Gastric Ulcer

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Gastric Ulcer

  1. 1. Gastric Ulcers<br />Jackie Freeman, Stephanie Janigo, Ryan Barlow and Ayla Hopkins<br />
  2. 2. Definition <br />“A gastric ulcer is a pathology in which conditions within the stomach result in cell damage or cell death and therefore erosion of the stomach wall. The blood vessels within the stomach wall may also be damaged, and bleeding can result, and chronic inflammation can lead to the development of stomach cancer.”<br /> -Janice Lapsansky<br />
  3. 3. Peptic Ulcer<br />Esophageal<br />Gastric<br />Duodenal <br />
  4. 4. Complications of Gastric Ulcers<br />Vomiting, nausea, loss of appetite, bloody/tarry stools, severe abdominal pain<br />Penetration/Perforation<br />Bleeding<br />Obstruction<br />Cancer<br />
  5. 5. Aspirin<br />Is a secretagogue<br />Acetylsalicyclic acid in Aspirin inhibit Goblet cells from producing mucous in stomach<br />Increases Gastric acid secretion from Parietal cells by means of…<br /> release of histamine, opening of Calcium channels, and inhibition of Prostaglandins<br />breakdown of Aspirin<br />http://www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk/teaching/icu3/mdcases/ws1/image112.gif<br />
  6. 6. Helicobacter Pylori Infection<br />Bacteria that proliferates in the stomach of mammals <br />½ world’s population thought to be carriers<br />Bacteria weakens the gastric mucosa lining the stomach<br />Digestive acids combined with H. pylori irritate the stomach lining resulting in an ulcer<br />http://www.hopkins-gi.org/<br />
  7. 7. Helicobacter Pylori Infection<br />Pathogenicity is unknown<br />Infection rate is inversely related to socioeconomic status<br />Transmitted in feces and saliva<br />Detected through gastrointestinal endoscopy<br />Can result in a predisposition to gastric carcinoma <br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Adenocarcinoma_of_the_stomach.jpg<br />http://www.medgadget.com/archives/img/hpylori_lg.jpg<br />
  8. 8. Stress<br />Not a direct cause of ulcers<br />Makes one more prone<br />Hypothalamus  Adenohypophysis releases ACTH ZonaFasiculata of the Adrenal Medulla releases Cortisol<br />Cortisol causes hypersecretion of gastric acids and thins the protective mucosal lining of the stomach<br />H. pylori can thrive<br />Makes it harder for one to heal<br />If in fight or flight mode, you release epinephrine, your immune system is depressed<br />H. pylori can thrive<br />Peptic ulcer cases multiply after natural disasters<br />
  9. 9. Positive feedback mechanisms<br />Stress <br />Aspirin <br />H. Pylori <br />Stress<br />Ulcers<br />Aspirin can cause gastric ulcers<br />gastric ulcers are painful<br />Take more Aspirin to decrease pain<br />H. pylori releases pro-inflammatory<br />release of nutrients that sustain H. pylori<br />
  10. 10. STOMACH<br />
  11. 11. References <br />Dragstedt, L. R., Ragins, H., Dragstedt, L. R. II., & Evans, S. O. (1956). Stress and duodenal ulcer. Annals of Surgery, 144, 450-462.<br />Levine, R. A., Nandi, J., & King, R. L. (1990). Aspirin Potentiates Prestimulated Acid Secretion and Mobilizes Intracellular Calcium in Rabbit Parietal Cells. Journal Clinical Investigation, 86, 400 – 408.<br />National Institute of Health.(2010). H. pylori and Peptic Ulcers. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/hpylori/#1 <br />Nomura, A., Stemmermann, G.,Chyou, G., Perez-Perez, G.,& Blaser, J. (1994). Helicobacter pylori Infection and the Risk for Duodenal and Gastric Ulceration . Annals of Internal Medicine, 120, 977-981. <br />Peptic ulcer disease. (2010). MedicineNet.Com. http://www.medicinenet.com/peptic_ulcer/article.htm<br />Peptic Ulcers. (2006). The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library. http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec09/ch121/ch121c.html<br />
  12. 12. Treatment<br />Time<br />STRESS LESS!<br />Antacids<br />H2 blockers<br />Proton-pump inhibitors<br />Antibiotics<br />Surgery <br />Vagotomy<br />

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