Take a map from the table and complete. Quietly find your seat and complete your Reflection… Don’t make me sad 1. Which European country was the first to explore the west coast of Africa? Portugal 2. Who was the main person executed during the Russian Revolution? Czar Nicholas II
Exploration & Trade Prince Henry “The Navigator”: – From Portugal – Founded the School of Navigation which taught the basic information and new discoveries to sailors – Organized expeditions of sailors to explore the west coast of Africa. – Looking for a shortcut to Asia by going around Africa.
European Reasons for Exploration The industrial revolution made goods cheaper to make, so European countries needed to expand their empires…. Natural resources: Conquer new land for resources such as gold, silver, timber. Spread Christianity: Europeans wanted Christianity to spread around the world through missionaries New Markets/Trade Routes: Europeans wanted to secure new trade routes that would bring them more money
Russian Revolution The end of the Russian Empire – During the war, Russia experienced food shortages and strikes.
Russian Revolution– In 1918 Nicholas II and the royal family were all shot to death. This execution ended nearly 400 years of czarist rule.
Russian Revolution Many Russians wanted communism because Lenin promised to end their hunger, poverty and unemployment. But Lenin became a dictator and Russian citizens didn’t have political power. A communist Soviet Union leads to disagreements with the United States later on.
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles ended WWI. The treaty demanded that Germany be punished by – Paying for damages done to other countries – Giving up part of its territory (land)
Worldwide Depression After WWI the world’s economy was in bad shape:§ WWI killed many civilians (workers) of many countries and destroyed land, factories and infrastructure§ The United States had the Great Depression, (1929) so it bought less things from other countries§ Companies went out of business so more people were unemployed.
Holocaust Poor Germans believed Hitler and the Nazi party had the solution to their bad economy and promised to make Germany strong again. Germans elected Adolf Hitler who was of the Nazi Party. Germany killed 6 millions Jews under Hitler which is known as the Holocaust.
The Cold War After WWII, and Germany was defeated, the United Kingdom and the United States wanted to rebuild Europe as free democratic nations with free market economies
The Cold War But, the Soviet Union wanted to rebuild Europe and a communist government and the economy is centralized (controlled) by the government
The Cold War The Soviet Union and United States were Superpowers: top countries in the world) during the Cold War (bad relationship between the U.S and the Soviet Union) competed in different ways during the Cold War
The Cold Warin a nuclear arms race (missiles) during this time – Spreading democracy (U.S) and Communism (Soviet Union) – Supplied other countries with weapons – But the U.S. and the Soviet Union never fought each other because of the horrible effects of a nuclear missile
End of the Soviet Union & Cold War– In 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed Led to the end of the Cold War. Germany was reunited Many parts of the Soviet Union broke off to Independent countries
A Divided Germany: Berlin Wall After WWII Germany After WWII Germany was divided into East and West The Soviet Union had communistic control over East Germany. The United States, France and England had control over the West WEST EAST Western Germany experienced great economic growth Berlin while Eastern Wall Germany had many poor people.
The Aztec Civilization Most powerful from 1200’s to the 1500’s Located in present day Mexico CityAztecs Warfare: – Mexica was the most dominant warrior tribe – Aztecs encouraged warfare to maintain power and to please their war god.
Inca Civilization Became powerful during the1400’s The Inca conquered others tribes surrounding them Located in the Andes Mountains Inca had impressive stonework which led to – network of roads, aquaducts, (“pipes”) – easy communication throughout the mountains Built the city of Machu Picchu
Spanish Conquistadors Remember around this time Spain hired Christopher Columbus to find a new shortcut to Asia for spices But Columbus found a “New World” in 1492. This new world was Latin America
Spanish Conquistadors Spain decided to take over Latin America and to set up colonies instead of finding a shortcut to Asia They sent Conquistadors: Men who were sent to explore new land and conquer the people
Hernan Cortes Conquers the Aztecs Aztec ruler Montezuma II was captured by Hernan Cortes (Spanish Conquistador) in 1519 Spain claimed control of the Aztec empire and its territory.
Francisco Pizarro conquers the Incas In 1532 Inca ruler Atahualpa was defeated by Francisco Pizarro (Spanish conquistador) and the Inca Empire was claimed for Spain. The Inca civilization fell for the same reasons the Aztecs fell to Cortes.
Hernan Cortes Conquers the Aztecs Why was Cortes able to defeat the Aztecs with only an army of 1000 Spanish men? Spanish had better weapons e The Spanish had swords, armor, cannons, guns and horses.
Hernan Cortes Conquers the Aztecs2. Cortes teamed up with local tribes that didn’t like Montezuma
Hernan Cortes Conquers the Aztecs3. Most important Reason: European diseases (smallpox) wiped out the Aztecs a) The Aztecs had no immunity to smallpox because they were never exposed to it before b) It’s estimated that smallpox killed 90% of the Aztecs
Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange: an exchange of goods and ideas between European countries and their colonies in North and South America. Basically the Old World (Europe, Africa and Asia) began trading with the New World (North/South America)
Columbian Exchange The Columbian Exchange led: – An increase in farming in the New and Old World – Decline of Native population in Latin America (smallpox) – The horse being used by Natives in everyday life
European Colonization of Latin America and Slavery Slavery was also a part of the Columbian Exchange Europeans countries used the Native Americans as slaves at first in Latin America
The effects of European Colonization and the Slave Trade – But many Native Americans died from European diseases such as smallpox European brought Africans to Latin America to work as slaves: Triangular Slave Trade
The effects of European Colonization and the Slave Trade – Spain conquered much of Latin America and they spoke Spanish and are Christians of the Roman Catholic faith.
The effects of European Colonization and the Slave Trade Brazilians speak Portuguese because they were a colony of Portugal.
Independence Movements in Latin America France controlled an island name St. Dominique (Haiti) in the Caribbean Islands
Independence Movements in Latin America A slave name Toussaint L’ Ouverture led an army of slaves against the French army
Independence Movements in Latin America Toussaint was captured, imprisoned and left to die in the French Jail in April of 1803. His army continued to fight and Haiti became a free independent country in January of 1804. Toussaint died before Haiti was freed from the French
Independence Movements in Latin America Simon Bolivar was a general who led a rebellion against Spain in Northern parts of South America He wanted to end Spanish rule in Latin America He lived to see his military strategy take back the territory of Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela from Spain..
Independence Movements in Latin America He had was given the nickname the Liberator. He died in 1830 while living in Colombia. The country Bolivia was named after Simon Bolivar.
Independence Movements in Latin America During the early 1800’s Mexicans wanted to be free from Spain rule Father Miguel Hidalgo – Led a small army (Native Americans and mestizos) to protest Spanish rule – Hidalgo’s army met government soldiers and were defeated.
Independence Movements in Latin America– Father Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811.– He did not live to see a Mexico free from Spanish rule
Independence Movements in Latin America 1521: The fall of the Aztecs and rise of “New Spain” Spanish Catholic Church: – Goal was to convert (change) Natives to Christianity, Natives converted willingly or by force. – Catholic Church became powerful in New Spain – Church set up schools and hospitals
Impact of Cuban Revolution1. Cuba sides with the Soviet Union Castro took over Cuba during the Cold War Cuba received weapons from the Soviet Union – Cuban Missile Crisis: US and Cuba almost got into a nuclear war, but it was avoided. Cold War- a conflict between the United States and Soviet Union.
Impact of Cuban Revolution 2. Less Political Freedoms for Cubans – There are strict limits on freedom of speech and press
Impact of Cuban Revolution 3. Communism: government controls the economy – Castro changed Cuba from a free market economy to a communist economy
Mexico’s Zapatistas– In January of 1994 a guerilla rebel group called the Zapatistas seized power in parts of Chiapas, southern Mexico, calling for the reforms Zapata had fought and died for.– Indigenous (Native Americans) people felt they were treated as second class citizens by the Mexican government
Mexico’s Zapatistas– Zapatistas are based on the revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata who fought for farmer rights
Mexico’s Zapatistas End to illiteracy, the right to education, creation of hospitals and much more
English – Settled around the Hudson Bay – Trade with the Natives for fur – Speak English – Are Protestant Christians (pope isnt the leader of the church) – Gained all the French Canadian Territory after the French and Indian War
French and English in Canada French – Settled the Quebec area – Traded with the Natives for fur – Speak French – Are Catholic Christians (pope is the leader of the church) – Lost Canadian territory after the French and Indian War
How did Canada become Independent? After the French and Indian War(1763) most of Canada was under the control of the – British Canada was legally under the control the British Parliament from the end of the French and Indian War until 1982.
How did Canada become Independent? It took Canada over 200 years (1763- 1982) of negotiations to be legally free from Britain. – Various treaties and laws were passed that gave more self governing power to the Canadians.
Quebec’s Independence Separatists want to break away from Canada because they want to preserve (save) their French culture Separatist feel the English culture and new immigrants may push out their French culture In 1980 and 1995 a vote on letting Quebec free was voted and not passed by the Canadian Parliament
British Colonization In 1788, ships arrived from Britain to Australia carrying convicts, women, and guards. Over the next several decades, more than 150,000 prisoners were transported to Australia.
British Colonization The Gold Rush of 1851 and the growth of sheep farming brought more and more free settlers to Australia. In southern Australia gold attracted many from England and Ireland.
The British Claim Australia Like in the Americas, Europeans brought diseases that killed many Aborigines. The British easily defeated and drove back the Aborigines. Effects of British Colonization – Religion: Most Australians are Roman Catholic and Protestants – Language: English is the official language of Australia