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nanotechnology (1st draft)
 

nanotechnology (1st draft)

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    nanotechnology (1st draft) nanotechnology (1st draft) Presentation Transcript

    • Medical Applications of Nanotechnology Gholamreza Pourmand, M.D.
    • How small is nano? Decade: 1/3 rd second Acre: 1/100 th square inch $151,700: 1/100 th cent Scale: Nanoscale E. Corcoran. The Next Small Thing. Forbes Magazine , 07/23/01
    • Nanotechnology Growth S. Milunovich, J. Roy. United States Technology Strategy. Merrill Lynch. 4 Sept. 2001
    • Smart Nanostructures for Selective Drug Delivery Scale: 1/40 th of red blood cell Nanotube Nanocap Drug Delivery for: #1 - Cardiovascular disease #2 – Cancer #3 - Infectious diseases Toxin Removal for: Adverse drug reactions >106,000 deaths/yr Pesticide Poisonings >220,000 deaths/yr
    • NanoMedical Diagnostics
      • Targets:
        • - drug overdose
        • - brain trauma
        • - disease markers
      • Where:
        • - hospital
        • - law enforcement
        • - homeland security
    • What is nanotechnology
        • Creation of functional materials, devices, and systems.
        • Control of matter on the nanometer (1-100 nm) length scale.
        • Exploitation of novel properties and phenomena developed at that scale.
    • What is nano? nanos: dwarf nano 10 -9 mikros: small micro 10 -6 milli: thousand milli 10 -3 chilioi: thousand kilo 10 3 megas: large mega 10 6 gigas: giant giga 10 9 teras: monster tera 10 12 Origins Prefix Power
    • Why is the nanometer scale different?
        • The wavelike properties of electrons inside matter are influenced by variations on the nanometer scale.
        • The systematic organization of matter on the nanometer length scale is a key feature of biological systems.
        • Nanoscale components have very high surface areas.
        • The finite size of material entities, determine an increase of the relative importance of surface tension and local electromagnetic effects.
        • The interaction wavelength scales of various external wave phenomena become comparable to the material entity size.
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    • Targeted Delivery to Tumors
    • Many Different Length Scales 10cm 1cm 100  m 1  m
    • Relative Size of Nanoparticles Nanoparticle with a 2 nm core and an octanethiol functionalized monolayer
    • Making Gold Nanoparticles
        • AuCl4- salts are reduced using NaBH4 in the presence of thiol capping ligands
        • The core size of the particles formed can be varied from <1 nm to ~ 8 nm
        • The surface functionality can be controlled through the choice of thiols
    • Fluorophores and Drugs Selectively Dissociate Inside Cells
    • Control of Surface Charge
    • Investigating Delivery Using Cylindroids 100  m Plug Well Plate Microscope Objective Cylindroid Viable Dead
    • Nanoparticles in Cylindroids
    • How Does Particle Charge Affect Tissue Penetration? Transcellular Paracellular Cells A B
    • Engineering Approach: Targeted Intratumoral Therapy
        • Quantify tumor microenvironments
        • Develop vectors to target tumor quiescence
      Necrotic Quiescent Proliferating Therapeutic
    • Tumor Growth and Mouse Survival PBS Control Bacteria Cytotoxic Bacteria PBS + 2Gy Control Bacteria + 2Gy Cytotoxic Bacteria + 2Gy Cytotoxic Bacteria Control Bacteria PBS Bacteria + Radiation Control + 2Gy PBS + 2Gy Median survival doubles from 14.0 to 26.0 days
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    • Cells A B C
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