
  • 19. Intersections within individuals Latino and … ? Systemic Considerations
  • 20. Skin Color
    • Latinos range in color from “white to mestizo to mulatto to black.”
    • mestizo: A person of mixed racial ancestry, especially of mixed European and Native American ancestry
    • mulatto:
      • 1: the first-generation offspring of a black person and a white person
      • 2: a person of mixed white and black ancestry. Sometimes this word is considered derogatory, based on the etymology of the word
    Implications for Mental Health
  • 21. Common Concepts
    • Personalismo: personal space
    • Familismo: Ties to family. The good and the bad. Latino vs. American structures
    • Fatalismo: Fatalism
    • Platicando: Leisurely chatting which leads to rapport building
  • 22. Other Counseling Considerations
    • Level of acculturation and mastery of English
    • Distinction between culture and pathology
    • The United States and DSMs
    • Misconceptions about why Latinos may not seek therapy: suffering as sacrifice and appearing strong
    • More likely reasons: money, mistrust, language barriers, time, legal status
  • 23. Techniques
    • Educate Yourself
    • Acknowledge oppression when appropriate
    • Expressing anger resulting from frustration
    • Empathy
    • See your client as an individual first
    • Self-disclosure, trust, and rapport building
  • 24. Techniques
    • Use of dichos, or metaphor: “The person whose tooth is causing pain should pull it out”; “He who has never worn sandals is easily cut by the straps.”
    • Narrative Therapy: “human dilemmas are manufactured in social contexts and are not embedded in humans themselves”.
    • Stories of victimization are ideally transformed into heroic ones of survival.
    • Sharing Rituals
  • 25. Future Directions
    • Need for more counselors fluent in Spanish
    • Need for more empirically based outcome studies
    • Need for new tools and measurements
  • 26. Undocumented Immigrants
    • Video One Video Two
  • 27. References
    • U.S. Census Bureau, "Hispanics in the United States”http://www.census.gov/population/www/ socdemo/hispanic/files/Internet_Hispanic_in_US_2006.pdf
    • Bedolla, L.G., Monforti, J.L.L., & Pantoja, A.D. (2007). A second look: Is there a latino/a gender gap? . Journal of Women, Politics and Policy, 28(3), 147-171.
    • Bernal,G. & Saez-Santiago, E. (2006). Culturally centered psychosocial interventions. Journal of Community Psychology 34 (2) 216-25.
    • Eisenman, R., & Dantzker, M.L. (2006). Gender and ethnic differences in sexual attitudes at a hispanic-serving university. The Journal of General Psychology, 133(2), 153-162.
    • Hunt, L.L. (2001). Religion, gender and the hispanic experience in the united states: Catholic/ protestant differences in religious involvement, social status, and gender-role attitudes. Review of Religious Research, 43(2), 139-160.
    • Laroche, M.J. (2002). Psychotherapeutic considerations in treating Latinos. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 10 (2), 344-53.
    • Matovina, T. (2001, September 14). Hispanic catholics: 'El futuro' is here. Commonweal, 19-21.
  • 28. References
    • Organista, K. (2009). New practice model for Latinos in need of social work services. Social Work 59 (4), 297-305.
    • Peña, M., & Frehill, L.M. (1998). Latina religious practice: Analyzing cultural dimensions in measures of religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37(4), 620-635.
    • Raffaelli, M., & Ontai, L.L. (2004). Gender socialization in latino/a families: Results from two retrospective studies. Sex Roles, 50(5/6), 287-299.
    • Ruiz, R.A., & Padillo, A.M. (1977). Counseling Latinos. Personnel and Guidance Journal 55 (7), 401-09.
    • Sue, D.W., & Sue, D. (2008). Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice . John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ.
    • Semmler, P.L., Williams, C.B. (2000). Narrative therapy: a storied context for multi-cultural counseling. Journal of Multi-cultural Counseling and Development, 28 (1), 51-60.