Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning “harbor wave,”used as the scientific term for a class of abnormal seawave that can cause catastrophic damage when it hits acoastline. Tsunamis can be generated by an underseaearthquake, an undersea landslide, the eruption of anundersea volcano, or by the force of an asteroidcrashing into the ocean. The most frequent cause oftsunamis is an undersea earthquake. When the oceanfloor is uplifted or offset during an earthquake, a set ofwaves is created similar to the concentric wavesgenerated by an object dropped into the water. Mosttsunamis originate along the Ring of Fire, a zone ofvolcanoes and seismic activity, 32,500 km (24,000 mi)long, which encircles the Pacific Ocean.
Tidal waves are the large-scale periodic oceanwaves that travel around the planet in response tothe gravitational attraction of the earth and moon,and the earth and sun. Gravitational attractionbetween two objects is regulated by the mass ofthe two objects divided by the square of thedistance between them. So, although the mass ofthe sun is 27 million times greater than the massof the moon, the moon has the dominant influenceover the timing of the tides because the greatdistance to the sun diminishes its gravitationalinfluence relative to the moon.
Storm surges are domes of water thatrise underneath hurricanes or cyclonesand cause extensive coastal floodingwhen the storms reach land. Stormsurges are particularly devastating ifthey occur at high tide. A cyclone andaccompanying storm surge killed anestimated 500,000 people inBangladesh in 1970.
Oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarboninto the environment, especially marine areas, due tohuman activity, and is a form of pollution. The term ismostly used to describe marine oil spills, where oil isreleased into the ocean or coastal waters. Oil spills may bedue to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshoreplatforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills ofrefined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) andtheir by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships suchas bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil.Another significant route by which oil enters the marineenvironment is through natural oil seeps.Oil spills can be controlled by chemical dispersion,combustion, mechanical containment, and/or adsorption.Spills may take weeks, months or even years to clean up.
Accidents: There is often a large oil loss in accidents, up to 1/5 have an oil loss of over 700 tones.• Collisions - a common accident with 475 occurring between 1974-1999• Hull failures - these accidents have occurred the most between 1974-1999, with 671 hull failures between these two years• Fires and explosions - this is the most uncommon type of accident, only occurring 154 times between 1974-1999• Groundings - a common accident with 518 occurring between 1974-1999, and the greatest number of oil losses over 700 tones
Operations: Most oil losses occur when ships are carrying out routine operations at ports or oil terminals, but the majority of such spills are small, with 93% of them producing a spillage of less than 7 tonnes.• Loading/discharging - commonest cause of oil spillages (either during routine operations or resulting from accidents), with 3070 occurring between 1974-1999• Bunkering - the least common operational oil loss with only 566 occurring between 1974-1999
Dynamite fishing is also called “Blast Fishing”.It the practice of using explosives to stun orkill schools of fish for easy collection. Thisoften illegal practice can be extremelydestructive to the surrounding ecosystem, asthe explosion often destroys the underlyinghabitat (such as coral reefs) that supports thefish. The frequently improvised nature of theexplosives used also means danger for thefishermen as well, with accidents and injuries.
Poverty is a major problem in our country today. Thisis an issue that leads to other issues, especially in far-flung communities. Because of poverty, people livingnear the sea or those who make fishing their sourceof living resort to desperate measures to augmenttheir income. Engaging in dynamite fishing is one ofthese “desperate measures.”
Many people are not aware of the consequence oftheir use of dynamites in fishing. Others do not care.Many think only about the money, forgetting about theeffects of what they do to their environment, theirworld.
Dynamite fishing is an alarming phenomenonbecause of its adverse effects on theecosystem. But some people say they cannotavoid engaging in the practice because thereare no other job opportunities for them. Somefisher folk say it’s better to go to the sea andfish (using whatever means, includingdynamites) than doing nothing at all.
There are some people who are educated,who have the money, but are lazy and greedy.They want easy money, so they resort to theuse of dynamites. Greed also drives people touse the illegal method so that they will morecatch in a short period of time.
Among all these reasons, lack of discipline is themost important. It doesn’t really matter if a personis poor, uneducated, or there is no opportunity forwork. What is important is they have discipline.There might be no jobs, but they can still catch fishby using other means.
Water PollutionWater Pollution is the contamination of streams, lakes,underground waters, bays, or oceans by substancesharmful to living things. Water is necessary to life onearth. All organisms contain it; some live in it; some drinkit. Plants and animals require water that is moderatelypure, and they cannot survive if their water is loaded withtoxic chemicals or harmful microorganisms. If severe,water pollution can kill large numbers of fish, birds, andother animals, in some cases killing all members of aspecies in an affected area. Pollution makes streams,lakes, and coastal waters unpleasant to look at, to smell,and to swim in. Fish and shellfish harvested from pollutedwaters may be unsafe to eat. People who ingest pollutedwater can become ill, and, with prolonged exposure, maydevelop cancers or bear children with birth defects.
Jan Fay – Leader Aidan AlyssaJan Kyler Crissel Russel Irah Patricia Rose Shane L. Shane M.