Background/Objectives: Disease progression in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may have association with different genotypes of the virus. In view of limited data available, we studied the prevalence/association and role of HBV genotypes, with reference to the viral and host characteristics in patients, reflecting the chronic form of the disease.
Methods : A total of 96 HBsAg seropositive and chronically infected patients attending the Gastroenterology out patients’ department of ___ Gastroenterology were studied for determination of HBV genotypes by nested PCR using type- specific primers. Biochemical markers of liver functions and HBe antigen status were evaluated by standard methods. Serum HBV DNA levels of patients were also measured by real-time PCR using Taqman® chemistry.
Results : HBV genotype was noted to be in the order of D (N= 80; 69.5%) > A (N=10; 8.6%) > B (N= 3; 2.6%) or B+ D (N= 3; 2.6%). Higher viral load (7.68 x 108 copies/ml) was associated in patients with elevated serum ALT activity (> 64 IU/L). Majority of the patients (86.3 %) also tested negative for HBe Ag upon serological analysis.
Conclusion: Identification of genotype B individually and intermingling of this genotype with the common genotype D is now reported for the first time from India. A detailed follow-up study, involving larger number of such patients might be helpful for better understanding of the HBV disease transmission and pathogenesis.
Setting: Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
Subjects: 83 children aged 17 years with bacteriologically proved shigellosis but no clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency; 42 were randomized to treatment with vitamin A and 41 formed a control group.
Intervention: Children were given a single oral dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A plus 25 IU vitamin E or a control preparation of 25 IU vitamin E.
Little information is available on the knowledge about scientific writing among medical teachers. We administered a 10-point questionnaire to test knowledge about scientific writing among medical teachers participants attending a writing workshop. 32 medical teachers participated. Of these, only 20 (63%) achieved a score of 50% or above. The younger participants (aged less than 30 years) scored worse than the older participants (aged > 30 years), the average scores in the two groups being 6.5 + 1.5 and 4.5 + 1.7, respectively (t-test; p<0.05). Indian medical teachers lack skills in medical writing and steps to improve this are needed.