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Chernobyl
 

Chernobyl

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    Chernobyl Chernobyl Presentation Transcript

    • Nuclear energy
      • Radiactivity History
      • Nuclear power
      • Chernobyl disaster
    • Radiactivity History
    • X rays discovery
      • Wilhelm Röntgen
      • 1895:
      • First detection of a new kind of radiation in vacuum tubes
      • 1901:
      • Nobel Prize in Physics
    • Radiactivity discovery
      • Henri Becquerel
      • 1896:
      • recognition of a new property in uranium salts
      • 1903:
      • Nobel Prize in Physics
    • New elements discovering
      • Maria Sklodowska
      • and Pierre Curie
      • 1898: isolation of Polonium and Radium
      • 1903: Nobel prize in Phisics
      • 1911: Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    • Types of radioactivity
      • Ernest Rutherford
      • Scattering in a magnetic or electrical field
      • Nobel prize in Physics (1908)
    • Types of radiactivity
      •  : massive and positive particles (Helium nuclei). They can be stopped by a sheet of paper
      •  : electrons; stopped by an aluminium shielding
      •  : electromagnetic radiation, reduced by a lead barrier
    • Atomic models
      • Ernest Rutherford
      • 1911: atomic nucleus with protons and neutrons surrounded by an electron cloud
      • Radiactivity: nuclear emission of either energy or subatomic particles
    • Nuclear power
    • Nuclear fission
      • Fission
      • Splitting of the nucleus of an atom into nuclei of lighter atoms, releasing a great amount of energy
    • Nuclear fission
      • 1938:
      • Lise Meitner , Otto Hahn y Frederic Strassman (Nobel de Física, 1944) , who observed fission of uranium-235 using slow neutrons
      • 235 U + 1 n -> 141 Ba + 92 Kr + 3 1 n
    • Nuclear reactors
      • Enrico Fermi
      • 1934:
      • first nuclear reaction controlled by slow neutrons
      • 1938:
      • Nobel Prize in Physics
      • 1942:
      • first nuclear reactor
      • 1945: leading
      • “ Manhattan project”
    • Nuclear weapons
      • August, 6 th 1945: Hiroshima
      • 140,000 dead (December,1945)
      • August, 9 th 1945: Nagasaki
      • 70,000 dead (December 1945)
    • Nuclear power stations
      • Plant that generates electricity using the heat released in a nuclear fission process
    • Nuclear power stations
    • Nuclear power stations in Spain
    • Radioactive wastes
      • High level
      • Release a great amount of heat and radiation
      • usually long half-life
      • Stored in spent fuel pools or in dry cask storage
      • Low activity
      • No release of heat
      • less than 30 years of half-life
    • Chernobyl
    • Chernobyl
      • Nuclear power station, 4 reactor, each of 1 Gwatt.
      • Located in Ukraine, near the border
      • 10 % of the amount of energy
      • No vessel
    • Accident
      • April, 26 th , 1986
      • Chain reaction out of control in reactor 4
      • Steam explosion
      • Hidrogen explosion which tore the top of the building
    • Burning
      • Graphite and hidrogen burning, due to the oxigen
      • Extinguished with 5000 t of sand, lead, clay, etc.
    • Radiactive fallout
      • 5,6 Röntgen/s (lethal dose: 500 Röntgen/h)
      • 400 times more than the amount spread in Hiroshima
    • Radiactive fallout
      • Debris removed and collected by hand (40 s)
      • 3.9 million km 2 polluted by 137 Cs (34 % of UK, 44 % of Germany)
    • Firefighters: liquidatori
    • Sarcophagus
      • Large concrete sarcophagus erected in December
      • Supported and controlled by European Union
      • New save confinement structure will be built in 2011
    • Pripyat evacuation
      • High radiattion levels detected in Sweden, 1100 km from Chernobyl
      • Started on December, 27 th
    • Chernobyl today
      • 7 million people affected
      • 30,000/60,000 dead people due to the accident
    • Chernobyl today
    • Pripyat today
    • Pripyat today
    • Prypiat today
    • Prypiat today
    • Chernobyl today
      • 30 km exclusion zone
      • Some people have come back
      • Prypiat dead city
    • New sarcophagus
    • Conclusions