Philippines wwii

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  • 1. Philippines: World War II By: Patrick Blanco
  • 2. Japanese Plans
    • Planned to occupy Philippines as part of their plan of “Great East Asia War”
    • Had 3 objectives:
      • Prevent use of Philippines as an advance base of American Forces
      • To acquire staging areas and supply bases to enhance operations
      • To secure communication lines from Japanese Home Island
  • 3. Japanese Invasion
    • Japan launched surprise attack on December 8, 1941
    • Just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor
    • Aerial bombardment was followed by landing of ground troops
  • 4. Commonwealth Of The Philippines
    • Invaded by Japan in December 1941
    • Shortly after Japan’s declaration of war with United States
    • Commonwealth government exiled from 1942-1945 under Japanese occupation
  • 5. US Defenses
    • Recalled MacArthur to active duty
    • Named him commander of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE)
    • USAFFE formed Philippine Army’s 1 st Regular Division, 2 nd Constabulary Division, and 10 mobilized reserve division
  • 6. USAFFE
    • Or U.S. Army Forces in the Far East
    • On July 31, 1941, the Philippine Department had 22,532 assigned
    • Half of whom were Filipino
    • MacArthur recommended the reassignment of the department commander, Maj. Gen. George Grunert in October 1941
    • MacArthur organized USAFFE into 4 commands:
      • The North Luzon Force
        • Activated in Dec 3, 1941
        • Under Major Gen. Jonathan Wainwright
      • The South Luzon Force
        • Activated in Dec 13, 1941
        • Under Brig. Gen. George M. Parker Jr
      • The Visayan-Mindanao Force
        • Under Brig. Gen. William Sharp
      • USAFFE’s Reserve Force
        • Under MacArthur’s direct control
  • 7. Mobilization
    • Mobilization plans called for induction of the ten reserve divisions between 1 September and 15 December 1941
    • The most crucial equipment shortfalls were in rifles and divisional light artillery
      • MacArthur requested 84,500 M1 Garand rifles to replace the World War I Enfields
  • 8. Defeat and Retreat
    • US and Filipino suffered two defeats from Battle of Bataan and Battle of Corregidor
    • US and Filipino surrendered to the Japanese and takes as POWs
    • The defeat was the beginning of three and a half years of harsh treatment for the Allied survivors
    • Including the Bataan Death March
    • And the prison camps, “Hell Ships” used for labor in mines and factories
    • MacArthur ordered to retreat in Australia
    • Famous last words were “I came out of Bataan and I shall return”
  • 9. US in the Philippines
    • Under the command of General Douglas MacArthur
    • Suffered many ground and naval losses
    • Resupply from US of ground forces is impossible
    • MacArthur forced to leave
  • 10. Philippine Resistance
    • Opposed by underground and guerilla activity
    • Philippine guerilla movement continued to grow
    • Filipinos joined various groups and vowed to fight the Japanese
  • 11. Guerilla Forces
    • Formed throughout the archipelago during invasion of Japanese
    • Gathered and smuggled important military intelligence to US Army
    • Built stashes of arms and explosives, assisting the US Army
  • 12. Hukbalahap
    • “ Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon” which means “People’s Army Against the Japanese”
    • Military arm Communist Party of the Philippines
    • Formed to fight the Japanese occupation
    • Under the leadership of Luis Taruc
  • 13. Return of MacArthur
    • Returned well supplied of information late in 1944
    • It has been said that in his return, he knew what every Japanese lieutenant ate for breakfast
    • MacArthur's Allied forces landed on the island of Leyte on October 20, 1944 with Osmeña
    • Fighting was fierce, particularly in the mountains of northern Luzon
    • Japanese had to retreat
  • 14. Japan’s last resort
    • Used Philippines as the final line of defense
    • Kamikaze corps created to defend Philippines
    • Guerilla forces averted a big disaster for Japanese
  • 15. Philippine’s Aftermath
    • Filipino-American resistance lasted for 3 months
    •   An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed
    • A large proportion during the final months of the war, and Manila was extensively damaged
    • The valor of the Filipino and American soldiers is celebrated
    • April 9 th in the Philippines, Valor Day or “Araw ng Kagitingan”
  • 16. Bibliography
    • http://countrystudies.us/philippines/21.htm
    • http://philippinesfreepress.wordpress.com/2006/04/09/world-war-ii-in-the-philippines/#comments
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_occupation_of_the_Philippines
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_the_Philippines_during_World_War_II