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Between products and services: Innovation towards (and through) experience

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This position paper intends to discuss the emergence of innovation through design practices. Based on Donald Schön’s [4] notion of reflection on action, it makes sense of a practitioner role during a …

This position paper intends to discuss the emergence of innovation through design practices. Based on Donald Schön’s [4] notion of reflection on action, it makes sense of a practitioner role during a multidisciplinary and multicultural Innovation Camp. It draws essentially upon experience as a purpose of innovation, pointing out that what to design is (or should be) driven by why and who design for.

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  • 1. One’s experiences influence in designing for an experience How many of us agree with this sentence?
  • 2. Between products and services: Innovation towards (and through) experience CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 3. Innovation towards (and through) experience CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 4. Innovation towards (and through) experience Experience as practice based- innovation CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 5. Innovation towards (and through) experience Experience as practice based- innovation Experience as innovation purpose CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 6. Innovation towards (and through) experience Experience as practice based- innovation Experience as innovation purpose RESEARCH QUESTION: CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 7. Innovation towards (and through) experience RESEARCH QUESTION: HOW does one’s experiences influence in designing for an experience? CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 8. HOW does one’s experiences influence in designing for an experience? What is experience? CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 9. HOW does one’s experiences influence in designing for an experience? What is experience? - User experience? CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 10. HOW does one’s experiences influence in designing for an experience? What is experience? - User experience? - Practitioners’ experience? CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 11. HOW does one’s experiences influence in designing for an experience? What is experience? What methods and concepts should be used to design an experience?- User experience? - Practitioners’ experience? - Based on what experience? CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 12. HOW does one’s experiences influence in designing for an experience? What is experience? What methods and concepts should be used to design an experience?- User experience? - Practitioners’ experience? - Based on what experience? Does it have anything to do with innovation? CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 13. GROUNDS Innovation through Practitioner Experience The achievement of innovation has been seen over the past years as a linear process that emerges from a scientific work to a practical innovative solution [3]. However, “nowadays, innovation is most often considered to be a result of co- operation in normal social and economic activities.” [3, p.2] Reflecting on that, a scientific work in terms of research also breaks the “line of division” and become part of the practice itself, leading to uniqueness. According to Donald Schon’s work (1982), through reflection (and more specifically reflection-in-action, claimed by him) a practitioner becomes a researcher in the practice context. “He is not dependent on categories of established theory and technique, but constructs a theory of the unique case” [4, p.68]. Innovation for User Experience In the 1990s, in the way of constructive research, designers have developed many types of concepts emphasizing the role of emotions in experience and empathy. As the key constructs of this movement were not clear to be understood, the main conceptual innovation came to be User Experience that has led universities, corporations and design firms to built units within this focus [2]. Yet in the understanding of User Experience, Marc Hassenzahl [1] claims that experience is not about good industrial design, multi-touch, or fancy interfaces. He argues that it is about transcending the material and creating an experience through a device. According to him, the emergence of experience, in a psychological perspective, comes from an inseparable combination of elements that together created a meaningful whole. They are: perception, action, motivation, and cognition. Considering such a combination as a challenge for User Experience (or Experience Design), the design question becomes how to intentionally create and shape experiences. CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 14. GROUNDS Innovation through Practitioner Experience The achievement of innovation has been seen over the past years as a linear process that emerges from a scientific work to a practical innovative solution [3]. However, “nowadays, innovation is most often considered to be a result of co- operation in normal social and economic activities.” [3, p.2] Reflecting on that, a scientific work in terms of research also breaks the “line of division” and become part of the practice itself, leading to uniqueness. According to Donald Schon’s work (1982), through reflection (and more specifically reflection-in-action, claimed by him) a practitioner becomes a researcher in the practice context. “He is not dependent on categories of established theory and technique, but constructs a theory of the unique case” [4, p.68]. CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 15. GROUNDS Innovation through Practitioner Experience The achievement of innovation has been seen over the past years as a linear process that emerges from a scientific work to a practical innovative solution [3]. However, “nowadays, innovation is most often considered to be a result of co- operation in normal social and economic activities.” [3, p.2] Reflecting on that, a scientific work in terms of research also breaks the “line of division” and become part of the practice itself, leading to uniqueness. According to Donald Schon’s work (1982), through reflection (and more specifically reflection-in-action, claimed by him) a practitioner becomes a researcher in the practice context. “He is not dependent on categories of established theory and technique, but constructs a theory of the unique case” [4, p.68]. SHIFT • Innovation as a linear process (From a scientific work --> to a practical application) to • Innovation as a result of a practical cooperation [3] ON TOP OF THIS Practitioner as researcher in the practice context: through notion of Reflection-in-action and on- action [4] [3] MELKAS, Helinä; HARMAAKORPI (editors). 2012 Practice-Based Innovation: Insights, Applications and Policy Implications. Springer: London, New Y ork. [4] SCHON, Donald A. 1982. The Reflective Practitioner: how professionals think in action. Basic Books: United States of America. CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 16. GROUNDS Innovation for User Experience In the 1990s, in the way of constructive research, designers have developed many types of concepts emphasizing the role of emotions in experience and empathy. As the key constructs of this movement were not clear to be understood, the main conceptual innovation came to be User Experience that has led universities, corporations and design firms to built units within this focus [2]. Yet in the understanding of User Experience, Marc Hassenzahl [1] claims that experience is not about good industrial design, multi-touch, or fancy interfaces. He argues that it is about transcending the material and creating an experience through a device. According to him, the emergence of experience, in a psychological perspective, comes from an inseparable combination of elements that together created a meaningful whole. They are: perception, action, motivation, and cognition. Considering such a combination as a challenge for User Experience (or Experience Design), the design question becomes how to intentionally create and shape experiences. CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 17. GROUNDS Innovation for User Experience In the 1990s, in the way of constructive research, designers have developed many types of concepts emphasizing the role of emotions in experience and empathy. As the key constructs of this movement were not clear to be understood, the main conceptual innovation came to be User Experience that has led universities, corporations and design firms to built units within this focus [2]. Yet in the understanding of User Experience, Marc Hassenzahl [1] claims that experience is not about good industrial design, multi-touch, or fancy interfaces. He argues that it is about transcending the material and creating an experience through a device. According to him, the emergence of experience, in a psychological perspective, comes from an inseparable combination of elements that together created a meaningful whole. They are: perception, action, motivation, and cognition. Considering such a combination as a challenge for User Experience (or Experience Design), the design question becomes how to intentionally create and shape experiences. DEVELOPMENT of concepts that emphasize emotions in experience and empathy [2] EXPERIENCE as a inseparable combination of perception, action, motivation and cognition. [1] [1] Hassenzahl, Marc (2013): User Experience and Experience Design. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). “The Encyclopedia of Human- Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.”. Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at [2] KOSKINEN, Ilpo at all. 2011. Design Research through practice: From the Lab, Field and Showroom. CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 18. WORK CONTEXT The multidisciplinary and multicultural Innovation Camp http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mJYt5-IkBc CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 19. NARRATIVE-BASED REFLECTION Between products and services “And so was I in the third day of the innovation camp completely puzzled and trying to understand what was going on. I finally decided to ask the designer manager’s help: - “I know what is going on. And this is not the first time I have seen it”, she calmly answered when I explained her that my team did not want to work in a product as a solution. With a “I-know-what-I-can- do smile” she continued: “They are probably simply amazed by a new concept that they were not used to”. At that point I was completely struggled trying to understand how come I was the one ‘playing against’ the Service Design trying to convince engineers and designers (with background and lots of experience in materials) that we needed to develop a product!” CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 20. PEOPLE HOURS MENU MEAT DISHES VEGETARIAN DISHES DRINKS MEAT DISHES TERIYAKI BEEF MEXICAN CHICKEN MASALA CHICKEN CURRY TÖNTÖTT DANISH GRILLED HERRING LATVIAN PIKE SWEDISH MEAT BALLS FINNISH PORONKÄRISTUS POLISH STEW LITHUANIAN MEAT PIE TERIYAKI BEEF MEXICAN CHICKEN MASALA CHICKEN CURRY TÖLTÖTT KAPUSZTA DANISH GRILLED HERRING LATVIAN PIKE SWEDISH MEAT BALLS FINNISH PORONKÄRISTUS POLISH STEW LITHUANIAN MEAT PIE TERIYAKI BEEF MEXICAN CHICKEN MASALA CHICKEN CURRY TÖNTÖTT DANISH GRILLED HERRING LATVIAN PIKE SWEDISH MEAT BALLS FINNISH PORONKÄRISTUS POLISH STEW LITHUANIAN MEAT PIE CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima FAMILIES SENIOR GROUPS SENIORS SERVICE PROVIDER SHAREDKITCHEN www CUSTOMERS contract the service take part in a event app website physically TRANSPORTATION AND SETTING UP KEY PARTNERS: Furniture manufacturers Event managers Food/product suppliers Municipalities Assemblage/transportation S E R V I C E J O U R N E Y M A P KITCHEN KITCHEN + FOOD OR knownstrangers ACTIVE PARTICIPATION PASSIVE PARTICIPATION
  • 21. CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 22. CONCLUSION • Between products and service what actually matter is to design for an experience. • Motivations that lead to the development of new solution should not be the technology, the shape, the method or the terminology. All this elements are indeed part of the innovation process, but are not (or should not be) the drivers. • The decision-makers of what to design are (or should be) who and why to design for. CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima (What I have come to realize) (I would have made things different in this sense) (I want to keep in mind for the future)
  • 23. CONCLUSION • Between products and service what actually matter is to design for an experience. • Motivations that lead to the development of new solution should not be the technology, the shape, the method or the terminology. All this elements are indeed part of the innovation process, but are not (or should not be) the drivers. • The decision-makers of what to design are (or should be) who and why to design for. “How?” is often a question worth exploring. CRITICAL REFLECTION September, 2013 - Patrícia Lima
  • 24. HOW does one’s experiences influence in designing for an experience? What is experience? What methods and concepts should be used to design an experience?- User experience? - Practitioners’ experience? - Based on what experience? Does it have anything to do with innovation? “FOOD FOR THOUGHT” or invitation for discussion by PATRÍCIA LIMA