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Una breve introducción a esta lengua Oriental tan importante hoy en día para el mundo de los negocios.

Una breve introducción a esta lengua Oriental tan importante hoy en día para el mundo de los negocios.

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  • 1. Chinese Writing Chinese Language Giorgio D'Addezio
  • 2. Origins of Writing in China
    • Believed to have begun in 2 nd half of 2 nd millennium BC
    • Earliest examples of Chinese writing date to 1500-950 BC (Shang dynasty)
    • Inscribed on ox scapulae and turtle shells – “oracle bones”
  • 3. Development of characters
    • Oracle bones developed into Chinese characters which have gone through several phases
    • Presently there are 2 completely different sets of characters: non-simplified and simplified
  • 4. Simplified Chinese Characters
    • Adopted in the People's Republic of China in 1949
    • Northern dialect of Mandarin
    • Known as báihùa (plain language)
    • Not all writers wanted to adopt the new style
    • Traditional characters are still used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau and Malaysia.
  • 5. Examples of traditional vs. simplified characters
  • 6. Groups of Characters
    • There have been many attempts to group characters for learning purposes.
    • 4 groups of characters:
    • Pictographs
    • Ideographs
    • Compound pictograph/ideographs
    • Semantic-phonetic compounds
  • 7. Pictographs
    • Characters primarily came from picture drawings.
    • These were usually sketches of the most basic elements of the object
  • 8. Pictographs
  • 9. Ideographs
    • Ideographs are visual representations of abstract ideas.
  • 10. Ideographs one two three above below middle
  • 11. Compound Pictographs / Compound Ideographs
    • Compound pictographs and ideographs combine one or more pictographs or ideographs to form new characters. Both component parts contribute to the meaning of the compound character.
  • 12. Semantic-Phonetic Compound
  • 13. Pinyin
    • Pinyin is a way to represent characters and express sounds
    • in Chinese language using the Roman alphabet.
    • Difficult consonant for western people:
    • q - Pronounciation between "ch" and "ts"
    • x - Pronounciation between "sh" and "s"
    • r - Pronounciation between “r" and “j" z - Sounds like "dz" zh - Sounds like "dj"
  • 14. Tonal Language
    • First tone: This is the highest tone you can pronounce in a simple and normal way. It is pronounced with a steady pitch.
    • Second tone: Rising pitch from low to high.
    • Third tone: First sinking pitch at the same time as the voice is lowered, followed by a rising pitch and stronger voice.
    • Forth tone: fast sinking pitch with a sharp end. Toneless: Relax in your mouth and let the tone fall where it is natural.
    • Neutral Tone: Flat, with no emphasis.
    • mā má
    • mǎ mà
    • ma
  • 15. Stroke Order
  • 16. General rules (many exceptions)
    • Top before bottom
    • Left before right
    • Left vertical stroke (usually) before top horizontal stroke
    • Bottom horizontal stroke last
    • Center stroke before wings
    • Horizontal strokes before intersecting vertical strokes
    • Left-falling strokes before right-falling strokes
    • Minor strokes (often) last