Testing
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  • 1. Evaluation
  • 2. What is EVALUATION?
    • A comprehensive way of assessing students’ performance on a course, which may include testing, together with other forms of assessment. In other words, tests are not the only tools a teacher can use to evaluate students.
  • 3. Ways to gather information for evaluation
    • Testing : Formal and informal. Criterion is an arbitrary level.
    • Teacher’s assessment : Subjective estimate of the learner’s overall performance.
    • Continuous assessment : Combination of the grades received for various assignments during a course.
    • Self-assessment :The learners evaluate their own performance, using clear criteria and weighting systems (agreed before).
    • Portfolio : Ss gather a collection of assignments and projects done over a long period of time; this portfolio provides the basis for evaluation.
  • 4. Testing
    • An ‘activity’ whose main purpose is to convey, usually to the tester, how well the testee knows or can do something. (Learning may result from a test, but this is not the main goal).
  • 5. The relationship between TEACHING and TESTING
    • Separated
    • teaching is mainly
    • directed to a particular
    • test
    • school exams
    • public examinations
    TEACHING TESTING
  • 6. The relationship between TEACHING and TESTING
    • Close
    • tests are devices that:
    • reinforce learning
    • evaluate students’ performance
    • evaluate T’s effectiveness
    • help focus on areas of difficulty
  • 7. Therefore:
    • TEACHING
    • TESTS = valuable devices
    • LEARNING
    • (rather than UNPLEASANT IMPOSITIONS)
    • CLOSE relationship is
    • EXTREMELY IMPORTANT
  • 8. Characteristics of a good test
    • Reliability
    • Something reliable is something that works well and that you can trust.
    • A reliable test is a consistent measure of what it is supposed to measure.
    • Questions:
    • Can we trust the results of the test?
    • Would we get the same results if the tests were taken again and scored by a different person?
    • Tests can be made more reliable by making them more objective (controlled items).
  • 9. Characteristics of a good test
    • Validity
    • Something valid is something fair.
    • A valid test is one that measures what it is supposed to measure.
    • Types of Validity
    • Face : What do students think of the test?
    • Construct : Am I testing in the way I taught?
    • Content : Am I testing what I taught?
    • Tests can be made more valid by making
    • them more subjective (open items).
  • 10. Characteristics of a good test
    • Practicality
    • Something practical is something effective in real situations.
    • A practical test is one which can be practically administered.
    • Questions:
    • Will the test take longer to design than apply?
    • Will the test be easy to mark?
    • Tests can be made more practical by making
    • it more objective (more controlled items)
  • 11. Reliability, Validity & Practicality
    • The problem:
    • The more reliable a test is, the less valid.
    • The more valid a test is, the less reliable.
    • The more practical a test is, (generally) the less
    • valid.
    • The solution:
    • As in everything, we need a balance (in both exams and exam items)
  • 12. Testing...
    • What?
    • Language
    • Grammar
    • Vocabulary
    • Spelling
    • Pronunciation
    • Skills
    • Listening
    • Reading
    • Speaking
    • Writing
    • Why?
    • To find out what students have learnt
    • To find out what students can do
  • 13. Testing in the Communicative Classroom
    • more than one type of test is needed (skills)
    • main focus:
    • LANGUAGE is used for COMMUNICATION
    • tests must include:
    • Listening
    • Speaking activities (integrating the skills
    • Reading as it happens in real life)
    • Writing
    • Nevertheless, scoring is more subjective:
    • VALID, but not always RELIABLE.
  • 14. Criteria for student evaluation
    • Criterion-referenced: how well a learner is performing in relation to a fixed criterion , based on an estimation of what is reasonable or desirable at a certain point in their development.
    • Norm-referenced: how well the learner is performing in relation to
    • the group .
    • Individual-referenced: how well the
    • learner is performing in relation to
    • his/her previous performance .
  • 15. Products from evaluation
    • Feedback : Information that is given to the learner about his/her performance of a learning task, usually with the objective of improving this performance.
    • Assessment : Informing the learner on how well or badly he/she has performed. (e.g. grades, “good”, “no”, etc.)
    • Correction : Specific information provided on aspects of the learner’s performance. MUST include information on what the learner did right as well as wrong , and, most importantly, why .