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Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
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Chernobyl

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  • 1. Nuclear energy <ul><li>Radiactivity History </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power </li></ul><ul><li>Chernobyl disaster </li></ul>
  • 2. Radiactivity History
  • 3. X rays discovery <ul><li>Wilhelm Röntgen </li></ul><ul><li>1895: </li></ul><ul><li>First detection of a new kind of radiation in vacuum tubes </li></ul><ul><li>1901: </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize in Physics </li></ul>
  • 4. Radiactivity discovery <ul><li>Henri Becquerel </li></ul><ul><li>1896: </li></ul><ul><li>recognition of a new property in uranium salts </li></ul><ul><li>1903: </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize in Physics </li></ul>
  • 5. New elements discovering <ul><li>Maria Sklodowska </li></ul><ul><li>and Pierre Curie </li></ul><ul><li>1898: isolation of Polonium and Radium </li></ul><ul><li>1903: Nobel prize in Phisics </li></ul><ul><li>1911: Nobel Prize in Chemistry </li></ul>
  • 6. Types of radioactivity <ul><li>Ernest Rutherford </li></ul><ul><li>Scattering in a magnetic or electrical field </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel prize in Physics (1908) </li></ul>
  • 7. Types of radiactivity <ul><li> : massive and positive particles (Helium nuclei). They can be stopped by a sheet of paper </li></ul><ul><li> : electrons; stopped by an aluminium shielding </li></ul><ul><li> : electromagnetic radiation, reduced by a lead barrier </li></ul>
  • 8. Atomic models <ul><li>Ernest Rutherford </li></ul><ul><li>1911: atomic nucleus with protons and neutrons surrounded by an electron cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Radiactivity: nuclear emission of either energy or subatomic particles </li></ul>
  • 9. Nuclear power
  • 10. Nuclear fission <ul><li>Fission </li></ul><ul><li>Splitting of the nucleus of an atom into nuclei of lighter atoms, releasing a great amount of energy </li></ul>
  • 11. Nuclear fission <ul><li>1938: </li></ul><ul><li>Lise Meitner , Otto Hahn y Frederic Strassman (Nobel de Física, 1944) , who observed fission of uranium-235 using slow neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>235 U + 1 n -> 141 Ba + 92 Kr + 3 1 n </li></ul>
  • 12. Nuclear reactors <ul><li>Enrico Fermi </li></ul><ul><li>1934: </li></ul><ul><li>first nuclear reaction controlled by slow neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>1938: </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize in Physics </li></ul><ul><li>1942: </li></ul><ul><li>first nuclear reactor </li></ul><ul><li>1945: leading </li></ul><ul><li>“ Manhattan project” </li></ul>
  • 13. Nuclear weapons <ul><li>August, 6 th 1945: Hiroshima </li></ul><ul><li>140,000 dead (December,1945) </li></ul><ul><li>August, 9 th 1945: Nagasaki </li></ul><ul><li>70,000 dead (December 1945) </li></ul>
  • 14. Nuclear power stations <ul><li>Plant that generates electricity using the heat released in a nuclear fission process </li></ul>
  • 15. Nuclear power stations
  • 16. Nuclear power stations in Spain
  • 17. Radioactive wastes <ul><li>High level </li></ul><ul><li>Release a great amount of heat and radiation </li></ul><ul><li>usually long half-life </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in spent fuel pools or in dry cask storage </li></ul><ul><li>Low activity </li></ul><ul><li>No release of heat </li></ul><ul><li>less than 30 years of half-life </li></ul>
  • 18. Chernobyl
  • 19. Chernobyl <ul><li>Nuclear power station, 4 reactor, each of 1 Gwatt. </li></ul><ul><li>Located in Ukraine, near the border </li></ul><ul><li>10 % of the amount of energy </li></ul><ul><li>No vessel </li></ul>
  • 20. Accident <ul><li>April, 26 th , 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Chain reaction out of control in reactor 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Steam explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Hidrogen explosion which tore the top of the building </li></ul>
  • 21. Burning <ul><li>Graphite and hidrogen burning, due to the oxigen </li></ul><ul><li>Extinguished with 5000 t of sand, lead, clay, etc. </li></ul>
  • 22. Radiactive fallout <ul><li>5,6 Röntgen/s (lethal dose: 500 Röntgen/h) </li></ul><ul><li>400 times more than the amount spread in Hiroshima </li></ul>
  • 23. Radiactive fallout <ul><li>Debris removed and collected by hand (40 s) </li></ul><ul><li>3.9 million km 2 polluted by 137 Cs (34 % of UK, 44 % of Germany) </li></ul>
  • 24. Firefighters: liquidatori
  • 25. Sarcophagus <ul><li>Large concrete sarcophagus erected in December </li></ul><ul><li>Supported and controlled by European Union </li></ul><ul><li>New save confinement structure will be built in 2011 </li></ul>
  • 26. Pripyat evacuation <ul><li>High radiattion levels detected in Sweden, 1100 km from Chernobyl </li></ul><ul><li>Started on December, 27 th </li></ul>
  • 27. Chernobyl today <ul><li>7 million people affected </li></ul><ul><li>30,000/60,000 dead people due to the accident </li></ul>
  • 28. Chernobyl today
  • 29. Pripyat today
  • 30. Pripyat today
  • 31. Prypiat today
  • 32. Prypiat today
  • 33. Chernobyl today <ul><li>30 km exclusion zone </li></ul><ul><li>Some people have come back </li></ul><ul><li>Prypiat dead city </li></ul>
  • 34. New sarcophagus
  • 35. Conclusions

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